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The Historical Magazine, established originally in Boston, and edited during the 
first year by John Ward Dean, Esq., whose agency in establishing a work of such real 
value, and launching it fairly into the American public, deserves the grateful remem- 
brance of scholars of the historic past of our country, has now passed entirely into 
the hands of the present editor, who has directed its columns since its advent 
to New York, except for the first year, when it was under the direction of the Hon. 
George Folsom. 

Appreciating its value as a contribution to American history, a record and 
auxiliary to the constantly increasing and laboring Historical Societies, a stimulus 
and helper to all students in the science to which it is devoted, and all conscious 
of my few qualifications for the task, I have grown to regard the Historical Magazine 
as part and parcel of myself. When the publisher who had so ably commenced 
and conducted it found it necessary to relinquish its management, I felt reluctant 
to see it pass to other hands or cease. 

Its condition has not been too prosperous. A large southern subscription, lost by 
the war, has not been replaced by an increased northern list ; but I felt assured 
that, properly brought to the notice of societies and students, this would soon be 
remedied ; and that its friends will, each in his own sphere, exert themselves to 
increase its list. 

With the January number will begin the series of promised papers on American 

historians. These will, in many instances, be accompanied by portraits; and I shall 

y/ endeavor to give, also, other illustrations not unbecoming the character of the 

™ Magazine. Endeavor shall be made to render the General Department mure 


attractive by giving it a popular character, without impairing its general and 
recognized form. 

Hoping to continue for years the connection so long and pleasantly made as editor, 
the proprietor ushers in the ninth volume of the Historical Magazine. 


New York, December, 1864. 


Abercrombie. Major. 110. 
Adams and Cunningham Correspond- 
ence, 101. 
Adams, John, address of. Grand Jury 

of Dutchess Co. to, 231. 
Adams. John Q.. 32. 40. 101, 117. 
Alden Family, 42 ; David, 345. 
Alexandria Lodge, Portrait of Wash- 
ington at, 49. 
Allan, John. Library, 223; Memorial 

of, 352. 
Allen. Col. William. 359. 
Also]), John, 185, 250. 
American Admiral in Russia. 248, 315. 
Americanisms, 345 ; in German Eng- 
lish Dictionaries, 37. 
Ancient clock, 239 ; Landmark, 38. 
Andre. Major, Report on Exchange of 

Prisoners, 230. 
Andros, Sir E.. 230, 246. 
Annals of Iowa, 88, 381. 
Androscoggin, tribes on, 150; Indian 

names on, 236. 
A Political lesson, 154. 
Armstrong. Gen. John, Letter to Gen. 

Irwine. 16. 
Arnold, Benedict, letter of, 178. 
Attewaren, 67. 
Aubrid, Nicholas, 176. 
Autographs. Authenticity of, 116. 
Barclay, Major Thos. 367. 
Barnsley, Thos., 358, &c. 
Battery, statue on the, 154, 185, 249. 
Beardsley, Rev. John, 357. 
Bears oil", 34. 

Bee, Introduction of the, 78. 
Bellingham, Gov.. 3:34. 
Bellomont, Earl of, name of misspelt, 

38. | 

Beltrami, 179. 

Benjamin, John, Will of, 333. 
Bibliographical anecdote, 38. 
Bibliography of Thomas a Kempis, 
Following or Imitation of Christ, 
279, 346-8. 
Bishop of London's jurisdiction in 

America, 37. 
Black River, 175. 
Blue Hen's Chickens, 244. 
Boerum, Simon, 185. 
Boodle, 245, 317. 
Book collectors, 277. 
Boquet river, 37. 
Borrowing names of places, 72. 
Boston, prison walls in, 154; old 
house in, 182; siege of, 326; old 
Province House in, 393. 
Braddock's Defeat, letter of Robert 

Orme. 353. 
Bradford Club, 161, 352. 
Bradford, Gov., Bible of, 343. 
Bradford, William, Zenger's Inden- 
tures to. 35 : first book printed by, 

Breeds Historical sketch of Conth,, // 

tal paper money, 47. 
Brodheid, Hon. J. R., Discourse of, 

Bromfield, Ed.. 335. 
Bronck, Jonas, hie library, 244. 
Brothers, German, 70. 
Browne, Lt. Col. Thos., 389. 
Buchan, Earl of, letter of Jefferson to, 

Buffalo, last in Ohio, 71 ; on the Ohio. 

Buffalo, Historical reminiscences of, 

69 ; question as to name, 278. 
Bunker Hil, Dearborn's account of 

the Battle of, 266. 
Burnes, Gov., Funeral Sermon, 398. 
Burr, Aaron, reminiscences of his 

latter days. 113. 
Burrill's Ferry, 106. 
Buskirk, Col. Abraham, 355. 
Butler, Richard, journal of the siege 

of Yorktown, 102. 
Butricke, Geo., letters of, 258. 
Butternuts, 79. 
Cadwalader, John, 41. 
Calcott's Disquisition. 311. 
Caldwell. Capt. 244. 
Camenuck. 6T. 
Camp life in, 1776, 326. 
Campbell, John, publisher of first 

newspaper, 30. 
Canada, Dark Days and Earthquakes 

in, 60. 
Canal, Early, 114, 184. 
Canarsie, Indian deed for, 67. 
Canajoharie, 373. 
Capucins in Maine, 176, 301. 
Caricature of an early fracas in Con- 
gress, 9. 
Carondelet, Metrical account of origin 

of, 68. 
Cartier, Jacques, 297. 
Cartridge paper in 1778, 150. 
Cary John, 399. 
Caughnawaga, 373. 
" Cease Rude Boreas," 41. 
Centenarian in Maine, 176, 24T, in 

Massachusetts. 346. 
Chapultepec, fortress built, 141. 
Chippeway, 179. 
Chippewyans, 167. 
Christian names, curious origin of 

some, 71. 
Christina, founding of, 387. 
Clams, 248. 

Clinton, Gov. Letter to, 806. 
Clockville, Madison Co. N. Y. B8, 
Cobb, Lt. Col., 106. 
Cobham Point. 108. 
Cochran, Maj. 108. 
Coffin. Gen. John, 323: Joshua, Ml, 

Medal, 277, 346. 
Colden, Cadwallader. 114. 

I Colonial Policv of France in N. Ame- 
rica in the 18th Cent in 
Columbus. Statue of, 266; tomb of 

273 ; Letter, 289. 
Common Prayer. Book of. for the Con- 
federate States, 174. 
Condy. Jonathan W. 9. 
Confederacy, 116. 

Confederate States. Name for the, 310 ; 
Book of Common Prayer for the. 
Continental Money, 375. 17. 
Conyant Chiefs of, 34. 
Cookquago, 373. 

Copley Gallery, 345: Copley and Pel- 
ham, 397. 
Copperhead, 40, 118. 
Corlear*s Hook, Hessian Camp t,a 58. 
Cornplanter, Letter of, 34. 
Cosart familv. 116. 
Cotton Mill, 398. 

Cowdry's Journal, query as to, 78. 
Cox familv, 279 : Richard, 154. 
Crawford, Archibald. 17!). 
Cruger Lt. Col. 291, 323. 
Curious Hexameter--. 99. 
Curwen's Journal. 882. 
Daly C. P. The first Theatre in New 

York, 232. 
Damas, Count de. 106. 
Danforth, Thos. 331. 
Da Vinci. Mapley. 256. 
Davis. William J. 161 ; Mrs. 233: Capt. 

Isaac. 396. 
Daviess, Joe. 
Dawson's Ft tltralist. 47 .• Stomj Point 

Dayton, Jonathan, 9. 
Dearborn's account of the Battle of 

Bunker Hill. 267. 
DeBarras. Kit;. 
de Dillon. Count. 296. 
deQrasse.i ount, 102, 106 : op< rations 

of flu. fleet ><<,>/. r, 
de'Kalb, Gen. 17. 
dela Qaussonniere, Goi 
De Lancev, Lt Col. Stephan, 824. 
de la Touche. 110. 
de Lauzun, 107. 
Delaware. Suowden on the early his 

tory of. .'is."). 
Delaware^. 21. 

Delaware, Col. J. H. Snowdon'l ad- 
dress on early history of 
d'Estaing, Count, attach on Savan- 
nah, 12-16. 290-7. 
de Xoaille. ViSCOU it, 996. 

De Peytter, Capt. A 

de sr. Gaspin. 874. 

Deux Ponts. Count. Viscount, 114 

de Yioiue-nil. 109. 
Dexter. Lord Timothy. 238. 
Dogs, 879. 

Donkiu. Robt.. 390 



Draw a prize, 147. 

Dudley, Paul, 193. 

Duke's Laws, 116. 

Domes, Couut, 106. 

Dundas, Col. 110. 

Du Portail, Gen. 103. 

"During Men," 38. 

Dutchess Co. N. Y., Grand jury of, 

Dityckinck' '$ National Portrait Gal- 
lery, 255, 383 ; War for the Union, 
255, 382. 

D'Witt, John, 231. 

"Dying in the last Ditch," 38. 

Early Congressional Customs, 31. 

Earthquakes in Canada, 64 : at Jama- 
ica, 345. 

Eliot's Indian Bible, 244. 

Elma, a Christian name, 312. 

Endicott, John, 334. 

Epishemo, 40. 

Esquemaux and Loucheux, paper on, 

Estaragoha, 373. 

Etting s History of Pennsylvania Pa- 
per money, 128. 

Exchange of Prisoners, 200. 

Facts which are not facts, 112. 

Fanning, Col. Ed, 325. 

Farmer, Major R. 257. 

Fashionable Lady, 107, years ago, 39. 

Father of English Lexicography, 116. 

Federalist, Authorship of the Disput- 
ed numbers of the, 305. 

Fenwicke, John, 154, 249, 400. 

Fiat justitia, mat ccelum, 374. 

Fire Lands Pioneer, 254. 

First book printed in Philadelphia, 

First Slave in Canada, 278. 

First Theatre in New York, 232. 

Fleche; Jesse, 176. 

Flag, American, 395. 

Folk Lore— The Bible and Key, 395. 

Fort Chartres, affairs at, 257 ; Descrip- 
tion of 260. 

Fort Niagara, History of, 367. 

Fort St. George, (N. Y. City) 58. 

Fort St. Philip, 278. 

Fort Stevens, 114. 

Fourth of July, first celebration of in 
Boston, 312. 

Francisco, Henry, 78, 185. 

Franklin, Celebrated Latin line on, 
113, Parton's Life of, 127, Portrait 
of, 147, House of, at Passy, 176. 

Fraser, Major, 294. 

F reemantW s Three Months on the 
Southern States, 126. 

Gaines' Universal Register, Extracts 
from, 321, 354. 

Gardiner, Sir C, 75. 

Gates, General, 17. 

Gauvin, Michael, 77. 

German, Lord George, 162, Letter to, 

Gibson, pretended member of Wash- 
ington's Life Guard, 36. . 

Gidimfs History of the Rebellion, 254. 

Gilmartin, &c, 210. 

Gloucester, French marines land at, 
107, Dundas at, 110. 

Godwyn, Morgan, 193. 

Going through the Motions, 343. 

Golden Wedding, 373. 

Graham, Major, 292. 

Green, Rev. Ashbel, 9. 

Greenbacks, 118. 

Greene, Gen., 16. 

Griswold, Roger, 9. 

Hackensack, plundered by Hessians, 

Hall, A. O. on N. Y. Court of Ses- 
sions, 359. 

Hallam, William, Actor, 236, 

Hamblen, Isaac, on Death of Tecum- 
seh, 183. 

Hamilton, Alexander, House where 
he died, 184 ; Numbers of Federal- 
ist written by, 305. 

Hand, Gen., 106, 129. 

Hankev, Journal of the Voyage of the, 

Harberdinck, Arms of, 154. 

Haring, John, 185. 

Harman Johnson, 177. 

Harper's Pictorial History of the 
Great Rebellion, 126. 

Hasbrouck House, Newburgh, 36. 

Headleifs Chaplains and Clergy of 
the Revolution, 192. 

Hempstead Plains, 94. 

Henry, Commodore, 12. 

Henry Plot, The, 374. 

Hero, Captain, 104. 

Hessians in the Revolution, 53. 

Historical Gossip about the New 
York Court of Sessions, 359. 

Historical Notes on Slavery in the 
Northern Colonies and States, 21, 
169, 193. 

Hooding, 316. 

Hooghland family, 116. 

Horseheads, 78. 

Houghton, Mrs., centenarian, 346. 

Hughes, Archbishop, Tracts by, 317 ; 
Complete works of, 383. 

Hunter, journal found on the, 51. 

Hunt's Life of Edward Livingston, 

Hyde, West, Report on exchange of 
prisoners, 200. 

Illinois, first English occupation of, 

Indian burial places, 116: Treaties 
in Wisconsin, 178; names on the 
Androscoggin, 237 ; in New York, 
373 ; Works by Mother Mary of the 
Incarnation, 279 ; Vocabularies, 68. 

Indians, on the Androscoggin, 150: 
in Orange Co. N. Y., 152, 208: Pa- 
per on the Loucheux and Esqui- 
maux, 165 ; in Illinois, 264. 

Iroquois names of places, 373. 

Irvine, Gen., letters of Gen. Read to, 

Jackson, Gen., letter to Col. Pipkin, 

Jaques, Lieut. Benj., 177. 

Jay, John, Numbers of the Federalist 
written by, 305. 

Jefferson, letter to Earl of Buchan, 

Jenne, 374. 

Jesuit well, 73. 

John Brown's tract, 73. 

Johnson, Gov. Henry, 351. 

Johnson, Samuel, Library of, 249, 346. 

Jones, John Paul, was he allowed to 
receive a title ? 40. 

Kean, Thomas, 232. 

Kearsarge, 374. 

Keith, George, 193. 

Kennebec, 238. 

Kentaienton, 79, 250. 

Kewley on Methodism, 116. 

Kickapooe, 264. 

Killick, Kellock, 78, 280. 

Kilwell, Capt,, 245. 

Kirkby, Wm., letter of, 165. 

Klock, John, 33. 

Knapp, Usual, last survivor of Wash- 
ington's Life Guard. .'i(i. 

Knight of the Golden Melice, 76. 

Knox, H., letter of Lafayette, 73. 

Kootchin Indians. 167. 

Lafayette, letter to Gen. Knox, 73, 

Lake Manicouagan. 63-4. 

Lamb, 108. 

Lathrop, Rev. John, 33. 

Laurens, Henry, 16. 

Laval, Count, 111. 

Lee, Henry, Proclamation against 
rebels, 115. 

Leisler, Jacob, 230 ; Seal of, 385. 

Leo of Pai'is, 176. 

Leington Monument, 128. 

Lincoln, Gen. attacks Savannah, 13. 

Lock. Lieut. 12, 

Little Compton, 335. 

Long Island, paper bv W. A. Jones, 

Long Island, first Lawyer, 95 ; Physi- 
cians, 96 ; Clergy. 97, Artists, ib. 

Loosley Ch. Advertisment, 112. 

Loskiel, Bishop George H. 372. 

Loucheux and Esquimaux paper on, 

Lousiana in 1818, 241. 

Low, Isaac, 185, 280. 

Loyalists, Loss at Savannah, 297 ; Sa- 
bine's, 320. 

Lyon Matthew, affray in Congress, 9. 

Machen, Capt. Thos. 208. 

Madison James, Numbers of Federal- 
ist by, 305. 

Madoc's Discovery of America. 249. 

Magaw, Col. 129. 

Magebogiduce, 51. 

Maine, operations in, 1779, 51; Centen- 
arian in, 176 ; Capucins in, 176, 301; 
Military history of, 288. 

Maitland, Col. 271. 

Margil, F. Antonio, Life of, 42. 

Marriage, Singular, 312 ; in New Eng- 
land, 279, 348. 

Martin, F. X. Letter of, 241. 

Maryland 4th, 107. 

Massachusetts, Slavery in, 24, 169, 
193. . 

Mastodon, Discovery of a, 245. 

Mather Increase, Early History of 
Neto England, 191. 

Mather Cotton, 116 ; Indian work bv, 

Matsebigwadoussek, 374. 

McArthur, Major, 292. 

McPherson, Lieut, 13. 

Meigs Journal, 47. 

Menard, Rene, place of death of, 175. 

Menomonees, 179. 

Mfcndham, N. J., 399. 

Milbome, Jacob, 230. 

Mind your own business, 249. 

Miniature of a Revolutionary officer, 

Minneguahum, 67. 

Moncnef, Capt, 271. 

Monseys, 21. 

Moody, Lt. James, 354. 

Morrice, Thaddeus, 181. 

Morris, Lt, Geo. R. H. Letter to, 353. 

Morris, Miss, on Washington, 98. 

Morris, Robert, Letter of, 231. 

Morristown Ghost, 79, 117 ; News pa- 
per in, 249. 

Mules, origin of in the United States. 
342, 375. 

Muscovy Duck, an American bird, 

Mutsun Language, 68. 

My Care life in^Vicksburgh. 192. 

Nantaeket, 51. 

Nasquapees, 63. 

Negro Burying Ground, 40. 

Negroes ordered out of Massachu- 
setts, 72, 400. 



New Bedford Centennial, 352. 
New England Society, HT. 
New Hampshire Grants, 117. 

New Jersey, Centenarian in. 247. 
Newiin. Nicholas. 41. 
New Orleans, 314. 
"News. Letter," The, 30. 
Newspaper in Hometown, N. J., 

First. 21!). 
New Ctretcht, 896! 
New York Names, 12, Freedom of 

the City conferred on Washington, 

()."). NewEngland, Emigration to. 73; 

Accounts of the Yellow Fever in. 

76; Publishing In 17 "i 1. st) : Statue 

on the Battery, L54, 18Jl 249$ First 

School in. 3SPi : First Theatre in. 
••>:;•» : Oyster beds in, 244; John Sr. 

M. E. Church, 896. 
Nicholson. John, 231. 
Nicola. Col.. 12!). 
Nicols, Mathias, 230. 
Norn de Plume. 398. 
Northern Whig, 79. 
Numismatics, 384, 397, 399. 
O'Bail, John. (Cornplanter), Letter 

of. 31. 
O'Brien and Diefendorf's General 

Orders, 382 
1 Ccdlaghan's Brief Narrative of 

Indian War, 47; New Netherland, 

Odiorne, Thomas, 155. 
O'Dunn, Count, 293. 
Oghquago, 373. 
Ohio, Buffalo on the, 259; Navigation 

in 17(58, of Armed boats on. 
" Old Hoss," 80. 
Old sheep pastures, 398. 
Orange Co., N. Y., Indians in. 152, 

O'Reilly at Algiers, 40. 
Orme, Robert Letters of, 353. 
Ossibaw Bar, 291. 
Ottawas, 179. 
Pamunkey, 105. 
Papinachois, 62. 
Papers relating to the allied attack 

on Savannah, 290. 
Paroling private Soldiers, 345. 
Pater Yaer, 78. 
Patrick Henry, Who wrote letters 

signed? 240. 
Patrons of Literature in New York 

in 1774, 80. 
Pauwangum, <;;. 
Peabody, George, 236. 
Peck on Universalism, 79 
Pendleton. Rebecca, 176. 
Pennsylvania, Origin of the name, 

180: Governors, of, 266, 316; Act 

prohibiting Slavery, 278; Manoeu- 
vres of the City Battalions in 1775, 

Perry's History of the Episcopal 

Church in Portland, 48. 
Philadelphia, First book printed in, 

274; Reminiscences of, 340: Old 

tombstone, 309. 
Philip, King, 26. 
Philips and Davis, 147. 
Phillips. Deacon .J.. 408. 
Phip*s. Wm. Proclamation, 336. 
Pickering, Col., 208. 
Pipkin, Col.. Jackson's letter to, 209. 
PittstiieldEim, 313. 
Plymouth Anniversary discourses, 

Polk. President. 32. 
Portland, Episcopal church in, 48. 
Pottawattomies. 179. 
Poughkeepsie, original deed of, 69. 
Powell, Mr., 103. 

Predeath Coffins and Monuments. 310, 

Presidential election of 1800, 840, 818, 
Prevost. .Maj. Qen., Letter to Lord 
Geo. Germain, 290; to de Estaing, 

Prisoners, exchange of, 200. 

Prock and Gyascufus, 814 
Prugge, Johannes, 230. 

Pseudonyms, ■'•'> I. 

Pulaski at Savannah, 13. 

Punishment for Blasphemy. 897. 

I'm nam at Bunker Hill. 369, 827. 

Quebec, monument to commemorate 
second battle of. 18: Quebec in 1701, 
74: English officers and men killed 
at, 375. 

Quincy, Josiah Jr., (of 1775), 207. 
| Quincy, Josiah, R. C. Winthrop on, 
i 281. 

j Rale, Father, 177. 
i Range of animals in N. America, 278. 

Rankin, Capt., 12. 

Raymond' 8 Administration of Abra- 
ham Lincoln, 255. 

"Redeemed Captive, 1 ' 41, 71. 

Redemptors, 235. 

Revilla Gigido, Count of, 140. 

Revised Statutes of New York, errors 
in, 37, 38. 

Revolutionary Army pay, 130. 

Revohitionary journals, Siege of Sav- 
annah, 12, 290 ; one found on the 
Hunter, 1779, 51 ; Butler's Siege of 
Yorktown, 102; Siege of Boston, 

Revolutionary officer, miniature of an 
unknown, 341. 

Revolutionary Pensioners, 148, 399. 

Reynards, 264. 

Rhode Island rebellion against Mass- 
achusetts, 333. 
! Robinson Beverly, 357. 
| Rogers, Robert, 390. 

Rochambeau, Gen., Seal ring of, 48; 
at Yorktown, 106. 
! Sabine's American Loyalists, 320, 321. 
j Sabino, 237. 

Sacs, 264. 
j Saffin, John, 198. 
| Safford's Blennerhassett Papers, 320. 

Sagadahoc, 237. 

Salisbury, Capt.,'2M; Sanitary, 309. 

Santa Clara Mission, 339. 

Santa Cruz Indians, vocabulary of, 

Santangel, Luis de, Columbus' letter 
to, 289. 

Sarel, M., 16. 

Savannah, Siege of, 12, 296. 

Sawed cannon, 374. 

Scammel, Col., death of, 107. 

Schneck's Burning of Chambersburg, 

Sealsfield, Chas., 342. 

Seamen, Valentine, 75, 96. 

Semmes, R., on Privateering, 76. 

Be wall's Joseph, a memorial, 194-7. 

Shane's (Rev, Mr.), Library, 383. 

Shank. General. :i-2-2. 

Albany, 51. 
Bonetta, 104, 111. 
Charon, 104, 109. 
Chimere, 293. 
Comet, 12. 
Crawford, 12. 
Defiance, 104. 
Experiment, 103. 
Formidable, 101. 
Fourey. 12. 24, 293. 
Germain, 291. 
Guadaloupe, 104. 

Hampden, 53. 
Hermione, no. 

Hunter. 51. 

Iris. 106. 

KeppeL \->. 201. 

King Charles, 880 

La Trinite. 898. 

Nautilus, 61. 

North, 51. 

Rambler, 104. 

Pichmond, 106. 

Romulus, 106. 

Rose, 12, 18, 299. 

Savannah. 12, 18, 292. 

Skyrocket. 53. 

Spitfire, 104. 

Susannah, 104. 

Tarleton. 104 

Thunderer, 13. 

Venus, 13. 

Vengence. 53. 

Yille de Paris. 107. 
Shulz, John. 247. 
Signers, Lineage of the, 209. 
Silvester. 243. 
Simcoe, Col. 108, 322. 
Simcock, John, 41. 
Slavery in the Northern Colonies ; in 

New England, 400; in Massachu- 

cbusetts. 21, 169 ; in New York, 77 ; 

in Canada, 278. 
Smith, Lt. Col., 106. 


Albany Institute, Officers, 122. 

American Antiquarian Society, 212 : 
Oct., 405. 

American Numismatic Society, 158. 

American Baptist Historical' Soci- 
ety Officers, 46. 
■•^American Statistical Association, 
Jany. 15, 1864, Officers, 85: Oct. 
404, 251 : July 7, 319. 

Boston Numismatic Societv, Jan. 
7, 1864. Officers, 83 ; June, 251 ; 
Jidy,m; Oct., 404. 

Buffalo Historical Society, Nov., 

1863, Proceedings, 85 ; Dec, Red 
Jacket Historical Society, 86, 
Jany.. 122; Officers, 123; Mch., 
215 ; April, 216. 

Chicago Historical Society. Nor. 17, 
1863: Annual Meeting, Officers. 
43: Jany. 19, 1864.82: Mar., 133: 
April, 211 ;May, 17, 250; June 21. 

American Antiquarian Society, 

Connecticut Historical Society, 
May, Officers, 250. 

Dakota Historical Society. 88. 

Delaware Historical Society. May 
31, Preliminary. 402: Oct. Annal, 
403: Snowdon's Address, -'^:->. 

Dorchester Antiquarian Society, 
Jany. 22. Officers, 83. 

Essex Institute, Annals, 255, 381. 

Fire Lands Historical Societv. Dec, 
9. 1868, Proceedings, 45 ; June 8, 

1864, Proceedings, 252: Pioneer. 

Iowa Historical Society, Annals, 
88, 381. 

Long island Historical Society, 
Sketch of, 187; Jany. 7. 1864: 
Officers. 87, 188; Paper by W. A. 
Jones, 89; Feb.-Mch., Proceed- 
ings, 190; May-OcL, 379, Nov, 3. 

Massachusetts Historical Society, 
Feb. 11: The late Frederick Tu- 
dor, 119. 156.: July 14, Josiah 
Quincy, Jr.. 281. 

Maine Historical Society, Jany., 
1864, Baxter's Journal, "Cushman 



on Clam shell deposit, 119 ; Col- 
lections, 128 ; Mch., 156 ; April, 15. 
Shakespeare, 185 ; Officers, 187 ; 
Aug. 4, Popham Celebration, 317 ; 
Officers, 318. 

Navajo Indians, 280 ; Sept. 20, 348: 
Oct. 18, 405 ; Nov. 15, 406. 

New England Historical Genealog- 
ical Society, Dec. 2, Proceedings, 
44; Jan]/. 6, 1864, Reports, 83: 
Officers, 84; Feb. 3, Librarian's 
Report, &c, 120; Shakespeare 
Anniversary, 153 ; Mar. 2, Stone 
or Jonathan Edwards, 157; 
April 6, Barstow, 212; Shakes- 
peare Association, 213; June, 1, 
251 ; July 6, Vinton on Deborah 
Sampson, 318 ; Sept. 7, 349 ; Oct. 
5, 380. 

New Hampshire Historical Society, 
June 8, Officers, 251. 

New Haven Historical Society, 
Nov. 30, 1863, Annual meeting, 
43 ; Officers, ib. 

New Jersey Historical Society, 
Jany. 21, 1864, Reports, 120 ; Offi- 
cers, 121; May 19, Rev. John 
Proudfoot, 223. 

New York Historical Society, Bee, 
1863, Proceedings, 443 ; Bradford 
Celebration, 47 ; Jany. 5, Reports, 
Officers, 87; Feb. 2, Hoppin on 
Portraits, 123; Mch. 124; April, 
214 ; May, Proceedings, 215 ; 
June 7, 252; Oct. 12, Bicentennial 
Celebration, 375. 

Old Colony Historical Society, 
Jany. 4, 1864, Officers, 85. 

Philadelphia Numismatic Society, 
Oct. 22, 407. 

Onondaga Historical Association, 
Bee. 1863, Proceedings, 44. 

Pennsylvania, Historical Society of 
Feb. 8th, Officers, 124 ; Mar. 158 ; 
April, Penn. Mansion, 191 ; May, 
Bradford Celebration, 217 ; 
June, 13. 253 : Oct. 10. 379. 

Rhode Island Numismatic Society 
Officers, 160. 

Rhode Island Historical Society, 87, 
Officers, 88. 

Vermont Historical Society Oct. 20. 
1863, Officers, 46 ; Gen. De Peyster 
on Secession in Switzerland, ib ; 
Jan. 28. Proceedings, 125. 

Wisconsin State Historical Society 
Report, 218 : Newspapers, 219 : 
Officers, 220 ; April, 2. 222. 
Soldier's Pocket Bible, 160. 
Sonora Barbasts, account of, 78. 
Southern Currency, 67. 

Spanish Priests in New York, 317, 

Star Spangled Banner, 347. 

Staten Island, a Hessian view of, 56. 

Steam Navigation, 374. 

Steenwyck Cornelius, 230, 

Sternhold A. Hopkins, 247. 

Steuben, Baron, 105, 106. 

Stevenson 's Indiana 's Roll of Honor, 

Stewart, Col., 103, 106. 

Stone's Rhode Island in the Rebellion. 

Stony Point, 129. 

Strange superstition, 44. 

Stray Leaves from an Autograph Col- 
lection, 230, 333. 

Streeter, S. F., 380. 

St. Simon, Marquis 102, 105, 106. 

Stuyvesent, Memorials of Gov., 228. 

Substitutes, Price of, 113. 

Suffolk Co. N. Y., 92. 

Sullivan's Expedition to the Genesee 
Country, 40 : at Boston, 327, 

Syracuse, 73. 

Tarleton, 107, 358. 

Tate Armand, 248, 315. 

Tarves, Capt., 14. 

Taylor, Daniel, 148. 

Tecumseh, Death of, 183. 

Temple, Newburg, 66. 

Ten Orators of Athens, 278, 317, 348. 

Texas, Early Spanish Missionaries in, 

The Irrepressible Negro, 398. 

The Selling of Joseph, a memorial, 

Throg's Neck, origin of name, 38. 

Thariolin, 78. 

Tortoises, trial of, 210. 

Tory Regiments, list of officers of, 
321, 354, 389 : New York volunteers, 
12 ; loss at Savannah, 297. 

Townsend, 51. 

Trecothick, 278. 

Throop, Lt. Col. Josiah, 305. 

Tomes' War with the South, 383. 

Treaties with Indians in Wisconsin, 

Trumbull, Col., 106. 

Umbagog, 208. 

Upton, Mr., 235. 

Valentine's Manual of the Corpora- 
tion, 381. 

Valley Forge, 44, 100. 

Vanderhorst, Capt., 18. 

Van Renselaer, Jeremies, 229, 230. 

Variorum, Diversorum, 374. 

Venerable Voters, 398. 

Vide Poche, 68. 

Vincennes, 263. 

Virginia Blue Laws, 308. 

Vocabulary of the Santa Crnz Indi- 
ans, 68. 

Von Eelking's German Auxiliary 
Troops, 54. 

Voting Mills, 344. 

Waldo, Rev. Daniel, 347. 

Waldren, Resolved, will of, 38, 73. 

Wallace, J. W., Letter of, 274. 

Wametappack, Sachem of Canarya- 
sen, 67. 

Warren, Hooper, 350. 

Washington, Geo., how he asked the 
advice and eonsent of the Senate 32 : 
Life guard, 36 : notice on some por- 
traits of, 49, 100 ; Letter accepting 
the freedom of the City of New 
York, 65; at Newburgh. 86; at Mt. 
Vernon, 105 ; Miss Morris' descrip- 
tion of 98 ; Latin ode on, 154, 209 ; 
remarkable statement of Jefferson 
concerning, 247; first watch, 342; 
at Braddock's defeat, 353 : his lands, 
366 ; Washington Cents, 397. 

Washington, John, 345. 

Washingtons of England, 138. 

Wax medallions of Washington, 50. 

Wawayanda, 208. 

Wayne, Gen. accidentlv wounded, 
163-5 ; at Stony Point, 254. 

Webster, Noah, 78. 

West Point, 38. 

What was this Book ? 399. 

Wheatley, Phillis, Sketch of, 32 ; Let- 
ters of. 

Wheeler, Bennet H. Books printed 
by, 248, 317. 

Whim whams. Authors of, 79, 155. 

Whistler, Major John, 185, 280. 

Whitmore's Cavalier Bismounted, 

Whitworth, Lieut. 12. 

Why are the rebels called Johnnies, 

Walke, John, 249. 

Wilkins, Lt. Col. J., 257, 288. 

Williamsburg, 105. 

Wingtield, Thos. Maria, 400. 

Winiiebagoes, 179. 

Winslow, Edward, 321 ; family. 192 : 
Rev. Hubbard, 319. 

Woodbridge, John, 253. 

Woolen Show, 116. 

Wright, Sir James, 15 : Mrs. Patience, 

Wyandots, 21. 

Yellow Fever in New York, Biblio- 
graphy of, 75. 

Yorktown, Journal of Siege of, 102 ; 
Storming of redoubts at, 109. 

Zenger, John P., Indenture of, 35. 

Zubly's Perry, 293. 



Vol. VIII.]. 

JANUARY, 1864. 

[No. 1. 

<§mral g*prinunt. 


lis" presenting to our readers a copy of 
an early caricature of what unfortunately 
has been a precedent too often followed, we 
are happy to give the following account of 
the scene from the pen of one of our kind 

" The disgraceful scene which the accom- 
panying engraving presents occurred in the 
United States House of Representatives, 
then sitting in Philadelphia, on the 15th of 
February, 1798. The building in which 
Congress then met is that at the S. E. cor- 
ner of Sixth and Chestnut streets. The 
Senate sat in the back room, second story, 
now occupied by a branch of the District 
Court for the City and County of Phila- 
delphia. In the room below, near the 
Court of Quarter Sessions, sat the House 
of Representatives. 

" The combatant with the uplifted cane 
is the Hon. Roger Griswold 
cut ; he with the brandished tongs 

of Connecti- 
is the 
Hon. Matthew Lyon of Vermont. The 
Speaker, the Hon. Jonathan Dayton, of 
New Jersey, is in his chair ; beneath him 
sits the Clerk of the House, Jonathan W. 
Condy, Esq., of Pennsylvania. In the left 
hand corner, leaning his elbow on his knee, 
is the Rev. Ashbel Green, an eminent Cler- 
gyman in the Presbyterian church, who 
died only a few years ago. 

"Of the two prominent actors in the 
scene we have the following account in Mr. 
Charles Lanman's * Dictionary of the Uni- 
ted States Congress.' (Philadelphia, 1859.) 
" ' Roger Griswold, born in Lyme, 


Connecticut, May 21, 1762; graduated at 
Yale College in 1780, and studied law. 
From 1795 to 1805 he was a Represent- 
ative in Congress from Connecticut. In 
1801 he declined the appointment of Secre- 
tary of War, offered him by President 
Adams, a few days before the accession of 
President Jefferson. In 1807 he was cho- 
sen a Judge of the Supreme Court of the 
State ; was Lieutenant-Governor from 1809 
to 1811, and then elected Governor; while 
holding that office he refused to place four 
companies under General Dearborn at the 
requisition of the President, for garrison 
purposes, deeming the requisition uncon- 
stitutional, as they were not wanted to 
" repel invasion," etc. He died in 1812.' 

"'Matthew Lyon. He was bom in 
Wicklow County, Ireland, in 1746, and 
having emigrated to this country when 
thirteen years of age, participated to some 
extent in the revolutionary struggle, hav- 
ing, in 1777, been appointed temporary 
Paymaster of the Northern army, and in 
1778 Deputy Secretary of the Governor of 
Vermont, and at the same time Clerk of 
the Court of Confiscation. He settled in 
Vermont after the war, and was elected a 
member of the State Legislature in 1789 
and the three following years. In 1783 he 
founded the town of Fair Haven, where he 
built saw-mills, grist-mills, established a 
forge or iron-foundry, manufactured paper 
from bass-wood and established a news- 
paper called The Farmers' Library. He 
served that town in the legislature ten 
years. In 1786 he was Assistant Judge of 
Rutland County. He was a Representative 
in Congress from Vermont, from 1799 to 
1801, and it was during his first term that 
he had a personal difficulty on the floor of 
Congress with Roger Griswold of Connec- 




ticut, when an unsuccessful effort was made 
to have him expelled. The fact of his 
giving the vote that made Jefferson Pre- 
sident is well known. At the end of his 
second term as a Representative from Ver- 
mont he removed to Kentucky, served two 
years in the Legislature of that State, and 
was a Representative in Congress from that 
state from 1803 to 1811. After his final 
retirement from Congress, and on Novem- 
ber 13, 1811, the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives presented a petition from 
him, setting forth that he had, many years 
before, been prosecuted and convicted un- 
der the sedition law (see " State Trials of 
the United States") that he had suffered 
imprisonment and been made to pay the 
sum of $1060.90, and that he wished to 
have the money refunded to him. On July 
4, 1840, a law was passed paying to his 
heirs the specified sum, with interest from 
February, 1799. It was while in prison at 
Vergennes that he was elected to Congress 
from Vermont, and at the close of his ser- 
vices in Congress from Kentucky he was 
employed to bnild gun-boats for the war, 
but became bankrupt from the operation. 
In 1820 he was appointed a Factor among 
the Cherokee Indians in Arkansas ; when 
that Territory was organized he was elected 
the first delegate to Congress, but did not 
live to take his seat, having died at Spadra 
Bluff, Arkansas, August 1, 1822.' 

" The encounter represented in the curi- 
ous engraving herewith reproduced was not 
the first which had occurred between 
Messrs. Lyon and Griswold. On the 31st 
of January, in the same year (1*798), a dif- 
ficulty occurred between them, of which 
the following account has been abridged 
from The Aurora newspaper (Republi- 

" i The House of Representatives was 
engaged in balloting for managers to con- 
duct the impeachment before the Senate of 
Senator Blount of North Carolina, the 
Speaker being out of the chair. Just be- 
fore the adjournment, Mr. Griswold and 
Mr. Lyon being outside of the bar, the 
former made some allusion to a story cir- 
culated in some of the eastern states that 

wooden sword for cowardice in the field. 
Upon this Mr. Lyon spit in Mr. Griswold' s 

" ' Mr. Sewall desired that the galleries 
might be cleared, and when the doors were 
closed he moved that Mr. Lyon be expelled. 
The House ordered the doors to be opened 
and the subject was then referred to the 
Committee on Privileges. The committee 
soon reported to the effect that, if either 
of the members offered any violence to the 
other before a final decision of the House, 
he should be considered guilty of a high 
breach of privilege. 

" ' On the 1st of February a letter from. 
Mr. Lyon to the Speaker was read, in 
which he disclaimed any intentional dis- 
respect to the House. 

" ' On the following day the Committee 
of Privileges reported the facts of the case 
to the House and recommended the passage 
of a resolution for Mr. Lyon's expulsion. 
The debate upon this report continued 
until the 12th of February, when the vote 
upon the question of expulsion was taken 
and stood — ayes 52, nays 44. A vote of 
two-thirds being constitutionally required 
to effect an expulsion the motion was lost. 
'"Of the affair of January 31st, a cari- 
cature is in existence representing Mr. 
Lyon as a lion standing on its hind legs 
and having a man's head in profile. A 
wooden sword is hanging by his side. 
Griswold, whose name admitted of no pun, 
is holding a handkerchief in his hand and 
exclaiming, " what a beastly action." ' 

The Aurora of February 16 th, 1798, 
gives the following anecdote of the battle 
represented in the engraving. 

" ' Yesterday, after prayers, nearly half 
an hour after the time to which the House 
had adjourned, and after the Speaker had 
taken the chair, Mr. Lyon was sitting in his 
seat (which is the centre of a row of desks) 
with his hat off and inclining forward with 
his eyes on a paper before him. Mr. Gris- 
wold left his seat with a stout hickory club, 
came up to Mr. Lyon on his right front, and 
without warning struck him once and again 
over the head and shoulders before he could 
rise, and repeated his blows, which Mr. 

Mr. Lyon had been obliged' to wear a Lyon endeavored to ward off with his arm 




while extricating himself from the sur- 
rounding desks and chairs. Mr. L. at- 
tempting to close in, in order to avoid the 
blows, pushed forward towards the Speak- 
er's chair; Mr. G. endeavoring to preserve 
the distance and repeating his blows. Mr. 
, L. at length got hold of the tongs ; but 
after one stroke with them, his antagonist 
closing in, both the tongs and the club 
were dropt and the two members fell, Mr. 
G. having Mr. L. partly under him. There 
was no call of order from the Speaker all 
this time. Two members endeavored to 
take Mr. G. off by pulling him by the legs. 
The Speaker alleged he should be taken 
off by the shoulders ; they w r ere, however, 

" ' A few minutes afterwards Mr. G. was 
standing in that part of the house where 
water is placed for the use of the members. 
Mr. L. came up to the same place, with a 
cane in his hand ; as soon as he recognized 
Mr. G. he struck him with his cane ; on 
which Mr. Sitgreaves brought Mr. G. a 
hickory club ; but the members interfered, 
the Speaker then called to order and 
Messrs. L. and G. separated. 

" ' We are happy to add that Mr. L. is 
not so much hurt as might have been ex- 
pected from the violence and manner of the 

" So far from the organ of the Republi- 
can party. The following account, copied 
from a newspaper slip, appears to be from 
some paper of the Federal party : 

"'Philadelphia, February 16. — Ano- 
ther Fracas in Congress. — Yesterday 
morning, immediately after prayers were 
over, and while the Speaker was in the 
chair, but before the house was called to 
order, Mr. Griswold, a member from Con- 
necticut, observing Mr. Lyon, of Vermont, 
in his seat, left the chair in which he usually 
sat and moved diagonally towards the table 
occupied by the sergeant at arms. He 
made a momentary halt, assumed a fierce- 
ness of countenance to which he is unac- 
customed, grasping at the same time with 
firmer nerve the hickory stick he had in his 
hand, passed on with three or four quick 
steps till he came near to Mr. Lyon, when 
lie raised his stick and draw a violent 

stroke across Mr. Lyon's head, who was 
sitting uncovered and looking down upon 
some papers upon the desk, which stood 
between him and Mr. Griswold. The 
stroke was so sudden and unexpected that 
Mr. L. did not even make an effort by 
raising up his arms to ward off the danger. 
Mr. G. repeated his stroke before Mr. Lyon 
could rise from his seat. Mr. L. put his 
cane between his legs when he first sat 
down but seemed to have lost it, as he 
pressed forward unarmed to extricate him- 
self from the chairs and desks with which 
he was surrounded. Mr. G. continued his 
assault during the favorable opportunity 
furnished by Mr. L.'s embarrassed situation, 
gave several severe strokes, one of which 
visibly staggered him. As soon as Mr. L. 
had got into the open area before the 
Speaker's chair he attempted to close with 
Mr. G., but finding this not easily effected, 
by the wariness of his antagonist, he seemed 
compelled to seek for arms that should put 
him more on a level with Mr. G. With 
this view he passed on to the nearest fire- 
place, followed by Mr. G., Avho continued 
striking. At length Mr. L. seized the fire- 
tongs and proceeded to repel Mr. G.'s at- 
tack, but in this he was prevented by Mr. 
G., who quickly caught hold of the tongs 
also and made a thrust with his cane at Mr. 
L.'s face. The combatants now closed aud 
abandoned their weapons ; after a short 
struggle they fell side by side on the floor, 
when several other members interposed 
and separated the combatants. Mr. L. im-- 
mediately expressed a wish that they had 
been left alone to settle the matter in the 
way Mr. G. had proposed. 

"'A few minutes only had intervened 
when, by accident, Mr. Lyon and Mr. 
Griswold met at the water-table near the 
south-east door; Mr. Griswold was now 
without any stick and Mr. Lyon had a cane 
in his hand ; their eyes no sooner met than 
Mr. Lyon sprang to' attack Mr. Griswold, 
who, 'stepping back, in some measure 

avoided the blow. Mr. G. continued to 
retreat until another cudgel was put into 
his hand by Mr. Sitgreaves, but on the 
Speaker and some of the members calling to 
order the business terminated for the present. 




" c Mr. Lyon suffered considerable per- 
sonal injury from the blows he received in 
the first attack. Mr. Griswold appears to 
have sustained little or no bodily hurt dur- 
ing the whole affray.' " 

November 3, 1779. Saw from Tybee 
Light house four large ships in the offing ; 
sent Lieut. Lock in the pilot-boat to recon- 
noitre them. 

4th. The Lieutenant returned and re- 
ported the strange ships in the offing to be 
two French ships of the line, two frigates, 
and a sloop. 

5th. They stood off this day and appeared 

6th. Lieut. Whitworth was dispatched 
with advice to New-York of the enemy 
being on the coast, but was chased in by 
the French. 

7th. Lieut. Whitworth sailed again and 
we hope escaped the enemy ; employed in 
sounding the North Channel and bringing 
the Rose, Keppel and Germain men of war 
into it and mooring them. 

8th. The signal was made from the 
Light-house of seeing 18 sail, at sun-set 
counted 41 sail, 32 of which appeared large 
ships ; an officer and reinforcement came to 
Tybee fort, which had only one 24 pounder 
and one 8-J- inch howitz. Came down from 
Cockspur and anchored in the North 
Channel ; his Majesty's ship Fowey, the 
Savannah armed ship transports and prison 
ships ready to go up Savannah river, 
started all the water except the ground 

9th. At day-light saw the French fleet, 
some of them in chase of a schooner with 
English colours which they took. 

10th. Four of the enemy's ships got un- 
der way at high water and stood for Tybee, 
the Fowey made the signal to weigh, 
weighed with the Fowey, Keppel and 
Comet galley and run up Savannah river as 
far as Long Reach ; the Fowey got aground 
on White Vester Bank, ordered the Kep- 
pel and Comet to her assistance with boats, 
anchors, &c. the fort was abandoned and 

burnt, the French ships anchored off Ty- 
bee, the Fowey got off at high water. 

11. Employed sounding and laying off the 
channel leading to Savannah, the Fowey, 
Keppel and Comet galley anchored there. 

12th. At sun-set a French ship anchored 
off Tybee, two moreanchor'd in the South 
Channel and one in the north, perceived 
she was a-gronnd. 

13th. At 2 p.m. a sloop, the Crawford, 
came alongside, sent 8 nine pounders, 400 
shot and eight barrels powder, &c. to the 
army ; the Comet galley moved to Cock- 


and exchanged some shot with the 

French ship a-ground, the French fleet at 
anchor without the bar ; at 7 a.m. weighed, 
as did the Fowey, Keppel and Comet gal- 
ley, at half past, the ship took the grooncl, 
but soon floated, anchored with the small 
bower, at 8 weighed and came up the 
river, at 11, anchored at Five FathomHole. 
14th. Sent Lieut. Lock, 26 seamen, Capt. 
Rankin and all the marines to reinforce the 
army per order from Commodore Henry. 

15th, at 2 the Keppel and Comet went 
down the harbour to cover and protect the 
troops expected from Beaufort ; this day I 
joined the army with the remaining part of 
the officers and ship's company, leaving 
only enough to keep the ship free ; posted 
the officers and seamen to the different bat- 
teries in the line ; the General received a 
summons from Count d'Estaing to sur- 
render, &c. &c. to The Arms of the 
French King ; a council of war was called 
on the occasion, and an answer was sent ; a 
trooper of Pulaski's was brought in this 

16th. The remainder of the Rose and 
Fowey's guns were landed, the guns were 
immediately mounted on the different bat- 
teries ; Colonel Maitland and the troops 
from Beaufort arrived, 71st and New York 
Volunteers, brave fellows ; Savannah in the 
highest spirits. 

17th. A truce agreed on for 24 hours, 
viz. till gun fire p.m. 
18th. Continued truce. 
19th. Hands sent down to bring the 
ships up near the town ; all the ships 
moved; the pickets firing most part of the 




20th. New works thrown up, the French 
ship, rebel galleys moving up the river, 
orders from Capt. Henry to scuttle and 
sink the Rose man of war in the channel, 
which was immediately done, after getting 
out as many of her stores, cv;c. as the time 
would admit. The Savannah armed ship 
and Venus transport were burnt with their 
guns and provisions, ammunition, &c. two 
or three transports sunk at Five Fathom 
Hole or thereabouts with all their sails 
burnt, &c. &c. 

21st. Two Negroes deserted from the 
enemy report them strong, Gen. Lincoln 
with the rebel army having joined the 
French, and that they are preparing for the 
attack ; strengthening our works, firing 
occasionally on the enemy to disturb them. 

2 2d. The enemy still opening works to 
the left fired on them occasionally from the 

23d. Strengthening the "works and 
throwing up intrenchments in front of the 
different corps in the line. 

24th. At seven in the morning saw the 
enemy very busy intrenching themselves to 
the left of the barracks, three companies of 
light infantry made a sortie with great 
spirit, the enemy being too numerous 
obliged them to retreat under the fire of 
our batteries with the loss of 21 killed and 
wounded ; Lieut. McPherson of the 71st 
was killed, it is supposed the enemy suf- 
fered considerably ; the enemy fired seve- 
ral cannon in our line from 2 eighteen 
pounders and some 4 pounders, a flag was 
sent to bury the dead on both sides, in the 
afternoon the enemy's gallies advanced near 
the works, our galleys exchanged several 
shot with them and returned under the sea 
battery; the new battery behind the bar- 
racks finished this day, mounted with two 
1 8 pounders, two 9 pounders and field pie- 
ces, throwing up intrenchments in front of 
the different corps in the French lines, 
about half a musket shot from our abbatis ; 
the pickets exchanged shots the greatest 
part of the night, we throwing shells into 
their works and firing on them fror our 
batteries every fifteen minutes. 

25th. The French throw up new wo. ks 
on the left of the barracks, in which they 

mounted two 18 pounders en barbette, but 
were driven from them by our batteries, in 
the evening the rebel gallies advanced up 
to the Rose, but were obliged to retire by 
the fire from the Comet and Thunderer 
gallies ; — continue throwing shells and 
firing on their works during the night. 

26th. At 11 a.m. the enemies' gallies fired 
a few shot at the Fort on the left of the 
encampment without effect, a French fri- 
gate advanced to Five Fathom Hole. 

27th, at 3 a.m. a small fire of musketry 
from the pickets ; 8 a.m. a flag from the 
French with private letters from the Bri- 
tish prisoners : destroyed the barracks and 
carried off* the wood, &c. leaving the lower 
part as a breastwork, to prevent it being 
fired from the enemy, continue throwing 
shells and cannonading the enemys works 
during the night. 

28th. at 1 in the morning a small firing 
between the picquets, a rebel taken close to 
our abattis, about 2 another firing from our 
picquets ; at 9 a.m. a French frigate moved 
up the Back River and moored her stern 
and head — every thing quiet this day, the 
enemy are carrying on their works. 8 p.m. 
the Thunderer galley moved near the 
French frigate and began to cannonade 
her, the frigate did not return her fire. 

29th. At daylight this morning saw a 
new entrenchment on the left, raised 
during the night by the enemy, within half 
musket shot of our lines ; employed throw- 
ing up breastworks to the right and left of 
the barracks, fired on the enemy's works 
every 15 minutes from the batteries and 
howitzers during the night. 

30th. At daylight perceived the enemy 
working and extending their entrench- 
ments ; at 7 a.m. the Thunder galley ad- 
vanced toward the French frigate on the 
Back River and fired at her, she did not 
return a shot — the Thunderer returned, 
having broke the platform of her gun. At 
10 a.m. a brig came up to Five Fathom 
Hole, the rebel gallies on their former sta- 
tion near the works below; the Rose, a 
boat with a small gun, fired at the Thun- 
derer without effect, a launch and another 
boat went up the Back River ; a man came 
I in from the enemy, gives no satisfactory 




intelligence ; some firing from the battery 
on the right, and the armed vessels on the 
enemy at Yamacraw, as well as from the 
batteries in the front and the left on the 
French intrenchments. This night an offi- 
cer of Polaskie's was wounded and brought 
into the line by the picquets. 

October 1st. At 7 a.m. the French fri- 
gate in the Back River fired some shot to- 
wards the town and at the negroes on 
Hutchinson's Island ; perceived the enemy 
in front and on the left busy in their works, 
embrasures, &c. a flag from us to the 
French with letters from the wounded 
officer taken last night, still employed in 
strengthening our lines, particularly in 
front ; sent out of the lines two dragoons 
of Polaskie's legion by a flag, who had 
been detained some time here, and received 
an officer of the same legion with a flag, 
Mons. JBentoloso, who came to see the offi- 
cer that was wounded and brought in last 
night ; employed in strongly throwing up 
a new battery on our left, to be mounted 
with 8 nine-pounders, to act on'the enemy's 
batteries ; in hourly expectation of the 
attack; this afternoon fresh breezes from 
E.N.E. and rain; fired during the night 
from the batteries in front, and threw some 
shells into the French intrenchments. . 

2d. Rainy weather, wind E.N.E. the 
enemy still working in their intrenchments 
and preparing the batteries ; at noon the 
enemy's gallies advanced near the sea bat- 
tery and began to cannonade, as did the 
frigate in the Back River, several of their 
shot came into the rear of the camp without 
doing execution ; the Thunderer returned 
a few shot, the sea battery did not ; a de- 
serter from Polaskie's legion reports the 
enemy's batteries to be near ready, a de- 
serter from the French likewise, with the 
same account ; the frigate in the Back Ri- 
ver fired again in the afternoon without 
effect ; threw shells and fired from the bat- 
teries into the French intrenchments to 
disturb them during the night. 

3d. Rainy weather, wind E.N.E, the 
enemy still working in the intrenchment 
and compleating their batteries, the French 
frigate firing on the rear of the camp with- 
out effect; at 12 o'clock this night the 

enemy opened the bomb batteries and 
threw several shells into the town and 
camp, at day break they opened their bat- 
teries and fired warmly into the town, but 
none into the field. 

4th. The enemy still continue their fire 
from the bomb and other batteries, it was 
returned by us. 

5th. The enemy still cannonading the 
camp and town, at night a house took fire, 
but it went out without communicating to 
any other building, the frigate and gallies 
firing as usual ; heard a cannonade at sea. 

6th. The enemy still firing on the works, 
camp, and town ; the line turned out at 
dawn on an alarm that the enemy were 
approaching; the cannonade and bombard- 
ment continued all night. 

7th. Still continue cannonading and 
throwing shells on both sides, the enemy 
throwing most of their fire towards the 
town, which suffers considerably ; a 9 
pounder in our battery to the right of our 
barracks burst and wounded a seaman ; 
carpenter employed in repairing the plat- 
form in the Ebenezer battery, which had 
been broke by the shells. At 7 at night the 
enemy threw several carcases into the town, 
and burnt one house. 

8th. The enemy fired little this morning, 
but during the night cannonaded and bom- 
barded the town furiously. 

9th. At drum-beating in the morning the 
French attacked us warmly on the right 
and endeavoured to storm the redoubt and 
Ebenezer battery, the grenadiers of the 
60th regiment advanced to support them, 
and after an obstinate resistance by the 
French, they drove them back with great 
slaughter : their loss is reported to be 6 or 
700 killed, wounded and prisoners; our 
loss Captain Tarves of the dragoons, who 
died nobly fighting on the parapet of the 
redoubt, 7 of the 60th killed and wounded, 
and two marines killed and four wounded. 
A flag from the French to bury their dead, 
which was granted ; at 8 at night the 
French beat a parley, but were refused by 
us ; they fired cannon and shells during 
the night without any other effect than 
destroying the houses. 

10th. This morning sent a flag to bury 




from either side during the 

their dead, the Rebels sent one for the same 
purpose ; the truce lasted from tea till four 
p. m., the French fired several cannon when 
it expired. Between 8 and 9 P. M. our 
picquets fired on the right several shots ; 
the lines lay on their arms all night, and 
the seamen stood to their cannon. No 
other n'rin 

11th. This morning very foggy, no alarm 
from the enemy, our line very alert and in 
high spirits ; the French and Rebels sent 
in liags of truce during the greatest part of 
the day ; the enemy employed burying 
their dead, carrying off their wounded, and 
searching for their missing. The French 
take off all their cannon and mortars in the 
night, leaving only some small field pieces 
to amuse us, our whole lines in spirits, 
ready for another attack. Several deserters, 
French and Rebel, come in, and all report 
that the enemy are moving, and that their 
loss in the attack is much more than we 
imagined, the Rebels miss 1300, the French 
loss uncertain, but greater than the Rebels, 
as they fought like soldiers, and were killed 
and wounded, but the Rebels loss is from 
desertion immediately after the defeat. 

12th. The French amused us with four 
cannon shot at day break, more deserters 
come in, — say they are retreating, Count 
d'Estaing was at the attack and was dan- 
gerously wounded in two places, and 
the flower of the French army killed or 
wounded — Count Polaskie mortally wound- 
ed. The enemy very quiet all night, open'd 
a new battery on the right of three 4 

13th. We fired a gun at three in the 
morning, the French returned two shot, 
the whole line very alert, and under arms, 
a flag out at nine to return the wounded 
French officers and soldiers — the frigate in 
the Back River moved down at high 
w T ater — hear'd several guns from the sea, 
which we suppose signals ; more deserters 
come in, w r ho reported the enemy's loss to 
be great, the Rebel militia are mostly gone 
off, and the rest dispirited and ready to 
march to Charles Town ; our batteries in 
front fired on the enemy's works at in- 
tervals during the night, the enemy returned 

the fire, which seemed 
gun ; nothing more 


come from one 

material during 

14th. More deserters from the French 
' and Rebels who make the same report as 
the former — at nine this morning a flag out 
to settle an exchange of prisoners ; some 
information gives us reason to suspect a 
vigorous attack from the French, as soon 
as they have got off their heavy baggage 
cannon, sick and wounded — we fired at 
times during the night on the enemy's 
works, they returned two shot only, from 
two small pieces, supposed to be six 

15th. The enemy very quiet this morn- 
ing, we could not hear the Rebels revallie 
— the French beat the drums, but fired no 
morning gun ; a light ship came to Five 
Fathom Hole, suppose to water. Two 
gallies joined the two former ones — more 
deserters come in and report the enemy to 
be on the retreat, that their loss the morn- 
ing of the engagement was very great, 
particularly in their best officers, they are 
very sickly, and discontented with the 
Rebels ; the regiment Darmagnac are on 
their march to Bewis, with baggage, sick 
and wounded, the night quiet, firing 
occasionally from the grand battery on' the 
enemy's entrenchment, they returned 3 or 
4 shot. 

16th. The French beat the revallie, the 
rebels did not ; more deserters from the 
French confirming the former reports of 
their great loss and retreat, we are how- 
ever on our guard. The frigates in the 
river loose their topsails, as we suppose, to 
drop down and cover the retreat of the 
French. An alarm at sunset, that the 
enemy was forming in our front, the lines 
under arms; the rebels set fire to some 
houses on our right, as well as in our 
front — our armed negroes skirmishing with 
the Rebels the whole afternoon, we fired 
occasionally during the night on the 
enemy's works and camp; they returned 
two shot. 

17th. The French beat the revallie, the 
Rebels did not ; heard the report of several 
cannon ; a manager of Sir James Wright's 
from Ogeeche, reports that the enemy were 




preparing for a retreat, that they lost the 
day of the attack 1500 men, killed and 
wounded, and the desertion very great; 
fire as usual at the enemy's works, they 
returned three shot. 

18th. The French beat the revallie, the 
Rebels did not, but were heard working in 
the woods, the armed negroes brought in 
two Rebel Dragoons and eight horses, and 
kiiled two rebels who were in a foraging 
party ; only one deserter this day from 
the French, who gives the same account 
as the former ones ; many boats observed 
passing from the enemy's vessels and 
their army — nothing material during the 
night, we fired as usual on their works, and 
they returned three shot from a six pounder, 
our lines very alert and generally on their 
arms ready to receive the enemy. 

19th. The French beat the revallie, the 
Rebels not, but were heard cutting in the 
woods ; the ship that came to Five Fathom 
Hole moved down the river, as we sup- 
posed, full of water and the French baggage. 

20th. The French beat the revallie, but 
did not fire the morning gun ; two de- 
serters that came in this day, say the 
Rebels marched off yesterday evening, 
after having fired their camp ; the frigate 
fell down lower, but the wind being against 
her, she could go no further. 


Armstrong made himself famous by his 
aifair at Kittaning, and was a man of parts. 
He was a personal friend of Washington, 
having served with him in the French 

His correspondence with General Irvine 
(for which our readers are indebted to a 
descendant of the latter, who obligingly 
favors us with contributions from General 
Irvine's papers) possesses an interest as a 
portraiture of the men and times, indepen- 
dent of the historical value of the facts 

Philadelphia, 8rd August, 1780. 

Dear General, 

I cannot pass so favourable an oppor- 

tunity of answering your kind letter as that 
of Coll Johnston, altho' an interview would 
much better serve to disclose or unburthen 
the mind which cannot so properly be done 
by Pen and ink. 

Your soldiers shirts are by this time I hope 
gone forward, with Overalls, and as much 
dispatch in procuring Shoes as can well be 
made. As you are now to have but a fewe 
hints, the great concern ofanJEmpty Trea- 
sury with a thousand daily demands, forms 
the front line of my highest fears and deepest 
distress — we want at this moment to draw 
money, produce, transpor ation, &c. from 
these States to whom we are already deeply 
indebted, and whom our delinquency in pay- 
ment disenables from advancing those Taxes 
whereon at present we depend. — How the 
scheme of business and Finance contained 
in the resolution of the 18th of March last 
will operate for our relief is yet uncertain 
but doubted by too many, for altho' it is 
considered by many good judges to be 
at once just and wise respecting the pub- 
lick at large, yet various individuals sup- 
pose themselves injured or disappointed by 
fixing the money at forty to one, and there- 
fore decry the measure. Mr. Laurens by 
our reverse of fortune in South Carolina has 
been retarded in his voiage to Holand for 
which place he sets out from hence in a few 
days for the purpose of borrowing money 
for the United States. Mr. Sarel was set 
out (before yr. letter came to hand)' for 
Holland also, in order to procure Cloathing 
for the Pennsylvania line of our army, with 
some other necessaries for the State, which 
if he is successful, I hope may be of some 
use to us. Genl. Greens peremptory resig- 
nation in the business of Qr. M. Gl or 

refusal to act under the new regulation 
for that department, at this very critical 
moment, has at once disappointed and 
thrown Congress into a degree of vexatious 
distress greater than can well be expressed, 
or has yet happened in regard of any in- 
dividual, nine tenths of the difficulty arises 
from the importance of the present moment. 
The Committee of Congress at Camp ap- 
pears to make Genl. Greens continuance of 
absolute necessity — so that if he is retained 
the measures of Congress for reforming 




that department must be rescinded, & the 
censures of the publick must remain agst. 
Congress, as deaf to their remonstrances 
for the reformation of abuses. The remon- 
strance of the Genl. Officers was this morn- 
ing read & committed to a respectable 
Committee, the greater part whereof will in 
my opinion meet the cordial attention of 
Congress, who are as well disposed to do 
anything in their power that is in itself 
right, as men can be. 

The controversy betwixt you & Genl. 
Hand gives some pain to all your friends 
that I have heard speak of it, as tending to 
derange many things now established & 
introduce a new field of dispute which 
cou'd not be well settled again — these and 
sundry such sentiments prevail at the Board 
of war, whom it is said are possessed of 
written opinions of high authority which 
clearly conclude agst. the utility, if not also 
agst. the right of your claim ; for they will 
not allow that the Resolution of Congress 
for securing the rank of Prisoners extends 
to your case, or at least that this is doubt- 
ful. — That the first appointment of Genl. 
Officers being wholly w T ith Congress, be- 
longs not to the ordinary line of rank 
secured by the resolution to which we 
have alluded. I cou'd, especially with the 
consent of my colleagues, bring this matter 
before Congress, but whether brought on 
in this way, or by a plain & dispassionate 
memorial from yourself, the immediate 
consequence wou'd be a reference to the 
Board of War, and from thence (as far 
as I can learn) to the Commander-in-Chief 
and a Board of Officers at Camp. I have 
thought it necessary to write you thus 
plainly, having strong apprehensions that 
if carried to the uttermost, it will ulti- 
mately go agst. you. I therefore wish you 
cou'd either reconcile it to yourself from 
what you may have learned of the sense ot 
others, to give it up, or to write me soon, 
that it may be brought to a period — be 
assured that sentiments from Camp, and 
also sentiments formed here promise no 
success to yr. claim in the present ques- 
tion. I hope you will judge right — and 
am most sincerely yours. 

John Armstrong, 
hist. mag. vol. viii. 2 

The present state of our Southern De- 
partment is very forbiding, the letters of 
Genl. Gates & Baron De Calb, draw 
the picture of universal want, more par- 
ticularly in the articles of money & pro- 
visions. Genl. Green having so peremptorily 
refused the necessary service, is likely to 
be discharged from all other — to-day must 
end this disagreeable matter. I beg you 
will present my best wishes to the gents, 
of our line. I intend this by Coll John- 
stone, together with a conference before 
he sets out. j. a. 

Carlisle, 80th October, 1779. 

Dear General, 

A cold joined to a late hour disen- 
ables me to say more at present than 
that I reached home about a week ago 
— and found Mrs. Irwin & children, with 
my own Family also in usual health — 
and that I beg you will favour me with a 
line on the prospects of an investiture of 
New Yorke which by the way I consider 
through the unexpected stay of the Count 
& many other circumstances, as abortive 
for this season. 

Before this time I hope farther provision 
is made for the subsistance of the General 
Officers of the Army, which at leaving 
Congress I impressed on the minds of some 
members who promised suddenly to have 
it on the carpet, and to which I think 
there wou'd be no opposition. If auy 
uneasiness shou'd arise to you, my advice 
still is that you write either to Congress 
directing to the President or to the Board 
of War — mentioning only the facts & 
your confidence that justice will be done 
you. My compliments to Coll Hay — I 
am, dear General, sincerely yours, 

John Armstrong. 

Wheat £15 per Bushel, Indian corn 9 
pounds &c. 

I suppose Doctor Shiell, lately from 
Dublin, will visit the Camp, give me leave 
to recommend him to your particular no- 
tice — He is a gentleman — a genuine Whig 
and a man of very good sense and breeding. 

Philada., 17th August, 17S0. 

Dear Gbneral, 

By Coll. Johnston I had the pleasure 
of writing you at some length which I 



hope you received — the hearer Captain 
Vanderhorst — otherwise Vanross, I beg 
leave to recommend to your civilities & 
those of the gentlemen of the Pennsyl- 
vania line. — He is a gentn. who lately 
possessed a very pretty Fortune in the 
neighbourhood of Charleston from whence 
he has been obliged to ilee with great loss, 
whoes hospitallity hath often been wit- 
nessed by Coll. Coner & myself— he 
designs only a visit to Camp, wishes the 
pleasure & curiosity of seeing Our Com- 
mander-in-Chief, then returns to South 

Carolina 1 am grieved to hear of the 

agitation at Camp of a certain point of de- 
licacy and honr. wherein the Officers of 
the Army, but more particularly those of 
our line are deeply interested — having 
heard this matter but imperfectly, shall 
only take the liberty of making two short 
observations — I hope the young gentn. 
will have prudence and address enough to 
decline the honr. of that particular com- 
mand.* But if our officers must make a 
sacrifice, please to remember, it is not to an 
individual only, but to the weal & safety of 
many, to the publick good of these Com- 
monwealths at large — a sacrifice this, which 
if I mistake not, is second, only to that 
which we owe to God Himself. My Health 
has been in jeopardy of late by excessive 
heat business and confinement, in this city 
where many of late hath made a sudden 
exit from the present world — but if my 
health is spared until the memorial of the 
General Officers is carried through, Mr. 
McClane being now come, I intend to re- 
tire, before which you will hear from me 
in a future letter. I begin to doubt 
whether the 2d Division of the F. Fleet 
will arrive in time, but still hope that this 
Campaign will not pass over without some 
happy event to these States & laurels to 
the arms of America. 

I am, Dear General, 

affectionately yours, 

John Armstrong. 
GenL Irwin. 

* Referring to the appointment of Major MePherson 
to a command in the Light Infantry over the heads 
of others. 

Carlisle, 16th August, 1787. 

Dear General, 

The design of the following lines as you 
may readily conceive, is only to shew that 
we have you in remembrance, and perhaps 
at a leisure moment to draw something 
better from you. 

There are no less than ten new houses of 
Stone or Brick going on in this town ; and 
yet money is almost invisible — what shall 
we think of a late estimation of 25,000£s 
due on the Storekeepers Books of this town, 
distinct from all other debts either to the 
publick or to individuals ! is it not high 
time that all ranks should change their 
gates, two years more in our present 
course, must sell plantations and change 
property very fast & very cheap — Some 
Storekeepers — Lawyers & Speculators, 
must be the nabobs of this country — we 
cry out against an aristocracy, but are 
practically laying the foundation of it with 
both hands I 

Our country thro' the favour of God, 
have had a tolerable good crop, and a 
favourable season fore securing it ; what 
quantity thereof will go to the payment of 
publick dues, is yet unknown. 

I had a late visit from a sensible but 
rigid Constitutionist — he said if the As- 
sembly altered the funding law, or made 
any discrimination respecting the alienated 
certificates, it was but a forerunner of, a 
previous step to throwing off the whole 
debt I I asked if he thought the State able 
to pay the whole of the interest agreeable 
to the law ? he acknowledged it is not able, 
but altho' we had taken too much debt 
upon us, it is only owing to the bad 
management of the republicans, whom he 
thinks has opposed the best measures for 
a discharge of the debt. I thought there 
was powerfull reasons for making a dis- 
tinction in the payment of interest, due on 
these securities at least in point of time, 
and perhaps in the manner of doing it too, 
but that none of them should be disavowed 
or rejected — and that it is hard to suppose 
we have any set of men in the rank of legis- 
latures, capable of such an atrocious de- 
gree of robery & villany, as to discard the 
whole! and thereby injure a great many 




of their own political friends- as well 
as others. He said aristocracy was their 
object, and that no wreck nor ruin would 
by some be regarded (if like Sampson they 
themselves should even die with the Philis- 
tines) in order to get clear of the humiliating 

Carlisle, 5th January, 1793. 

Dear Gexekal, 

I now acknowledge & thank you for 
your favour of Nov r. last. The point res- 
pecting the time or call of new members to 
a seat in Congress I see is very plain, and 

line of republicanism &c. These are afflict- 1 most probably will not happen before the 
ing considerations, but depraved as man- time you mention — if it should, no doubt 
kind are, I hope they would not go these the President will some way notify distant 
lengths, but if any of our citizens are so | members before hand. I have shown your 
totally lost to reason & conscience, there is letter to the Doctor with which he is Very 
a farther hope that they will not be per- well satisfied. 

mitted. From the prevalence of these kind I You will scarcely be able to recollect 
of jealousies amongst ourselves there is i whether you franked a letter for Johnny 
much to fear. Amongst other things, howl some short time before Mrs. Irwin went to 
hard may we suppose it to be, for the Con- town ? I sent it by some person who said 
vention to throw out any thing that will \ he would see you, I remember telling him, 
give general satisfaction, impossible, but if he found you at leisure to give my coin- 
however, or rather whatever their system pliments & ask you to throw a over it — but 
may be, altho' it must be examined both by , if he found you busie, to leave it in the post 
Congress & the different States, and per- office as it was, but cannot recollect who 
haps may either require or endure amend- 1 this person was — the reason I mention this 
ments ; but in my private opinion, it trivial matter is, that by a late letter from 
ought not to be scaneel with an eye too | him, he complains as having heard nothing 
critical, but with great candour and many j from me since my last, only a few lines I 
allowances, nor should cold water be pour- had wrote to his wife, 
ed upon it, because such opposition might j We are much elated with the late good 
naturally produce bad consequences among news from France — and happier would it 
the people — because it is apparent enough be both for them and us, did our expres- 
that we are not at present fit, or in a capa- sions of joy still rise higher & shew them- 
city to adopt the most perfect system of selves thro' different mediums from those 
Government — and because, an indifferent j of ringing Bells, lighting tapers <fc washing- 
one is better than none — i wish how many 'down an Oyster Supper; not that I object 
ofyr. body may be thus mild in yr. an-|to these indue measure, but we should 
imadversions. | send them bread to eat, and gratefully <fc 

We expect to hear from you soon — Mrs J publickly acknowledge the real author of 

Irvine & the Children are in good health 
I wish you to talk farther with Genl. Ver- 
non on the sale of our College land — the 
soil I believe is strong & well watered. 
AVhat have you done with yr. Nagg, or 
have you obtained some decent old pacer 
for him — I have two good mares, yet 
nothing to ride. If you come shortly to 

their mercys and our own — this check*ot 
these combined tyrants (tho' we cannot 
call it more) is evidently from the supreme 
lord of the universe, who has thrown his 
hook into their noses and turned them 
back by the May they came, not with 
laurels, that disdain to grow in such a 
soil, but covered with a double coat of 

Philadelphia you will probably come home shame ! the policy and arms of France has 

for two or three days. 

I am dear General, 

affectionately yours, 

Johx Armstrong. 

no doubt been a mean of impeding the 
diabolical career of these haughty invaders, 
but the mortifying blood descended from 
another quarter; and if the -whole scene 
end well, the event will call for the general 
adoration & thanks of this nation. Two 
things however have a tendency to dash 




the hopes we have conceived for these our 
distressed friends — I mean the gross ignor- 
ance of divine revelation expressed in some 
of the speeches of that people & their abuse 
of Old King David, once a greater General 
than any in France — also the report of the 
Prussians marching against them — as to 
the former (and the latter may not be true) 
altho' infidellity which must produce bad 
morals also (if this be the prevailing charac- 
ter of the nation) is indeed the very worst 
system that can attend them, yet their 
cause is a good one, and not the cause of 
France only, but of humanity in general 
therefore there is ground of hope from a 
Sovereign God who hates oppression and 

I hope your family are all well, the child- 
ren recovered of their complaint in their 
eyes & particularly our Grandson, whom 
with his Mama, my wife is frequently wish- 
ing back again — all is quiet at your house, 
Callender keeps his College hours punc- 
tually, and has taken a part in a wondrous 
play lately acted here, I saw it not, but if 
report may be credited, no part nor person 
failed, and in point of dress it could scarce 
be surpassed — I must not therefore shade 
it's beauty by an awkward attempt to de- 
scribe it, nor would this sheet admit the 
half — so much for vanity — but apropos — 
is it possible that the new playhouse in 
Philadelphia is considered of so much im- 
portance as to justify labour on the Sab- 
bath day ? this report true or false, origin- 
ated in the city — It is too glaring & at- 
trocious to gain credit here ; on the other 
hand, the report, or strong suspicion having 
been brought by so many different persons 
<fc to various of the back towns, that at 
best it is but a disagreeable story, and so 
improbable that I have hesitated on the 
bare mentioning of it even to you — as the 
present is supposed to be the favourable 
season of application on behalf of our Col- 
lege, and as I know you are wrote to on 
that subject, I need only add, that a suf- 
ficient degree of dependance is placed 
upon your generalship in the several 
branches of the business — Mrs. Arm- 
strong joines in our best wishes to your 
self Mrs. Irvine & the Children — with 

dear General your sincere friend & hum- 
ble servant, 

John Armstrong. 
There are two young lads of the name 
of Irvine lately from the Lurgg in Ire- 
land, of whom Mrs. Irvine can tell you 
somewhat — they are pretty good English 
scollars decenter than common from that 
country & fit to write either in an office or 
store — the Elder brother is lame of one Leg 
the younger about 20 years old they are 
grandsons of Ned Armstrongs of Lisnaban 
& appear to be proper objects of some notice. 
I have mentioned them to you merely at 
a venture in case any little opening shou'd 
present itself. The father is far from being a 
mean or despicable man, but has not that 
command of himself that is sufficient to 
resist company & strong drink. I pitty him 
much for this — perhaps he may reform, he is 
recommended by my Br. Andrew. 

-r^, ^ Carlisle. 

Dear General, 

Your knowledge of Military men & 
things, together with the place of your 
present residence, will undoubtedly sub- 
ject you to some trouble in presenting the 
applications for Military Commissions, of 
various candidates of your acquaintance — 
but this trouble is now to be expected & 
ifbyityou can render your country any 
real service I'm persuaded you will have 
pleasure in doing it. On this principle it 
is, I now take the liberty of recommending 
to your notice & assistance, Mr. John 
Steel of this Town, as a person aparently 
well formed for military service. 

He is personable, very active, has some 
acquaintance with military movements & 
exercise, a genteel appearance & possesses 
a fine constitution, whereby I should con- 
sider him well suited to the Western Ser- 
vice. With respect to rank, I need not 
tell you, that all men look as high as they 
can at setting out, but as in that respect all 
cannot be gratified, they must be content 
with their lot. Mr. Steel has been very 
desirous that I should recommend him to 
you, as I now do with full freedom — and 
am dear General 

Very respectfully yours, 

John Armstrong. 




Carlisle, 1793. 

Dear General, 

The design of this is only to prevent an 
entire forgetfulness ; for altho' at present 
if I count right you are a few lines in 
arrears with me I mean in respect of num- 
ber, but as to wright, having so little to 
say, and so long unable to say that little, 
my claim of compensation is but very light. 

We have however the pleasure of hear- 
ing frequently of the health of your family, 
and that Armstrong continues his progress 
in length and breadth — indeed he has been 
so much the subject of enquiry, that poor 
Bill and his little Sisters have been almost 
forgotten ; as has been the case with John 
& Horatio also, in preference to the other 
poor things who may happen to be favoured I ward more gradually, with others of more 

our old friend the president & think 
he is inevitably puzzled, whatever may 
have been the causes thereof — The report 
said to be bro't down by Coll. Proctor of 
the ill temper of the Senecas has a bad 
aspect. I hope they will not be permitted 
to strike, if they should, they probably 
draw Monseys, Wyandotes and Delawares 
against Pennsylvania. 

Is there any efforts for the College, or 
any openings of this session beyond the 
report of a committee you sent Mr Mont- 
gomery? I heard it once read & it had 
to me the same appearance as that of the 
opening of roads and waters, taking up too 
many objects at once ; blending things of 
lesser importance & better brought for- 

with as much merit as they — but parental 
weakness is of an antient date & seldom 
out of the need of amendment. 

The killing of the late King of France, 
or rather the hopes of not killing him, is a 
common topic here — and some of us regret 
why Congress & our President have not 
thrown their weight into the scale of his 
life. Two things appear to me to dash our 
hopes of french liberty, tho' they may not 
overthrow it — one is the sending mission- 
aries, some say into various parts of Eu- 
rope, all say into the Belgic provinces 
formally & publickly to seduce the subjects 
of other powers and induce them to adopt 
their political creed — the other is the kill- 
ing of Louis Capet — which I consider no 
more a national object to the people, than 
to decree the death of a crow, or a chicken 
on the dunghill ! on these two points I 
cannot reason on this bit of paper, but 
think I see an ample field for it, of which 
their enemies may but too naturally avail 
themselves — It is not easie to clear either 
of these possitions of moral guilt ; but that 
they are replete with ill policy & national 
indignity I have no doubt. 

We have been talking a little of a foreign 
nation entitled as they are to our good 
wishes and more — but what think you of 
our own situation — things seem to me as 
stagnant, or in an indigested state, I mean 
our military affairs, nor are the causes 
thereof hard to discover — indeed I pity 

publick concern, requiring a more imme- 
diate establishment. The great plenty of 
money said to be deposited in the State 
treasury had induced warm expectations of 
going on with the building. We hear 
Mrs. Irwin is soon expected up — until which 
time My wife joins in our respects to you 
all, with dear General your sincere friend 
and humble servant, 

John Armstrong. 
Callander is in health I saw him yester- 


Continued from Vol. VII., page 367. 

The colonists of Massachusetts assumed 
to themselves "a right to treat the Indians 
en the footing of Canaanites or Amalek- 
ites," Bancroft, III. 408, and practically 
regarded them from the first as forlorn and 
wretched heathen — possessing few rights 
which were entitled to respect. Cotton 
Mather's speculations on their origin illus- 
trate the temper of the times. 

"We know not When or How these 
Indians first became Inhabitants of this 
mighty Continent, yet we may guess that 
probably the Devil decoy'd these miserable 
Salvages hither, in hopes that the Gospel 




of the Lord Jesus Christ would never come 
here to destroy or disturb his Absolute 
Empire over them." Magnolia, Booh III. 
Part III. 

The instructions from the Commissioners 
of the United Colonies to Major Gibbons, 
on being sent against the Narragansetts in 
1645, further illustrate this spirit. 

He was directed to have " due re- 
gard to the honour of God, who is both 
our sword and shield, and to the dis- 
tance which is to be observed betwixt 
Christians and Barbarians, as well in warres 
as in other negociations." It was indeed 
strange that men, who professed to believe 
that God hath made of one blood all na- 
tions of men. for to dwell on all the face of 
the earth, should upon every occasion take 
care to preserve this distinction. Perhaps 
nothing more effectually defeated the en- 
deavors for Christianizing the Indians. It 
seems to have done more : to have sunk 
their spirits, led them to intemperance, and 
extirpated the whole race." Hutchinson 
Collection of Papers, 151. 

In 1646 the Commissioners of the United 
Colonies made a very remarkable order, 
practically authorizing, upon complaint of 
trespass by the Indians, the seizure of " any 
of that plantation of Indians that shall en- 
tertain, protect, or rescue the offender." 
The order further proceeds, " And, because 
it will* be chargeable keeping Indians in 
prisone, and if they should escape, they are 
like to prove more insolent and dangerous 
after, that upon such seazure, the delin- 
quent or satisfaction be againe demanded, 
of the Sagamore or plantation of Indians 
guilty or accessory as before, and if it be 
denyed, that then the magistrates of the 
Jurisdiccon deliver up the Indians seased to 
the party or parties indamaged, either to 
serve, or to be shipped out and exchanged 
for Negroes as the cause will justly beare." 
Plymouth Records, IX. VI. 

The Commissioners themselves were 
not blind to the severity of this proceeding, 
although they alleged that it was "just." 

There are here two features of historical 
importance which the reader will not fail to 
notice, viz. the export for trade of Indians 
for Negroes, and the measure of "justice" 

in those days between the colonists and the 

It may be observed that in these notes 
we have not drawn the lines between the 
Plymouth Colony and that of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay. In this connection they may 
justly be regarded as one, indeed they 
cannot be separated, for in these and simi- 
lar proceedings, to quote a significant pro- 
verb of that day, "the Plymouth saddle 
was always on the Bay horse." 

In 1658, June 29, certain persons were 
punished by fines by the County Courts at 
Salem and Ipswich for attending a Quaker 
meeting and otherwise " syding with the 
Quakers and absenting themselves from 
the publick ordinances." Among them 
were two children, Daniel and Provided 
Southwick, sonne and daughter to Lawrence 
Southwick, who were .lined ten pounds, 
but their fines not being paid and the par- 
ties (as is stated in the proceedings) " pre- 
tending they have no estates, resolving not 
to worke and others likewise have been fyned 
and more like to be fyned" — the General 
Court were called upon in the following 
year, May 11, 1659, to decide what course 
should be taken for the satisfaction of the 

This they did, after due deliberation, by 
a resolution empowering the County Trea- 
surers to sell the said persons to any of the 
English nation at Virginia or Barbadoes — 
in accordance with their law for the sale 
of poor and delinquent debtors. To ac- 
complish this they wrested their own law 
from its just application, for the special law 
concerning fines, did not permit them to go 
beyond imprisonment for non-payment. 
Mass. Laws, 1675, p. 51 ; Felfs Salem, 
II. 581 ; Mass. Records, IV. i. 366 ; Mass. 
Laws, 1675, p. 6 ; Bishop's JV. E. Judged, 
85 ; Hazard, II. 563. 

The father and mother of these children, 
who had before suffered in their estate and 
persons, were at the same time banished on 
pain of death, and took refuge in Shelter 
Island, where they shortly afterwards died. 
Mass. Records, IV. i. 367 ; Hazard, II. 
564 ; Bishop, 83. The Treasurer, on at- 
tempting to find passage for the children 
to Barbadoes, in execution of the order of 




sale, found " none willing to take or carry 
them." Thus the entire design failed, only 
through the reluctance of these shipmasters 
to aid in its consummation. Bishop, 190 ; 
Sewef s Hist, of the Quakers, I. 278. 

Provided Southwick was subsequently in 
the same year, in company with several 
other Quaker ladies, " whipt with tenn 
stripes," and afterwards " committed to 
prison to be proceeded with as the law di- 
rects." 3Iass. Records, IV. i. 411. 

The indignant Quaker historian, in re- 
counting these things says, "After such a 
manner ye have done to the /Servants of 
the Lord, and for speaking to one another, 
... and for meeting together, ransacking 
their Estates, breaking open their Houses, 
carrying away their Goods and Gattel, till 
ye have left none, then their wearing 
apparel, and then (as in Plimouth govern- 
ment) their Land ; and when ye have left 
them nothing, sell them for this which ye 
call Debt. Search the Records of former 
Ages, go through the Histories of the Ge- 
nerations that are past; read the Monu- 
ments of the Antients, and see if ever there 
were such a thing as this since the Earth 
was laid, and the Foundations thereof in 
the Water, and out of the Water. ... O 
ye Rulers of Boston, ye Inhabitants of the 
Massachusetts! What shall I say unto 
you? Whereunto shall I liken yef In- 
deed, I am at a stand, I have no Nation 
with you to compare, I have no People 
Avith you to parallel, I am at a loss with 
you in this point ; I must say of you, as 
Balaam said of Amalek when his eyes 
were open, Boston, the first of the Nations 
that came out thus to war against, to stop 
Israel in their way to Canaan from 
Egypt?" Bishop's N. E. Judged, 90. 

At the time of King Philip's War, the 
policy and practice of the Colony of Mas- 
sachusetts, with regard to slavery, had 
been already long settled upon the basis of 
positive law. Accordingly the numerous 
" captives taken in war" were disposed of 
in the usual way. The notes which follow 
are mainly from the official records of the 
colony, and will be sufficient to show the 
general current of public opinion and action 
at that period. 

In August, 1675, the Council at Ply- 
mouth ordered the sale of a company of 
Indians, "being men, weomen, and chil- 
dren, in number one hundred and twelve," 
with a few exceptions. The Treasurer 
made the sale " on the countryes behalfe." 
Plymouth Records, V. 173. 

A little later the Council made a simi- 
lar disposition of fifty-seven more (Indians) 
who " had come in a submissive way." 
These were condemned to perpetual servi- 
tude, and the Treasurer was ordered and 
appointed " to make sale of them, to and 
for the use of the collonie, as opportunity 
may present." lb. 174. 

The accounts of the Colony of Massa- 
chusetts for receipts and expenditures dur- 
ing " the late War" — as stated from 25th 
June, 1675, to the 23d September, 1676, 
give among the credits the following, 

By the following accounts re- 
ceived in or as silver, viz : 

Captives ; for 188 prisoners at 

war sold 397.13.00 

Plymouth Records, X. 401. 

There is a peculiar significance in the 
phrase which occurs in the Records — " sent 
away by the Treasurer." It means sold 
into slavery. Mass. Records, V. 58. 

The statistics of the traffic carried on by 
the Treasurers cannot be accurately ascer- 
tained from any sources now at command. 
But great numbers of Philip's people were 
sold as slaves in foreign countries. In the 
beginning of the war Captain Moseley cap- 
tured eighty, who were confined at Ply- 
mouth. In September following one hun- 
dred and seventy-eight ( were put on board 
a vessel commanded by Captain Sprague, 
who sailed from Plymouth with them for 
Spain. Drake, 224. 

These proceedings were not without wit- 
nesses against their injustice and inhuma- 
nity. The Apostle Eliot's indignant re- 
monstrance is a glorious memorial of his 
fearless devotion to reason and humanity — 
to which neither rulers nor people of Mas- 
sachusetts were then inclined to listen. 

" To the Honorable the Governor and 
Council, sitting at Boston this 13t. of the 
6t, 75, the humble petition of John Eliot, 




Sheweth that the terror of selling away 
such Indians unto the Hands for perpetual 
slaves, who shall yield up y m selves to your 
mercy, is like to be an effectual prolonga- 
tion of the warre, and such an exasperation 
of them, as may produce we know not 
what evil consequences, upon all the land. 
Christ hath saide, blessed are the mercyfull 
for they shall obtain mercy. This useage 
of them is worse than death ... it seem- 
eth to me, that to sell them away for slaves 
is to hinder the inlargement of his [Christ's] 
kingdom ... to sell soules for money 
seemeth to me a dangerous merchandize. 
If they deserve to die, it is far better to be 
put to death under godly governors, who 
will take religious care, that meanes may 
be used, that they may die penitently. . . . 
Deut. 23, 15-16. If a fugitive servant from 
a Pagan Master might not be delivered to 
his master but be kept in Israel for the good 
of his soule, how much less lawful is it to 
sell away soules from under the light of the 
gospel, into a condition, where theire soules 
will be utterly lost, so far as appeareth unto 
man." Plymouth Colony Records, X. 
451-2 ; Compare Mather's Magnalia, 
Book VII. 109 (753), concerning the neg- 
lect to proselyte the Indians, etc. 

There is nothing to show that " the Coun- 
cil gave heed to the petition of Eliot," but 
a careful examination of the archives dis- 
closed only a report of a Committee of the 
General Court, dated Nov. 5, 1675, and 
adopted by the Magistrates and Deputies 
the same day, by which several were to be 
sent away. MS. Letter. 

Eliot appears also to have been the first 
in America to lift up his voice against the 
treatment which Negroes received in 
New England. Towards the end of his 
life, Cotton Mather states, " He had long 
lamented it with a Bleeding and Burning 
Passion, that the English used their Ne- 
gro's but as their Horses or their Oxen, and 
that so little care was taken about their 
immortal Souls ; he look'd upon it as a Pro- 
digy, that any wearing the Name of 
Christians should so much have the Heart 
of Devils in them, as to prevent and hinder 
the Instruction of the ipoorDlackamores, and 
confine the souls of their miserable Slaves 

to a Destroying Ignorance, meerly for fear 
of thereby losing the Benefit of their Vas- 
salage ; but now he made a motion to the 
English within two or three Miles of him, 
that at such a time and Place they would 
send their Negro's once a week to him : 
For he would then Catechise them, and 
Enlighten them, to the utmost of his Power 
in the Things of their Everlasting Peace ; 
however, he did not live to make much 
Progress in this Undertaking. Matter's 
Magnolia, Book III. 207 (325). Compare 
also p. 209 (327). 

In 1676, November 4th, it was ordered 
that whereas there is an Acte or order made 
by the Councell of War bearing date July, 

1676, prohibiting any male Indian captive 
to abide in this Jurisdiction that is above 
fourteen years of age att the beginning of 
his or their captivity and in case any such 
should continue in the Collonie after the 
time then prefixed they should be forfeit to 
the use of the Gov 1 this Court sees cause to 
ratify and confirme that order and acte, and 
do therefore order ; that all such as have 
any such Indian male captive that they 
shall dispose of them out of the Collonie by 
the first of December next on paine of for- 
feiting every such Indian, or Indians to the 
use of the Collonie ; and the Constables of 
each town of this Jurisdiction are hereby 
ordered to take notice of any such Indian 
or Indians staying in any of the respective 
towns of this Colonie after the time pre- 
fixed and shall forthwith bring them to the 
Treasurer to be disposed of to the use of 
the Government as aforesaid. Plymouth 
Records, XI. 242. 

There were a few, about five or six, ex- 
ceptions made to this order, in favor of cer- 
tain Indians, who had been assured by 
Capt. Benjamin Church that they should 
not be sold to any foreign parts, upon 
good behavior, &c. lb. 242. 

The Mass. Genl. Court made an order in 

1677, 24 May, that the Indian children, 
youths or girls, whose parents had been in 
hostility with the Colony, or had lived 
among its enemies in the time of the war, 
and were taken by force, and given or sold 
to any of the inhabitants of this jurisdiction, 
should be at the disposall of their masters 




or their assign es, who were to instruct tliem 
in Civility and Christian religion. 3Iass. 
Records, V. 136. Note the distinction be- 
tween friendly Indians whose children 
were to be held until 24 years of age, both 
in this order and in Plymouth Records, 
V. 207, 223. 

The Court, in the following year (16*78), 
found cause to prohibit " all and every per- 
son and persons within our jurisdiction or 
elsewhere, to buy any of the Indian chil- 
dren of any of those our captive salvages 
that were taken and became our lawfull j 
prisoners in our late warrs with the Indians, j 
without special leave, liking and approba- 
tion of the government of this jurisdiction." 
lb. 253. 

In the following year (1679) the follow- 
ing entry appears in the records : 

" In reference unto severall Indians 
bought by Jonathan Hatch of Capt. Church, 
the brothers of the woman, desireing shee 
might be released, appeared in Court with 
the said Jonathan Hatch, and came to 
composition with her for the freedom of 
both her and her husband, which are two 
of the three Indians above named ; and her 
brothers payed on that accompt the sume 
of three pounds silver mony of New Eng- 
land, and have engaged to pay three 
pounds more in the same specie, and then 
the said man and woman are to be released ; 
and for the third of the said Indians, it 
being younge, the Court have ordered, 
that it shall abide with the said Jonathan 
Hatch untill it attains the age of 24 years, 
and then to be released for ever." Ply- 
mouth Records, VI. 15. 

It were well if the record were no worse, 
but to all this is to be added the baseness 
of treachery and falsehood. Many of these 
prisoners surrendered and still greater 
numbers came in voluntarily to submit 
upon the promise that they and their wives 
and children should have their lives spared 
and none of them transported out of the 
country. In one instance, narrated by the 
famous Captain Church himself, no less than 
u eight score persons" were " without any 
regard to the promises made them on their 
surrendering themselves, carried away to 
Plymouth, there sold and transported out 


of the country." Church, 23, 24, 41, 51, 

Nor did the Christian Indians or Praying 
Indians escape the relentless hostility and 
cupidity of the whites. Besides other cru- 
elties, instances are not wanting in which 
some of these were sold as slaves, and 
under accusations which turned, out to 
be utterly false and without foundation. 
Gookin's Hist, of the Christian Indians. 

Some of them are probably referred to 
by Eliot, in his letter to Boyle, Nov. 27, 
1683, in which he says, "I desire to take 
boldness to propose a request. A vessel 
carried away a great number of our sur- 
prised Indians, in the times of our wars, to 
sell them for slaves; but the nations, whith- 
er she went, would not buy them. Finally, 
she left them at Tangier ; there they be, 
so many as live, or are born there. An 
Englishman, a mason, came thence to Bos- 
ton, he told me they desired I would use 
some means for their return home. I know 
not what to do in it ; but now it is in my 
heart to move your honour, so to meditate, 
that they may have leave to get home, 
either from thence hither, or from thence 
to England, and so to get home. If the 
Lord shall please to move your charitable 
heart herein, I shall be obliged in great 
thankfulness, and am persuaded that Christ 
will, at the great day, reckon it among 
your deeds of charity done unto them, for 
his name's sake." M. JET. S. Coll., III. 183. 

Cotton Mather furnishes another extract 
appropriate in this connection. 

" Moreover, 'tis a Prophesy in Dent. 28, 
68. The lord shall bring thee into Egypt 
again with ships, by the way ichereof I 
spake unto thee. Thou shalt see it no more 
again; and there shall ye be sold unto 
your Enemies, and no Man shall buy you. 
This did our Eliot imagine accomplished, 
when the Captives taken by us in our late 
Wars upon them, were sent to be sold, in 
the Coasts lying not very remote from Egypt 
on the Mediterranean Sea, and scarce any 
Chapmen would offer to take them off." 
Mather's Magnolia, Book III., Part III. 

Mr. Everett, in one of the most elabo- 
rate of his finished and beautiful orations, 
has narrated the story of two of the last 




Captives in that famous war, in a passage 
of surpassing eloquence which we venture 
to quote : 

" President Mather, in relating the en- 
counter of the 1st of August, 1676, the last 
but one of the war, says 'Philip hardly- 
escaped with his life also. He had fled 
and left his peage behind him, also his 
squaw and son were taken captive, and are 
now prisoners at Plymouth. Thus hath 
God brought that grand enemy into great 
misery before he quite destroy him. It 
must needs be bitter as death to him to 
lose his wife and only son (for the Indians 
are marvellous fond and aifectionate to- 
wards their children) besides other rela- 
tions, and almost all his subjects, and 
country also.' 

" And what was the fate of Philip's wife 
and his son ? This is a tale for husbands 
and wives, for parents and children. Young 
men and women, you cannot understand it. 
What was the fate of Philip's wife and 
child ? She is a woman, he is a lad. They 
did not surely hang them. No, that would 
have been mercy. The boy is the grand- 
son, his mother the daughter-in-law of good 
old Massasoit, the first and best friend the 
English ever had in New England. Per- 
haps — perhaps now Philip is slain, and his 
warriors scattered to the four winds, they 
will allow his wife and son to go back — 
the widow and the orphan — to finish their 
days and sorrows in their native wilderness. 
They are sold into slavery, West Indian 
slavery! an Indian princess and her child, 
sold from the cool breezes of Mount Hope, 
from the wild freedom of a New England 
forest, to gasp under the lash, beneath the 
blazing sun of the tropics ! ' Bitter as 
death ;' aye, bitter as hell ! Is there any 
thing, — I do not say in the range of hu- 
manity — is there anything animated, that 
would not struggle against this?" JEve- 
rettfs Address at Bloody Brook, 1835 ; 
Church, 62, 63, 6V, 68. 

Well might the poet record his sympa- 
thy for their fate — 

" Ah ! happier they, who in the strife 
For freedom fell, than o'er the main, 
Those who in galling slavery's chain 
Still bore the load of hated life, — 

Bowed to base tasks their generous pride, 
And scourged and broken-hearted, died 1" 

or in view of this phase of civilization and 
progress, sigh for that elder state, when 
all were 

" Free as nature first made man, 
Ere the base laws of servitude began, 
When wild in woods the noble savage ran." 

After the death of King Philip, some, of 
the Indians from the west and south of 
New England who had been engaged in 
the war, endeavored to conceal themselves 
among their brethren of Penacook who had 
not joined in the war, and with them of Os- 
sapy and Pigwackett who had made peace. 
By a "contrivance" (as Mather calls it) 
which savors strongly of treachery, four 
hundred of these Indians were taken pri- 
soners, one half of whom were declared to 
have been accessories in the late rebellion, 
and being " sent to Boston, seven or eight 
of them who were known to have killed 
any Englishmen, were condemned and 
hanged ; the rest were sold into slavery in 
foreign parts." 

Some of those very Indians, who were 
thus seized and sold, afterwards made 
their way home, and found opportunity to 
satisfy their revenge during the war with 
the French and Indians known as King 
William's War. Belknap, I. 143, 245; 
Mather's Magnolia, Book VII. 55 (699). 

Edward Randolph, in 1676, in an answer 
to several heads of enquiry, &c, stated that 
there were " not albove 200 slaves in the 
colony, and those are brought from Guinea 
and Madagascar." Hutchinson's Collec- 
tion of Papers, p. 485. 

Gov. Andros reported that the slaves 
were not numerous in 1678 — "not many 
servants, and but few slaves, proportionable 
with freemen." Col. Hist. III. 263. 

In May, 1680, Governor Bradstreet an- 
swered certain Heads of Inquiry from the 
Lords of the Committee for Trade and 
Foreign Plantations. Among his state- 
ments are the following : 

" There hath been no company of blacks 
or slaves brought into the country since the 
beginning of this plantation, for the space 
of iifty years, onely one small Vessell about 




two yeares since, after twenty months 
voyage to Madagascar, brought hither 
betwixt forty and fifty Negroes, most 
women and children, sold here for ten, 
£15 and £20 apiece, which stood the mer- 
chant, in near £40 apiece : Now and then, 
two or three Negroes are brought hither 
from Barbados and other of his Majestie's 
plantations, and sold here for about twenty 
pounds apiece. So that there may be 
within our Government about one hun- 
dred or one hundred and twenty 

There are a very few blacks borne here, I 
think not above six at the most in a year, 
none baptized that I ever heard of. . . M. 
H. S. Coll. III. viii. 337. 

The following century changed the re- 
cord. Many " companies" of slaves were 
"brought into the country" and the in- 
stitution flourished and waxed strong. 

The royal instructions to Andros, when 
he was sent out in 1688, as Governor of New 
England, required him to "pass a law for 
the restraining of inhuman severity which 
ill masters or overseers may be used by 
towards the Christian servants or slaves ; 
wherein provision is to be made that the 
wilful killing of Indians and Negroes be 
punished with death, and a fitt penalty 
imposed for the maiming of them." Col. 
Doc. III. 547. 

The Law of 1698, chapter 6, forbids 
trading or trucking with any " Indian, 
molato or negro servant or slave, or other 
known dissolute, lewd, and disorderly per- 
sons, of whom there is just cause of sus- 

Such persons were to be punished by 
whipping for so trading. 

The Law of 1700, chapter 13, was en- 
acted to protect the Indians against the 
exactions and oppression, which some of 
the English exercised towards them " by 
drawing them to consent to covenant or 
bind themselves or children apprentices or 
servants for an unreasonable term, on pre- 
tence of or to make satisfaction for some 
small debt contracted or damage done by 
them." Other similar acts were after- 
wards passed in 1718 and 1725, the latter 
having a clause to protect them against 

In 1701, the Representatives of the town 
of Boston were " desired to promote the 
encouraging the bringing of white ser- 
vants, and to put a period to Negroes 
being slaves." Drake's Boston, 525. 

We have no knowledge of the efforts 
made under this instruction of the town of 
Boston, but they failed to accomplish 
anything. Indeed, the very next enact- 
ment concerning slavery was a step back- 
ward instead of an advance towards re- 

The law of 1703, chapter 2, was in 
restraint of the emancipation of " Molatto 
or Negro slaves." Security was required 
against the contingency of these persons 
becoming a charge to the town, and " none 
were to be accounted free for whom 
security is not given." This act was still 
in force as late as June, 1807, and con- 
tinued until a much later period to govern 
the decisions of courts affecting the set- 
tlement of town paupers. 

Chapter 4 of the same year prohibited 
Indian, Negro and Molatto servants or 
slaves, to be abroad after nine o'clock at 
night, &c. 

The Law of 1705, chapter 6, "for the 
better preventing of a Spurious and Mixt 
Issue, &c. ;" punishes Negroes and Molat- 
toes for improper intercourse with whites, 
by selling them out of the Province. It 
also punishes any Negro or Molatto for 
striking a Christian, by whipping at the 
discretion of Justices before whom he may 
be convicted. It also prohibits marriage 
of Christians with Negroes or Molattoes — 
and imposes a penalty of Fifty Pounds 
upon the persons joining them in marriage. 
It provides against unreasonable denial of 
marriage to Negroes with those of the 
same nation, by any Master — " any Law, 
Usage, or Custom, to the contrary not- 

In 1780, the legislature of the State of 
Massachusetts passed an " Act for the 
orderly solemnization of Marriage," by 
section 7 whereof it was enacted " that no 
person authorized by this act to marry 
shall join in marriage any white person 
with any Negro, Indian or Mulatto, under 
penalty of fifty pounds; and all such 




marriages shall be absolutely null and 

The prohibition continued until 1843, 
when it was repealed by a special "act 
relating to marriages between individuals 
of certain races." 

The statute of 1705 also provided an 
import duty of four pounds per head 
on every Negro brought into the Province 
from and after the 1st day of May, 1706, 
for the payment of which both the vessel 
and master were answerable. A drawback 
was allowed upon exportation, and the 
like advantage was allowed to the pur- 
chaser of any Negro sold within the 
Province, in case of the death of his Negro 
within six weeks after importation or 
bringing into the Province. 

In 1727, the traffic in slaves appears to 
have been more an object in Boston than 
at any period before or since, and in the 
following year (1728) an additional " act 
more effectually to secure the Duty on 
the importation of Negroes" was passed, 
by which more stringent regulations were 
adopted to prevent the smuggling of 
such property into the Province, and the 
drawback was allowed on all negroes 
-dying within twelve months. 

This act expired by its own limitation in 
1735, but another of a similar character 
Avas passed in 1738, which recognised the 
old law of 1705 as being still in force. It 
reduced the time for the drawback on the 
death of negroes to six months after im- 

Free Negroes not being allowed to train 
in the Militia, an act passed in 1707, chap- 
ter 2, required them to do service on the 
highways and in cleaning the streets, <fcc, 
as an equivalent. The same act prohibited 
them to entertain any servants of their 
own color in their houses, without per- 
mission of the respective masters or mis- 

In 1712, an act was passed prohibiting 
the importation or bringing into the Pro- 
vince any Indian servants or slaves. The 
preamble recites the bad character of the 
Indians and other slaves, " being of a 
malicious, surley and revengeful spirit; 
rude and insolent in their behaviour, and 

very ungovernable." A glimpse of future 
reform is to be caught in this act, for it 
recognises the increase of slaves as a 
" discouragement to the importation of 
White Christian Servants.'' But the chief 
motive of the act was in the peculiar circum 
stances of the Province " under the sor- 
rowful effects of the Rebellion and Hos- 
tilities" of the Indians, and the fact that 
great numbers of Indian slaves were already 
held in bondage in the Province at the time. 

In 1727, all Indian, Negro and Molatto 
servants for life were estimated as other 
Personal Estate — viz: Each male servant 
for life above fourteen years of age, at 
fifteen pounds value ; each female servant 
for life, above fourteen years of age, at 
ten pounds value. The assessor might 
make abatement for cause of age or in- 
firmity. Indian, Negro and Molatto Male 
servants for a term of years were to be 
numbered and rated as other property, 
and not as Personal Estate. 

In 1734 the law was changed, and all 
Indian, Negro and Molatto servants, as 
well for term of years as for life, were in- 
cluded in the rateable estates. The supply 
bills for 1738, 1739, 1740, directed the 
assessors to estimate Indian, Negro and 
Molatto servants proportion ably, as other 
personal estate, according to their sound 
judgment and discretion. 

An Indian girl brought fifteen pounds, 
at Salem, in August, 1710. CoM. Essex 
Institute. I. 14. The highest price paid 
for any of a cargo brought into Boston 
in 1727, was eighty pounds. Felfs Salem : 
II. 416. 

"The Guinea Trade," as it was called 
then, since known and branded by all 
civilized nations as piracy, whose begin- 
nings we have noticed, continued to 
flourish under the auspices of Massachusetts 
merchants down through the entire colonial 
period, and long after the boasted Declara- 
tion of Rights in 1780 had terminated 
the legal existence of slavery within the 
limits of that State. Felt's Salem : II. 230, 
261, 265, 288, 292, 296. Those who are 
curious to see what the instructions 
given by respectable merchants in Mas- 
sachusetts to their slave captains were in 




the year 1785 will find them in FelVs 
Salem, II. 239-90 ; probably the only speci- 
men extant. The slaves purchased in Af- 
rica were chiefly sold in the West 
Indies, or in the Southern colonies; but 
when these markets were glutted, and the 
price low, some of them were brought to 
Massachusetts. The statistics of the trade 
are somewhat scattered, and it is difficult 
to bring them together, but enough is 
known to bring the subject home to us. 
In 1795, one informant of Dr. Belknap 
could remember two or three entire car- 
goes, and the Doctor himself remembered 
one somewhere between 1755 and 1765 
which consisted almost wholly of children. 
Sometimes the vessels of the neighboring 
colony of Rhode Island, after having sold 
their prime slaves in the West Indies, 
brought the remnants of their cargoes to 
Boston for sale. Coll. M. H. S. I. iv. 197. 

The records of the slave-trade and sla- 
very everywhere are the same — the same 
disregard of human rights, the same in- 
difference to suffering, the same contempt 
for the oppressed races, the same hate for 
those who are injured. It has been as- 
serted that the miseries of slavery were 
mitigated, and that especially in Massachu- 
setts, some of its worst features were un- 
known. But the record does not bear out 
the suggestion. 

The first newspaper published in Ame- 
rica illustrates among its advertisements 
the peculiar features of the institution to 
which we refer, and in its scanty columns 
of intelligence may be found thrilling ac- 
counts of the barbarous murders of mas- 
ters and crews by the hands of their slave 
cargoes. The case of the Amistad ne- 
groes had its occasional parallel in the 
colonial history of the traffic — excepting 
that the men of New England had a sym- 
pathy at home in the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies, which was justly withheld from 
their Spanish and Portuguese imitators in 
the 19th. As the advantages of adver- 
tising came to be understood, the descrip- 
tions of slave property became more fre- 
quent and explicit. 

Negro men, women, and children were 
mixed up in the sales with wearing ap- 

parel, Gold Watches and other Goods — 
" very good Barbados Rum" is offered 
with "a young negro that has had the 
Small Pox" — and competitors offer " Likely 
negro men and women just arrived" — 
"negro men new and negro boys who have 
been in the country some time,'' and also 
"just arrived, a choice parcel of negro 
boys and girls." "A likely negro man 
bom in the country and bred a Farmer, 
fit for any service," " a negro woman about 
22 years old, with her boy about 5 months," 
&c, and a "likely negro woman about 19 
years and a child about six months of age 
to be sold together or apart" must conclude 
these extracts. 

At this point it may be necessary to 
interpose a caution with reference to the 
judgment which may be pronounced against 
the policy which has been illustrated in 
these notes ; and a recent writer of English 
history has so clearly stated our own views 
that his language requires very little change 

It would be to misread history and to 
forget the change of times, to see in the 
Fathers of New England and their suc- 
cessors mere commonplace slavemongers ; 
to themselves they appeared as the elect to 
whom God had given the heathen for an 
inheritance ; they were men of stern in- 
tellect and fanatical faith, who believing 
themselves the favourites of Providence, 
imitated the example and assumed the 
privileges of the chosen people, and for 
their wildest and worst acts they could 
claim the sanction of religious conviction. 
In seizing and enslaving Indians, and trad- 
ing for negroes, they were but entering 
into possession of the heritage of the saints ; 
and New England had to outgrow the 
theology of the Elizabethan Calvinists 
before'it could understand that the Father 
of Heaven respected neither person nor 
color, and that his arbitrary favor— if 
more than a dream of divines — was con- 
fined to spiritual privileges. Compare 
Fronde's Hist, of England: viii. 480. 

It was not until the struggle on the 
part of the colonists themselves to throw 
off the fast closing shackles of British 
oppression culminated in open resistance 




to the mother country, that the inconsis- 
tency of maintaining slavery with one 
hand while pleading and striking for 
freedom with the other, compelled a re- 
luctant and gradual change in public 
opinion on this subject. 

It is true that at no period of her his- 
tory was Massachusetts without her "pro- 
testants" against the w T hole system ; but 
their example was powerless in their day 
and generation. The words and thoughts 
of a Williams, an Eliot, a Sewall, and a Dud- 
ley, fell unheeded and unnoticed on the ears 
and hearts of the magistrates and people of 
their day, as the acorn fell two centuries 
ago in the forests by which they were 
surrounded. e. t. e. 



On looking over the remarkable collec- 
tion of autograph letters and other historical 
documents belonging to Peter Force, 
Esq., relative to the early history of this 
country, I found two autograph memorials 
of John Campbell, who started the first 
regular newspaper on this continent ; they 
are probably unique. With the kind per- 
mission of Mr. Force, I have made exact 
copies of them for the Historical Maga- 

As New York has recently honored the 
memory of her first printer and publisher, 
Wm. Bradford, a short sketch of the 
pioneer Boston newspaper publisher may 
be excused. It appears he was a Scotch- 
man, the Postmaster of Boston, and started 
the Boston News-Letter " April 17 to 24, 
1704." It was printed in a half sheet of 
old-fashioned pot paper, in small pica type. 
The first page of No. 1 is filled with an ex- 
tract from "The London Flying Post," 
respecting the Pretender (who styled him- 
self James VIII. of Scotland,)* sending 
Popish missionaries from France into Scot- 
land, by which the kingdoms of England 
and Scotland were endangered. The 
Queen's Speech to both Houses of Par- 

liament on the occasion ; a few articles 
under the Boston head ; four short para- 
graphs of marine intelligence from New 
York, Philadelphia, and New London ; 
and one advertisement, form its whole con- 
tents. The advertisement is from Camp- 
bell, the publisher of the paper, and is as 
follows : 

"The News-Letter is to be published 
weekly ; and all Persons who have any 
Houses, Lands, Tenements, Farmes, Ships, 
Vessels, Goods, Wares, or Merchandises, 
&c to be Sold or Lett ; or Servants Run- 
away ; or Goods Stoll or Lost may have the 
same Inserted at a Reasonable Rate ; from 
12d. to 5s. and not to exceed ; Who may 
agree with Nicholas JBoone for the same at 
his Shop next door to Major Davis's, 
Apothecary in Boston near the Old Meet- 
ing House." 

The News-Letter was carried on by 
Campbell till 1722, when he transferred 
his interest to B. Green. The latter died 
in 1733, when the paper was continued by 
John Draper, his son-in-law, till 1762 ; and 
after several changes, its publication ceased 
in 1776, when the British evacuated Bos- 
ton, — seventy-two years in all. It was the 
first regular newspaper published in Ame- 
rica, and the only one printed in Boston 
during its siege. Many able Tory writers 
filled its pages in the political discussions 
that culminated in the American Revolu- 

Campbell, the original proprietor, died 
about five years after he transferred his 
right to Green. His death is thus men- 
tioned in the News -Letter of March 7, 

" On Monday Evening last, the 4th cur- 
rant, about 8 a Clock died here John 
Campbell, Esq Aged 75 Years, formerly 
Post Master in this place, Publisher of the 
Boston News-Letter for many Years, and 
One of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace 
for the county of Suffolk." 

Here follow Mr. Campbell's memorials : 

To His Excellency Joseph Dudley Esqr. 
Capt Generall And Governour In Chief in 
and over Her Maj's. Province of New 
Hampshire &c And to the Honble Her 
Maj's. Council 




The Humble Petition of John Campbell, 
Post-Master of New England, 

That Whereas yor. Petitioner, has had 
a yearly Allowance from this Government, 
the better to enable him to discharge his 
Trust, in the management of sd Office, 
And taking due care of the Publick Letters, 
which saves this Colony Considerably in a 
year, seeing that the Income by the sd 
office are not yet able to allow him a Com- 
petent Sallary for the same, 

Your Petitioner also having last year 
sett on Foot a Weekly Letter of Intelli- 
gence for Foreign and Domestic occur- 
rences expecting that the Income thereby, 
being sett a Moderate Rate would be suf- 
ficient to defray the necessary charge 
Thereof, the which it did not do, And 
several Gentlemen Merchts. and others 
being willing it should be continued, have 
agreed to contribute Toward its support, 
yet notwithstanding there are not a com- 
petent number to carry it on, And it being 
found of Publick use and service to the 

Your Petitioner therefore most Humbly 
Prays, That your Excellency and Honble. 
Council will be pleased to take the premises 
into yor. most Mature and wise considera- 
tion and Grant yor. Petitioner such allow- 
ance and Encouragement as may enable 
him in the discharge of both Trusts. 

And yor. Petitioner as In Duty bound 
Shall ever Pray being always 

Yor. Excellency's and Honours most 
Humble, most obedient and faithful Servant 

John Campbell. 

John Campbell's petition 

To His Excelly. Joseph Dudley Esqr. 
Capt. Generall Govr. In Chief In and over 
Her Maj's. Province of New Hampshire 
&c And to The Honble Her Maje's Council 

The Humble Petition of John Campbell 
Post-Master of N. England 

That Whereas your Petitioner has had 
no allowance since the First of Febry. 
Seventeen Hundred & three, for his extra- 

ordinary Services and care about the Pub- 
lic Letters, in giving Due dispatch to the 

Your Petitioner therefore most Humbly 

That your Excellency and Honours will 
be Pleased to take the same into your most 
mature Consideration and grant your Peti- 
tioner allowance to encourage him in said 
Duty for the future, and yor. Petitioner as 
in Duty bound Shall ever pray, being all- 

Yor. Excelly 's. and Honours most obe- 
dient & faithful servant 

John Campbell^, 


John Campbell 
RdMay 1705. 

Read and allowed 6th in Council. 

[The sum allowed is very obscure ; it may 
be 6s. or £6. It looks like 6ts in the MS.] 

J. B. K. 

Washington, D.C. 


The late movement in the House of Re- 
presentatives for inviting Cabinet Officers 
to take seats in the House, make explana- 
tions, and take part in debates relating 
to their particular branches of the Govern- 
ment, as is done in the British Parliament, 
brings to mind the early practice of the 
Senate on this subject. 

When the government was first organ- 
ized under the Constitution, in New York, 
in 1789, it was customary for the Senate to 
sit with closed doors in all cases, legislative 
and executive. This practice continued 
till the 20th of February, 1794, when the 
contested election of Albert Gallatin was 
under discussion. It was then directed, by 
a vote of 19 to 8, " that suitable galleries 
be provided for the Senate chamber, and 
that the same be opened every morning, 
except in such cases as in the opinion of the 
Senate require secrecy." 

In forming treaties and in making ap- 
pointments, the " advice and consent" of 
the Senate is required by the Constitution. 




Washington very naturally gave these 
words their obvious meaning, and thought 
the advice and consent should be obtained 
beforehand. In executive sessions, there- 
fore, he attended the Senate in person, and 
took the presiding officer's chair. The 
latter was assigned a chair on the floor 
of the Senate, and was considered as 
the immediate presiding officer ; he put all 
questions to the Senators, who answered 
Aye or No. The President consulted the 
Senate beforehand, upon the negotiation 
of Indian Treaties, and had the Secretary 
of War present to give all necessary expla- 
nations. The other Secretaries attended 
the Senate when required to bring papers 
and give explanations ; a method now sup- 
planted by their Annual Reports. The 
early Senators thought the former mode 
the best to obtain the exact information 
wanted, and the best security against the 
appointment of incompetent Secretaries. 

Other customs connected with the inau- 
guration of a new President have fallen into 
disuse ; such as the proclamation by the 
Chief Justice, after administering the oath, 
" Long live George Washington, President 
of the United States !" — the President then 
repairing to church to attend divine ser- 
vice, accompanied by both Houses of Con- 
gress — then re-conducted to his own house 
by a Committee of both Houses — and the 
Answer to the Inaugural Address by the 

Instead of taking the " advice" or asking 
the " consent" of the Senate beforehand in 
the formation of treaties, for many years 
they have been generally negotiated with- 
out even the knowledge of Senators, and 
then their ratification urged as an admi- 
nistrative measure. 

A Col. Fishbourne, having been nomi- 
nated as Collector of Savannah, was re- 
jected by the Senate at the wishes of the 
Georgia Senators, who preferred another 
man. Washington was evidently annoyed 
by this rejection, as the Colonel had been a 
iavorite officer with him during the Revo- 
lution ; and it is asserted he never presided 
at any more executive sessions, and the 
attendance of his Secretaries also soon fell 
into disuse. 

When John Quincy Adams was Secre- 
tary of State in 1822, he entered the House, 
it was said, to request some member to 
make a call for a certain paper connected 
with his famous controversy then pending 
with Jonathan Russell respecting the Fish- 
ery question at the treaty of Ghent. His 
political opponents in the violent Presi- 
dential campaign then opening, affected to 
consider his presence in the House a great 
violation of " the proprieties of his posi- 

President Polk consulted the Senate in 
the formation of the Oregon Treaty of 
1846, asking their advice beforehand on 
the point of establishing the boundary line 
with Great Britain on the parallel of 49°. 

Secretary Chase was frequently in attend- 
ance in one of the Committee rooms of the 
Senate during the session of the last Con- 
gress, when his important financial mea- 
sures were under discussion. How much 
more direct and satisfactory for the Secre- 
tary to have been present in the House, 
and given all necessary explanations in 
person. j. b. e. 

Washington, D. O. 

|tate anft %mm. 

Phillis Wheatley, the Negro-Slave 
Poet. — The recent appearance in print of 
the poetical writings of Phillis, the negro 
servant of Mr. John Wheatley of Boston, 
leads me to present at this time a few facts 
relating to this remarkable woman, which 
are not generally known, and which have 
escaped the notice of her biographers. 

Phillis is supposed to have been about 
seven years of age when she was stolen 
from her parents in Africa and brought to 
Boston in the year 1761, to be sold as a 
slave. Fortunately, at that time a bene- 
volent woman, the wife of John Wheatley, 
a tailor dwelling in Boston, was in need of 
a domestic possessing traits of disposition 
which would make her an agreeable com- 




panion rather than a drudge and servant 
of all work. Phillis, being of feeble con- 
stitution, and very gentle in her demeanor, 
appeared to be just the person Mrs. Wheat- 
ley required, and was, therefore, purchased 
of the slave-dealer and taken home ; where, 
after decent clothing superseded her mise- 
rable rags, she gave evidence of vivacity of 
genius, a superiority of intellect, good per- 
sonal appearance, and affectionate disposi- 
tion, which surprised and gratified, not only 
the family in which she was domesticated, 
but also the principal personages of the 
town, who were frequent visitors to Mr. 
Wheatley's hospitable mansion. 

The family consisted then of Mr. Wheat- 
ley, his wife Susanna, and their son Na- 
thaniel and daughter Mary, twins, with a 
few slaves who had grown old in service, 
and who could not be relied upon for the 
time when the young folk should leave the 
mansion of their parents to become the 
heads of other families. Miss Mary, then 
eighteen years old, took charge of the new 
inmate of the family, and so rapid was the 
young n egress in the acquisition of learn- 
ing, that in less than a year and a half after 
the time of her importation, she could con- 
verse fluently in English, a language she 
had never heard spoken before she was 
kidnapped, and could read and correctly 
pronounce the most difficult passages of 
the sacred writings ; and before she had 
been under pupilage ten years she wrote 
letters and poetry that astonished the lite- 
rary men of New England, who were then 
numerous, and had acquired for the metro- 
polis the name of the Modern Athens. 

On the thirty-first of January, 1771, when 
about seventeen years of age, Phillis was 
called to suffer her first grief; her young 
mistress was taken from the family to be- 
come the wife of the Rev. John Lathrop, 
the pastor of the second church in Boston. 
The event may have led her to the step 
which she took on the eighteenth of the 
following August ; for then, under the 
simple and unpretending name of Phillis, 
witt no surname whatever, she became a 
communicant of the Old South Church in 
Boston, then destitute of a settled minister. 

cellent teachings of the Rev. Dr. Joseph 
Sewall. About this time Phillis began to fail 
in health, and in the fall of 1773 her de- 
cline became so apparent that by the advice 
of friends she left Boston to visit England, 
in company with Mr. Nathaniel Wheatley 
and his family, he going to London to open 
a branch of his mercantile business, which 
had already become large for a New Eng- 
lander. While in England she received 
much attention from the patrons of litera- 
ture ; and there her poems were published, 
and were bringing her into considerable 
note, when she was recalled to Boston to 
attend her mistress in her last hours. 

Mrs. Wheatley, her kind friend as well 
as mistress, died in the sixty-fifth year of 
her age, on the third of March, in the year 
1774, and Mr. Wheatley on the twelfth 
of March, 1778, aged seventy-two. This 
left Phillis alone. Mary was the wife 
of the Rev. Mr. Lathrop, and Mr. Natha- 
niel was married and residing in Lon- 
don. At this sad hour of her exist- 
ence she became acquainted with a u co- 
lored gentleman," John Peters, whom 
she married in April, 1778, about a month 
after her kind master's decease. He was 
indeed a colored gentleman, for report says 
of him that he kept store, wore a wig, and 
carried a cane, and felt himself superior to 
all kinds of labor. At the time of her mar- 
riage she was styled " a free negro," and 
it is supposed that Mrs. Lathrop, who be- 
came her owner at the decease of her father, 
gave her her freedom, perhaps in words si- 
milar to those of the Rev. Increase Mather, 
who manumitted his slave withthefollowing 
words in his will : "It is ray mind and will 
that my negro servant called Spaniard shall 
not be sold after my decease, but I do then 
give him his liberty — let him then be es- 
teemed a 4 i'vee negro.' " 

Sadder times, however, came to Phillis. 
.V few months later she lost her kind young 
friend ; for Mrs, Lathrop died at the age 
of twenty-five on the twenty-fourth of Sep- 
tember, 1778, and she was left entirely to 
her miserable husband, who proved to be 
improvident, failing in business, and be- 
too lazv to do anything that would 

but which had lately experienced the ex- 1 conduce to her comfort in the days of her 





sickness and sorrow. In the summer of 
1788 Mr. Nathaniel Wheatley also died, 
the last of her natural protectors, and about 
this time she lost two of the three children 
born to her while she temporarily dwelt in 
Wilmington, Mass. And now her disease 
rapidly increased, and on the fifth of De- 
cember, 1788, at the early age of thirty-one 
years, poor Phillis Peters, alias Wheatley, 
drew her last breath, and soon, together 
with her last offspring, which seemed to 
have been left till then to make the occa- 
sion more mournful, was carried to her last 
earthly resting-place, without one of the 
friends of her prosperity to follow her, and 
without a stone to mark her grave. 

All that is known of the death and burial 
of this talented person may be summed up 
in the following notice published on the 
Thursday succeeding her decease, in the 
Independent Chronicle: " Last Lord's day, 
died Mrs. Phillis Peters, (formerly Phillis 
Wheatley,) aged 31, known to the literary 
world by her celebrated miscellaneous po- 
ems. Her funeral is to be this afternoon, at 
4 o'clock, from the house lately improved 
by Mr. Todd, nearly opposite Dr. Bulfinch's 
at West Boston, where her friends and ac- 
quaintances are desired to attend." Could 
the spot of her burial be found, there- could 
be no more befitting epitaph than the words 
from her own pen — 

Remember, Christians, negroes black as Cain 
May be refined, and join the angelic train. 

N. B. S. 


Ginashadgo, 24 May, 1794. 

Sir: — I have Returned home safe. I 
wrote a letter to you, (hope you received 
it,) in Regard to the British sending a man 
to Catarogaras & he sent for me— I went 
to see him, not him alone, but likewise the 
Moncyes Respecting the man that was 
killed at French-creek as you wrote to me 
concerning that bnisness. 

Brother this man that sent for me to 
Catarogaias wanted to know what we were 
about, it seemed to him as if we were hide- 
ing ourselves, I spoke to him, <fc told him 

the reason of our Hiding our selves — That 
the White People think that we are No- 
body — I have told him every thing from 
the Begining. That the Six Nations could 
not be heard By any Body — This was all 
passed betwen this British man & myself 
— his Name is Wm. Johnston. 

Brother then I spoke to the Moncyes in 
Regard of your writing to me to help you, 
and I asked their minds as the Tommy- 
hawk was Sticking in their Heads. — Then 
the Moneys Spoke & told me they was not 
Drunk about this affair — As you writ to 
me, and told me You wanted to make our 
minds easy about this Affair. — As you Writ 
to me that you wanted our minds easy — 
It Shall be so — This is all I have to say this 
present time about it. 

As I went there every thing happened 
Right, & you will hear a little what Bears- 
Oil Chief said as he was sent there by the 
Chiefs of Conniatt (Conyaut) I send You 
three Strings of Wampum given to me by 
Bears Oil Chief & his words were that God 
almighty had mad day and Night, and 
when he saw me it appeared to him as if 
it was Daylight — Brother says Bears Oil, 
my mind is very uneasy when I live at 
Conneat every Summer & I see the bad 
Indians and always tell them not to inte- 
rupt our friends this Way. 

Bears Oil says his mind is very uneasy 
and the Reason is, that he cannot hardly 
keep these Western Nations back any 
more,* as they the white people are making- 
Forts in their Country and another thing 
Our Worriors & Children are very uneasy. 
They say that they cannot go out of Doors 
to ease themselves for Fear of Spoiling 
Gen 1 Washington s lands — & that may 
(which must) be the Reason we wiU or can 
(are to) be Killed. — Bears Oil speeks and 
says he was sent by all the Chiefs, & they 
looked out which was the best way for him 
to Go. by Water their was a lake that God 
almighty had made for every Body & he 
hoped that Gen 1 Washington would have 
Nothing to say if he went by Water 

Now Brothers says Bears Oil to the si.\ 
Nations I have com to know your minds 
and if you want me to com down hear to 
live, I shill com, and I send you five strings 






of Wampum as his speech on that head — 
I spoke to Bears Oil Chief for Wm. Johns- 
ton to help him, as the white People thinks 
Nothing of us, Then Johnston spoke and 
told him he would help him, and /or (told) 
him to go home and tell his Worriors & 
Children to go to work, plent Corn & Git 
their living — I then spoke to Bairs Oil my- 
self to make his mind Easy & go home, 
and if he See (saw) any of the Western 
Nations Going to war, to tell them not to 
enterupt any Body about French-creek or 
any where in that Country,! and if he 
Should see them, to tell them to go Back, 
to those that ware at war — I told Bears 
Oil afterwards that if You dont see any of 
them, & they do any Mischief we cannot 
help it — Then after that I Considered & 
Dispached Runners to Oswego & to Buff- 
low-creek & to the Genessees for all the 
Chiefs to Rise and Likewise Gen 1 Chapin 
Supiren* of Indian affairs. 

Then M r Johston spoke & said if the six 
Nations went, he would Go with them. — 
Their is but Eight Days to Com when they 
will meet at tin's Place if they like what I 
have said — Brothers at French-creek if it 
should happen that they dont come You 
must not Blame me, for it is not my fault, 
Because you know very well I am almost 
Tired of talking, because, none of you will 
hear me — It will be but a few Days Before 
I will know whether they are Coming, & 
if they are Coming, you will Know it Imea- 

I am Your friend & Brother 
John x Obail 
j Lieut. John Polhemus 

Commands F F 

I wrote you Last about stoping the 
Troops — I hope you will till Affairs is (are) 
settled X 


[From Indentures of Palatine Children in Secretary of State's 
Office, Albany, N. Y.] 

This Indenture made the Twenty Sixth 
Day of October Anno Domini, 1710, and 
in the Ninth Year of the Reign of our 

Sovereign Lady Anne by the Grace of God 
of Great Britain, France and Ireland, 
Queen, Defender of the Faith, &c. Be- 
tween His Excellency Robert Hunter, 
Esqr; Capt. General and Governour in 
Chief of the Provinces of New York, New 
Jersey, and Territories depending thereon 
in America, and Vice-Admiral of the same 
c&c.ofthe one part, And William Brad- 
ford of the City of New York Printer of 
the other part, Whereas his said Excel- 
lency in Council having determined the 
putting out of the Orphans of the Palatines 
(and some of those other Children whose 
Parents have too many to look after them 
and mind their Labour) for a certain time, 
upon the Conditions following, (to wit) 
The Boys till they arrive at the Age of 
Twenty one years, and the Girls till they 
arrive at the Age of Nineteen years ; The 
Persons taking them entring into Inden- 
tures, and Bond with Surety, in the Secre- 
tary's Office, to provide them with Good 
and Wholesom Meat, Drink, Lodging and 
Cloathing, and at the Expiration of the 
time to Surrender them to the Govern- 
ment ; his Excellency and Council en- 
gaging they shall respectively serve till 
they arrive at the Ages aforesaid. Now 
this Indenture Witnesseth, That John 
Peter Zenger of the Age of Thirteene 
Years or thereabouts, Son of Hannah 
Zenger Widow One of the Palatines afore- 
said, of his own free and Voluntary Will by 
the Consent of his said Mother and also By 
the consent and approbation of his Excel- 
lency, hath put him self out to the said 
William Bradford his Executors and Ad- 
ministrators with him and them to dwell 
and serve from the day of the date hereof 
for and during and unto the full end and 
term of Eight years from thence next en- 
suing and fully be compleat and Ended, for 
all which said Term of Eight years the 
said John Peter Zenger the said William 
Bradford his Executors and Administra- 
tors well and truly shall serve his & their 
Commands lawful and honest every where 
he shall do ; The Goods oihis said Master 
his Executors or Administrators he shall 
not waste or destroy, nor from the Service 
of his said Master his Executors or Ad- 




ministrators day nor night shall absent or 
prolong him self, but in all things as a good 
and faithful Servant shall bear and behave 
him self towards his said Master his Exe- 
cutors & Administrators during the said 
Term aforesaid. And the said William 
Bradford for him self his Executors and 
Administrators and every of them doth 
Covenant, Promise and Grant to and with 
his said Excellency and his Successors, that 
he the said William Bradford his Execu- 
tors & Administrators shall and will during 
all the said Term of Eight years find and 
provide for the said John Peter Zenger 
good, sufficient and wholesom Meat, Drink 
and Cloathing ; And also shall and will at 
the end and Expiration of the said Term of 
Eight years Surrender and deliver up the 
said John Peter Zenger, well Cloathed to 
his said Excellency, or to the Governour or 
Commander in Chief of the said Province 
of New York, for the time being. In Wit- 
ness whereof his said Excellency and the 
said William Bradford have hereunto In- 
terchangeably set their Hands and Seals 
the day and year first above Written. 

Will Bradford [Seal.] 
Sealed and delivered in the 
Presence of {the several In- 
terlineations aforesaid of ye 
Words Executors and Ad- 
ministrators being first In- 


The Last Survivor of Washington's 
Life Guard. — Among the papers of my 
father I find the following letter. It will 
be remembered that about 1852 a revolu- 
tionary soldier named Gibson died in 
Orange County, and it being supposed at 
the time that he was the last of the Life 
Guard of Washington, he was buried in 
Greenwood at the expense of one of the 
New York City Regiments and with mili- 
tary honor — having lain in state during the 
day prior to the burial in the Governor's 
Room in the City Hall. He claimed for 
many years before his death that he was 
not only one of the Guard, but a short 
time before his decease stated to the Rev. 
Robert Armstrong, of Newburgh, that he 

was one of a hundred horsemen (Life 
Guards) who escorted Washington to Mt. 
Vernon at the close of the Revolution. 
Mr. Armstrong subsequently published 
this statement, and it was, I think, gene- 
rally credited. My father (who had pre- 
viously published several articles to show 
that the Life Guards were infantry and 
not mounted men) discredited the state- 
ment of Gibson as to the escort to Mt. 
Vernon. This led to a controversy in the 
Newburgh papers between Mr. E. and Mr. 
A. as to the fact whether the Guards were 
footmen or horsemen. The former wrote 
to George Washington Parke Custis, then 
at Arlington House, detailing the state- 
ment of Gibson as to the escort, and also 
asking him as to the military character of 
the Guards. It brought the following 
letter, which was conclusive upon both 

The real survivor of the Life Guards was 
Uzual Knapp, who was buried at the Head 
Quarters of Washington at Newburgh. The 
remains of his wife (whom he had survived 
for many years) were subsequently deposit- 
ed by his side. The graves are within a 
few steps from the north-east corner 
of the old building. A portrait of Mr. 
Knapp by Charles Rice, Esq., hangs in the 
large room of the building. I believe it is 
the only likeness ever taken of him. He 
was an exceedingly intelligent and pleasant 
man, of small stature, though compactly 
built, and with one of the finest profiles I 
ever saw. 

Yours truly, 

John M. Eager. 

Arlington Hotrsis, April 2, 1862. 

My Dear Sir, 

Yours is received. The story told by 
Gibson, "the old Life Guardsman," of 
Washington's being escorted to Mt. Vernon 
in 1783 by a hundred horsemen is a fable. 

The Life Guards was a corps of in- 
fantry. When the Chief had taken leave 
of his officers in the memorable scene at 
Francis' Tavern, he proceeded himself on 
his way to Annapolis, then the seat of Go- 
vernment, and there to resign his commis- 
sion, accompanied only by two aide-de- 




camps and three serva?its. Not a soldier 
of any sort! He tarried with Robert 
Morris — called at his head-quarters when 
v\ Philadelphia, and then on to Annapolis. 

After the resignation of the commission, 
Washington, as a private citizen, accom- 
panied by Colonel Humphries (one of his 
aide-de-camps at Yorktown), called at my 
grandfather's, the Honorable Benedict 
Calvert, at his seat in Prince George's 
County, Maryland, and stayed one night, and 
then reached Mt. Vernon on the next day. 

During the journey the beloved chief 
was greeted by the love, gratitude, and 
acclamation of the people, who turned out 
as volunteers to bid him welcome to their 
hearts and homes, and everywhere escort- 
ed him from place to place; but not a 
single Continental soldier escorted him 

Very respectfully, sir, 

your obedient servant, 

George W. P. Custis. 
Hon. Samuel M Eager, Newburgh, 

New York. 

Americanisms in German English 
Dictionaries. — German English Diction- 
aries have always been noted as receptacles 
for slang, inserted not as slang but as 
genuine English. Taking up Elwell's New 
and Complete American Dictionary of the 
English and German Languages, New 
York, 1851, I have been amused to see 
what amount of vulgarisms has been thrust 
into it as English. 

JVbt by a jugfull, is favored with an es- 
pecial heading. 

Clamshell, is given as one of the equiva- 
lents of mouth, but the word clam, as the 
name of a shell fish, is not. 

Boss, is given as a noun and as a verb. 

Bubbler, a word unknown to me, is given 
as the name of a fish in Ohio. 


Burgoo, is given as a preparation of oat- 

Carpetwed, as a creeping plant. 

Cisco, as a small fish. 

Frough, is given as meaning rancid. 

Fornient is interpreted gegeniiber, but on 

looking to that German w r ord I find he in- 
tended the Irish forninst I 

Energize, citizenize, funkify, noncom- 
mittalism, and many similar words abound, 
and the pages bristle with such expressions 
as fork over, hurry up the cakes, the jig is 
up, jiminy, killing, to kick up a row, 
kinder, kilter, loaf, lovyer. 

Spunk, underwood, improperly called in 
some parts punk, is given only in the incor- 
rect form. 

The Indian sled, tabogan, is given tar- 

The book is worth a closer examination 
than I have taken time to give it, by any 
student of Americanisms. i. 

The Jurisdiction of the Bishop op 
London in America. — In 1*786, Owen Salis- 
bury Brereton, Esq., exhibited to the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries of London an impres- 
sion of a seal used prior to the reign of 
George I. by the Bishop of London for 
American documents. It bore the legend, 
" Sigillum Episcopi Londlnensis. Pro 
comiss. Americanis." It is stated in Notes 
and Queries that in the reign of George I. 
this question was referred to the law offi- 
cers of the crown : u Whether America 
was so far to be deemed within the diocese 
of London, that the bishop thereof had all 
power in America ?" They decided that 
a royal patent was necessary to sustain 
such a power, but Dr. Gibson, Bishop of 
London, refused to take out a patent. 

Revised Statutes. — At page 225, vol. 
1, of the 5th ed. of this work, the beginning 
of the town of Lewis, Essex Co., is stated 
to be " where the river Raquette crosses 
the town line." There is no river "Ra- 
quette" in Essex County. The river of 
that name is in St. Lawrence Co. The 
Essex County river is called Boquet, and 
it ought to have been so printed in the 
Statutes, for it is so written in the minute 
of the Board of Supervisors, which is 

In the same vol.,. p. 206, the town of 
Gilboa is described as beginning at the 
mouth of the " Mauer" Kill. It should have 
been printed Manor KM. 




Resolved Waldron's will was proved 
1st June, 1761. He left the following 
children : John, Jacob, Adrian, Anne, 
Elizabeth, Peggy, Caty. Anne m. Strauts 
Springstein ; Elizabeth m. Patrick Kine ; 
Peggy married Abraham Lent, and Caty 
m. Alexander Buleen. Jacob settled even- 
tually at Haverstraw, Orange County, near 
Strong Point, on lands inherited from his 
father. It may be well to preserve these 
particulars of the descendants of one of 
Gov. Stuyvesant's ambassadors to Vir- 
ginia, e. b. o'c. 

Clockville, Madison Co., N.Y. — This 
is an instance where the misspelling of a 
word destroys the only link whereby cor- 
rect information may be obtained of the 
origin of the name of the place. It was 
called " Klockville'' after John Klock, the 
original grantee of lot No. 10 in the towm 
of Lenox, in which the village is situated, 
and has no connection with those time- 
pieces called " clocks," as one would be led 
at present to infer. e. b, o'c. 

" During Men." — This name, as I was 
informed by the late Samuel Stevens, a son 
of Gen. Ebenezer Stevens, of Revolutionary 
memory, was used to distinguish the troops 
enlisted to serve through the War of 
Independence, as contra-distinguished from 
those called out for a limited time. 

G. G. 

An Antient Landmark. — One Thomas 
Jones petitioned in 1709, for 2000 acres of 
land in Orange County, the bounds of 
which are described as beginning "at a 
certain wiggwam on the North side of 
Murderer's Creek, about seven miles from 
its mouth." It is evident from this that 
the Indians inhabited the Highlands in the 
neighborhood of Westpoint, at the above 
date. o'c. 

Throgs Neck. — This name is most ab- 
surdly converted into " Frogs neck" in 
the Revised Statutes of our state. It is de- 
rived from that of JohnThrogmorton, who 
obtained a patent for the land as far back 
as 1658. It is about time, is it not, that 

those who undertake to form or revise our 
laws should know something of the early 
history of the country ? 

Earl Bellomont — Joe Daveiss. — 
Although the New York Colonial History 
and Colonial documents give the name of 
Earl Bellomont correctly, as above, in ac- 
cordance with his own custom, for I have his 
handsome autograph before me, the earlier 
writers, such as Hutchison, and even some 
as late as Grahame, Sparks, and Hildreth, 
write it Bellamont. The title is, inverted, 
that of one of Napoleon's Generals, the 
Duke of Montebello, and exists even in 
England in the French form Beaumont. 
How the incorrect letter came in is not easily 

Jos. H. Daveiss, who was killed at the 
battle of Tippecanoe, in 1811, and after 
whom several counties in various states 
have been named, spelt his name as I have 
written it. In the official list of post-offices it 
is uniformly spelt Daviess. These particulars 
are not important, but it is pleasant to see 
names correctly printed. 

J. B. R. 

Washington, D. C 

Dying in the Last Ditch. — This ex- 
pression, so frequently used by the Rebels, 
originated with the Prince of Orange, in 
his reply to the Duke of Buckingham in 
1679. "There is one certain means," said 
the prince, answering the remark that the 
Commonwealth was ruined, " by which I 
can be sure never to see my country's ruin ; 
I will die in the last ditch.'' Hume's Hist. 
of England, vol. iv., page 261. 

j. w. 

Belfast, Maine. 

A Bibliographical Anecdote. — The 
visitor to the British Museum who pauses 
at Show-case VIII., in the King's Li- 
brary, where specimens of the early English 
press are displayed, may notice, quite at 
the end, an open volume, bearing the fol- 
lowing label: — 

" The book of St. Alban's. The bokys 
of Haukyng and Huntyng, and also of 
Coot armuris. Written by Dame Juliana 
Barnes, or Berners, Prioress of Sop well 




Nunnery. Printed at St. Alban's in 1486. 
Bequeathed by the Right Hon. Thomas 

The following adventures which befell 
this very volume before it found its present 
secure resting-place, are, I think, worthy 
of a place in the first rank of bibliographi- 
cal romance. 

The story has never, so far as I know, 
been published ; and originally formed part 
of a letter written on bibliographical mat- 
ters by the Rector of Pilham, in 184V, to 
the Rev. S. R. Maitland. By the kind per- 
mission of the latter gentleman, I have been 
allowed to copy it : — 

"In June, 1844, a pedlar called at a 
cottage at Blyton, and asked an old widow 
named Naylor whether she had any rags 
to sell. She said, s No !' but offered him 
some old paper; and took from a shelf The 
Booh of St. AloanPs and others, weighing 
9 lbs., for which she received nine pence. 
The pedlar carried them through Gains- 
boro', tied up in a string, past a chemist's 
shop, who, being used to buy old paper to 
wrap drugs in, called the man in; and, 
struck by the appearance of The Boke, 
gave him three shillings for the lot. Not 
being able to read the colophon, he took 
it to an equally ignorant stationer and 
offered it to him for a guinea; at which 
price he declined it, but proposed that it 
should be exposed in his window as a 
means of eliciting some information about 
it. It was accordingly placed there, with 
the label — " Very old curious work." A 
collector of books went in, and offered 2s. 
Qd. for it. This excited the suspicions of 
the vendor. Soon after Mr. Bird, the 
Vicar of Gainsboro', went in and asked the 
price, wishing to have a very early spe- 
cimen at a reasonable price; not knowing, 
however, the great value of the book. 
While he was examining the book, Stark, 
a very intelligent bookseller, came in, 
to whom Mr. Bird at once ceded the 
right of pre-emption. Stark betrayed 
such visible anxiety that the vendor, Smith, 
declined settling a price. Soon after, Sir j 

C came in, and took the book to col- 1 

late ; and brought it back in the morning, j 
having found it imperfect in the middle, I 

and offered hi. for it. Sir Charles had no 
book of reference to guide him to its value ; 
but in the mean time, Stark had employed 
a friend to obtain for him the refusal of it, 
and had undertaken to give a little more 
than Sir Charles might offer. On finding 
that at least hi. could be got for it, Smith 
went to the owner and gave him two gui- 
neas, and then proceeded to Stark's agent 
and sold it for 11. Is. Stark took it to 
London, and sold it to the Rt. Hon. T. 
Grenville for *70 or 80 guineas. 

"It must now be stated how it came to 
pass, that a book without covers of such ex- 
treme age was preserved. About fifty 
years since, the Library of Thonock Hall, 
in the parish of Gainsboro', the seat of the 
Hickman family, underwent great repairs ; 
and the books were sorted over by a most 
ignorant person, whose selections seem to 
have been determined by the coat. All 
books without covers were thrown into a 
great heap, and condemned to all the pur- 
poses which Leland laments in the sack of 
the Conventual Libraries by the visitors. 
But they found favor in the eyes of a literate 
gardener, who begged leave to take what he 
liked home. He selected a large quantity of 
Sermons before the House of Commons, local 
pamphlets, tracts from 1680 to 1710, opera 
books, Ac, &c. He made a list of them, 
which was afterwards found in his cottage ; 
and No. 43 was ' Catermouris.' The old 
fellow was something of a herald, and drew 
in his books what he held to be his coat. 
After his death, all that could be stuffed 
into a large chest were put away in a gar- 
ret ; but a few favorites, and The Bohe 
among them, remained on the shelves of 
the kitchen for years, till his son's widow 
became so stalled of dusting them that she 
determined to sell them." 

Here ends the material of the story. 
The volume was afterwards splendidly 
bound, and is now the only copy in the 
British Museum. 

Description of a Fashionable Lady 
107 Years Ago. — 

the petition. 
Artful Painter, by this Plan 
Draw a Female if you can 




Paint her features bold and gay, 
Casting Modesty away ; 
Let her Air the mode express, 
And fantastick be her Dress ; 
Cock her up a little Hat 
Of various colours, this and that ; 
Make her Cap the Fashion new, 
An Inch of Gauze or Lace will do ; 
Cut her hair the shortest dock ; 
Nicely braid the Forehead Lock ; 
Put her on a Negligee, 
A short Sack or Sheperdee, 
Ruffled up to keep her warm, 
Eight or ten upon an Arm ; 
Let her Hoop extending wide 
Shew her Garters and her Pride. 
Her Stockings must be pure and white, 
For they are seldom out of sight. 
Let her have a high heel'd shoe, 
And a glittering Buckle too ; 
Other Trifles that you find, 
Make quite careless as her Mind. 
Thus equip'd she's charming ware 
For the Races or the Fair. 
New York City, March 29, 1756. 


Negro Burying Ground. — There was 
a "Negro burying ground" in 1738 upon 
a place called Little Neck, in the town 
of West Farms, Westchester Co. Does any 
trace of it remain ? 

Epishemo. — Can any one give me the 
derivation of this word, in common use in 
Oregon, meaning the housings of a horse ? 
I have looked in vain in French and Spa- 
nish dictionaries for a word from which it 
might come. 

G. G. 

O'Reilly at Algiers. — Can any of 
your correspondents give an account of 
the Spanish expedition which, under the 
command of an Irishman, General Count 
O'Reilly, and of an English Baronet, went 
from Carthagena to take Algiers, but ac- 
cording to Lord Byron (note to Don Juan) 
instead of O'Reilly taking Algiers, Algiers 
very nearly took him? What was the 
real story? p. o. 

Letters of " Patrick Henry." — Who 
wrote the letters to Vice-President Cal- 
houn, in 1826, signed "Patrick Henry?" 

They were originally published in Mr. 
Force's National Journal, and afterwards 
collected in a pamphlet of 96 pages. They 
relate to Mr. Calhoun's course as presiding 
officer of the Senate, when the famous 
" Retrenchment" Resolutions were before 
that body ; and John Randolph, for day 
after day, indulged in those well remem- 
bered rhapsodies of hostility to the adminis- 
tration without reference to its measures, 
outraging all decorum by his gross person- 
alities against Mr. Adams, Mr. Day, and 
their friends both in and out of Congress. 
As far as Mr. Day was concerned, it result- 
ed in a duel between himself and Mr. Ran- 

Mr. Calhoun's course was severely re- 
viewed in a series of letters in the National 
Journal, signed " Patrick Henry." They 
were written in a trenchant style, and have 
abundant evidence of the pen of John 
Quincy Adams, to whom they were gene- 
rally inscribed in the papers of the day. 

Norris's Journal of Sullivan's Ex- 
pedition to the Genesee Country, 1779. 
— I have the original manuscript journal of 
Major James Norris, of ~New Hampshire, 
who was in the campaign. It covers 70 
foolscap pages, and is much more intelli- 
gent than the account of Grant. (Hist. 
Mag., vol. vi., page 233.) Was this journal 
of Isf orris ever published, and if so, when 
and where ? 

J. w. 

Belfast, Me. 

John Paul Jones. — Was he ever allow- 
ed by Congress to receive a title from 
France, and if so, when and where ? 

j. w. 

Belfast, Maine. 

Copperhead : When was the term 
First Used ? (Hist. Mag., vol. vii., page 
166). — As applied to individuals by Irving, 
in his History of New York. " The Yan- 
kees sneeringly spoke of the round-crowned 
burglars of the Manhattoes as the Copper- 
heads.'' (See the author's revised edition, 
1849, page 385). In the modern sense of 
the term it was probably first used by E. 




W. Flagg, Esq., of Bangor, in the Maine 
Democratic Convention, in August, 1861. 

j. w, 

Belfast, Me. 

M Cease, sude Boreas,blustering Rail 
er." (Vol. vii., p. 198.) — This ballad must 
have been well known as early as 1779, lor 
it is contained in a manuscript collection, 
dated "Wyoming, Forty Fort, July 6, 
1779." The following song from the col- 
lection I do not remember to have seen 
before. It may be interesting at the 
present time. 

Husbands must leave their loving wives, 

And spritely youths attend, 
Leave their sweet hearts and goe with speed, 

Our country to defend. 

May their heavens guard us in the field, 

And keep us safely their ; 
We Pray the Lord to be our Shield 

Where thundering Cannon Roar. 

And in the Great Jehovah's Name 

And under his command, 
We will goe forth against our foe, 

While they Invade our Land. 

The Cause for which we Do Contend 

We know is just and rite, 
Therefore we Pray the Lord of host 

to Put our foes to flight. 

Our Property we will maintain, 

Our rights we'l near Resign ; 
They Shan't be sold for glitering gold, 

Nor heaps of Spanish Coine. 

J. W 

Belfast, Me. 


John Simcock, etc. — I can give your 
correspondent, u Philadelphia," some facts 
relating to three of the persons mentioned 
in his communication : — John Simcock, 
John Cadwalader, and Nicholas Newlin. 

John Simcock, of Ridley, Esquire, came 
from a place of that name in Cheshire with 
Wm. Penn about 1682. He was a mem- 
ber of the Provincial Council and Assem- 
bly, and sometimes Speaker of that body ; 
a Judge of the Common Pleas, and, after- 
wards, of the Supreme Court ; one of the 


Of this, how- 

! Commissioners to Settle the Maryland 
| boundary; "and Deputy President of the 
Society of Free Traders. He was a Qua- 
ker preacher, and was at one time fined 
£100 and imprisoned fifteen months for bis 
religion. He was a large landowner. He 
died in 1703, aged 73. His son John was 
Deputy Recorder of Chester County, and 
his son Jacob was Deputy Register Gene- 
ral under James Claypoole. 

The John Cadwalader referred to is, 
doubtless, the Quaker Preacher of that 
name. There was a John Cadwalader in 
the Assembly, I suppose it was the same 
person. The Philadelphia family is, I 
think, descended from another John Cad- 
walader and not this one. 
ever, I am not certain. 

Nicholas Newlin, of Birmingham and 
Concord, Esquire, was an English gentle- 
man of ancient family, and came to Penn- 
sylvania from Mt. Mellick in 1683. He 
was a member of the Provincial Council, 
and a Judge of the Common Pleas. He 
died in 1699 aged 70. His son, Nathaniel 
Newlin, of Concord, Birmingham, and 
Newlin, Esquire, was a Justice of the 
County Courts, a Member of the Provincial 
Assembly, Commissioner of Property, one 
of the Trustees of the General Loan Office 
of the Province, etc. He married in 1685 
Miss Mary Mildenhall, of Mildenhall in 
Suffolk, and V»ied in 1729 aged 70. His 
son, Nathaniel Newlin, of Concord, Bir- 
mingham and Newlin, Esquire, was a Just- 
ice of the County Courts, and Member of 
the Assembly. Newlin Township was first 
purchased by and called after the elder 
Nathaniel. x, 

The Redeemed Captive (vol. vii. p. 
382). — I have a fragment of a volume con- 
taining only 56 pages. The running title 
is " The Redeemed Captive Returning to 
Zion." The titlepage of the work itself is 
gone, but that of the sermon is as follows : 
Reports of Divine Kindness : | or, | Re- 
markable Mercies | should be faithfully 
published, | for the | Praise of God the Gi- 
ver. | Set forth in a | Sermon | preached at 
Boston Lecture December 5, 1706. | By 
John Williams I Pastor of the Church of 




Christ in Deerfield, | soon after his return 
from a doleful captivity. | Psal. 107. 13, 
14, 15, 32 (quoted in full) ; Psal. 34. 3 
(quoted in full). | New London : Re- 
printed and sold by T. Green, 1776. | 

I think it adds one to the list of editions 
given by g. in the Magazine for Decem- 
ber. D. W. PATTERSON. 
West Winsted, Conn. 

Alden Family (vol. vii. 355). — There 
were families of this name seated at New- 
ton Longville, Bucks, and Rickmansworth, 
Herts., in 1634; and their pedigrees are 
preserved in the British Museum. I do 
not know whether they were connected 
with the American family or not, nor how 
long they had been seated at this place. 
Sims gives the references to these pedigrees 
in his Index to the Herald's Visitation in 
the British Museum, 

x. y. z. 

New York Names. — Mr. Strong, of 
Irving, N.Y., is represented as saying 
(Hist. Mag ., vii. 313), "he has not been 
able to find a river, creek, lake or moun- 
tain in our state that now bears the name 
of any herbivorous animal." By turning 
to the map of Northern New York, Deer 
River, and Moose River, and Deer Lake 
and Moose Lake will be found laid down. 

e. b. o'c. 


The Life of Father Antonio Mar- 
gil. — A very uncommon though com- 
paratively recent work is the life of the 
Franciscan Missionary in Texas and other 
parts of Mexico, Father Antonio Margil de 
Jesus. It is, as I am informed by one of 
the best informed scholars in the Spanish 
part of our history, so rare in Mexico and 
Spain that he met with but two copies 
in his investigations in both countries, and 

one of these was a well worn one in the 
hands of the Margil family at Valencia. It 
is possible, however, that its strange title 
may have caused it to be overlooked in 
some cases. The title is as follows : 

El Peregrino | Septentrional Atlante : | 
Delineado | en la exemplarissima Vida | Del 
Venerable Padre | Fr. Antonio Margil | de 
Jesus | Fruto de la floridissima ciudad de 
Valencia, | Hijo de su Serafica Observante 
Provincia, Predicador Missionero, | Notario 
Apostolico,Comissario del Santo Oficio,Fun- 
dador, | y Ex-Guardian de tres Colegios, Pre- 
fecto de las Misiones | de Propagande Fide 
en todas las Indias Occiden- | tales, y acla- 
mado de la piedad | Por nuevo Apostol de 
Guatemala | Dedicase | A los das gloriosis- 
simos Juanes | Bautista, y Evangelista : | 
A expensas de un amartelado del V. P. y 
de la Serafica Religion. | Escrivela |E1 Pa- 
dre Fr. Isidro Felix de Espinosa, | Predi- 
cador, y Misionero Apostolico, Ex-Guar- 
dian del Colegio | de la Santa Cruz de Que- 
retaro, su Chro- 1 nista, y menor Hijo. | Con 
Licencia : | En Valencia: Por Joseph Tho- 
mas Lucas, Impressor del Illustris- 1 simo 
Senor Obispo de Teruel. Ano de 1742. | 
Vendese en casa de Salvador Fauli, Li- 
brero, en la Plaza de Villarrasa. 

It is a quarto of 426 pages double co- 
lumn. Title and preliminary pages un- 
folioed 10, then page 1 to 411, 412 blank, 
and 4 pages Indice without folios. 

His Texan missions are described on 
pages 248 to 265. It is divided into three 
books, two of which are historical, the 
third being, as is usual in the lives of saints, 
devoted to a portrait of his virtues, each 
head being treated separately. 

The volume contains, moreover, some 
very curious matter relative to the Pagan 
rites secrelly preserved among the Indians. 

Father Margil was born at Valencia 
Aug. 18, 1657, and died at Mexico Aug. 
6, 1726. 




New Haven Historical Society. — New Ha- 
ven, Nov. 30, 1863.— The New Haven Historical 
Society held their first annual meeting under the 
charter from the State Legislature. After the 
usual preliminaries attending such meetings, 
Henry Bronson, M.D., read a paper on the Cur- 
rency of Massachusetts and Connecticut. It 
began with an introductory concerning the 
wants of all communities, whether civilized or 
barbarian, of a medium of commercial exchange, 
and the various devices which have been adopted 
to meet such want. The early settlers found the 
aborigines using for money what they termed 
wampum, consisting of several kinds of shells, 
the value of which was determined by its light 
or dark color, and by other circumstances. For 
many years this wampum, to a certain extent, 
passed current among the settlers, the value being 
determined by act of court. The Doctor pre- 
sented many highly interesting facts concerning 
this shell money, as also the method of exchange 
in commodities in those early days, and then 
passed to the use of coin, the mode of coining — 
the coin being hammered out — and the gradual 
development of our system of bills of exchange 
and the general features of our system of banking. 
The report of Mr. John Collis, the Curator, 
was read. It showed that there had been re- 
ceived during the year 444 bound volumes, 2,064 
pamphlets, 16 bundles newspapers, 27 handbills, 
88 volumes of autograph letters and manuscripts, 
70 volumes manuscripts, 7 mounted maps, 20 
framed engravings, 34 other engravings, 2 oil 
paintings, 1 bust, 59 curiosities, 7 pieces ancient 

The Treasurer's report shows a balance in hand 
of $388 48. 

Mr. White was elected President, Dr. E. E. 
Beardsley, Vice President, Mr. Horace Day, Se- 
cretary, and Mr. Nathan Peck, Treasurer. The 
Directors are Messrs. Leonard Bacon, Henry 
Bronson, Wm. A. Reynolds, Thos. R. Trow- 
bridge, Samuel Punderson, Elliott T. Foote, 
Henry C. Kingsley, Chas E. English, Elisha L. 
Cleveland, Chas. R. Ingersoll, Edward H. L. 

It was voted that a book be procured for the 
reception of the autographs of visitors. 

The additions to the library for the past month 
(in all 1,066) were received from 61 contributors ; 
and included the entire publications, in uniform 
binding, of the documents of the first and second 
sessions of the 37th Congress ; those of the 
" Loyal Publication Societies'' of Boston, New 
York, and Cincinnati; the entire documents of 
the Territory of Colorado ; the Journal of the 
(seceding) Convention of Louisiana, in English 
and French, with Gayarre's History of Lou- 
isiana, the obliging gift of Maj. General Banks; 
numerous publications on the war, and relics 
from the battle-field of Gettysburg, etc. 

Of the correspondence for the month reported 
(nineteen letters received and seventy-one writ- 
ten), letters of interest W re read from Gen. 
Charles B. Stuart, Geneva, in. Y., relative to ma- 
terial improvements in the North-west; from the 
Hon. John Young, M.P.P., Montreal, in regard 
to the Provincial Documents of Canada; also 
from the Hon. Charles Mason, New York ; Gov. 
J. Evans, of Denver City, Col., and George Liver- 
more, Esq., of Massachusetts. 

The following were then elected to fill the 
principal offices of the Society for the ensuing 
year : 

President, Walter L. Newberry, Esq. ; Vice- 
Presidents, Hon. W. B. Ogden, and J. Y. Scam- 
mon ; Treasurer, Dr. F. Scammon ; Rec. Secre- 
tary and Librarian, William Barry ; Corres- 
ponding Secretary, E. B. McCagg, Esq. The 

usual Committees of Business, Research, etc., 
were re-elected with slight modifications. 

The Society's thanks were directed to be re- 
turned to the- editors or publishers of serials for- 
warded to the Library the past year. 

Nov. 24. — The adjourned annual meeting was 
held at the private residence of Mr. Bross, and 
was numerously attended by members, with their 
ladies and invited guests. 

An address was read by Mr. J. Y. Scammon, 
presenting a historical sketch of Banks and 
Banking in Illinois ; which was followed by the 
annual report of the Secretary, reviewing the 
transactions of the year. 

The following summary was given of the So- 
ciety's collections : 

For the 

Chicago Historical Society. — Chicago, Nov. 
17, 1863. — The annual meeting was regularly 
held — W. L. Newberry, Esq., President, in the 

Unbound books and pamphlets . 9,779 

Files of serials . 197 

" u newspapers 48 

Old and rare newspapers ... 40 

Maps and charts 108 

Manuscripts 762 

Prints, photographs, etc. ... 45 

Cabinets single and collective . . 44 

Collections of miscellanies ... 47 
















New England Historic Genealogical Soci- 
ety. — Boston, Wednesday, Dec. 2. — A stated 
meeting was held: this afternoon, Rev. Martin 
Moore, Vice-President for Massachusetts, in the 

Rev. Caleb Davis Bradlee, the Corresponding 
Secretary, reported that since the last meeting 
letters had been received from the following gen- 
tlemen accepting the membership to which they 
had been elected, viz. : 

Corresponding. — Hon. G-eorge P. Fisher r of 
Washington, Judge of the Supreme Court of the 
District of Columbia. 

Resident. — Thomas Parsons, M.D., of Boston, 
Edward S. Moseley, of Newburyport, and Charles 
C. Dana, of Boston. 

William B. Trask, the Historiographer, read 
an able and very interesting memoir of the Right 
Honorable John Singleton Copley, Lord Lynd-' 
hurst, an Honorary Member of the Society, who 
died in London, Oct. 12, 1863, at the age of 91 

John H Sheppard, the Librarian, reported as 
donations, during the past month, 21 volumes, 
33 pamphlets, large map, and three photographs. 
These photographs, which represent a relic recent- 
ly discovered at Valley Forge, were sent to the So- 
ciety by John A. McAllister of Philadelphia, who 
gave this account of the relic: — " A few weeks 
ago, workmen engaged in removing the founda- 
tions of an ancient building near Washington's 
Head Quarters at Valley Forge, found what ap- 
peared to be a block of wood three inches square. 
It remained among the rubbish for several days, 
when one of the laborers turned it over and disco- 
vered it to be a box. This outer box appears to be 
of some composition metal resembling copper, but 
somewhat corroded. On removing the outside box 
another was discovered plated with silver, and in 
this case, carefully packed to protect it from 
moisture, was a miniature beautifully painted 
and in excellent preservation. The miniature 
represents a person in an embroidered coat, ruf- 
fled shirt, and powdered wig, and from the cos- 
tume was evidently painted between 1730 and 
1740. The painting is on enamel and has on its 
edge near the right shoulder, the letters hall, 
which can be distinguished in the photograph 
with the aid of a powerful magnifier. The house 
in which the relic was discovered is said to have 
been built about the year 1770." Mr. Sheppard 
suggested that hall might be the name of the 

After the transaction of the ordinary business 
the meeting was dissolved. 


New York Historical Society. — December, 
1863. — The regular meeting of the Society was 
held m the Fire Proof Building, the Rev. Dr. 
Dewitt in the chair. 

Among the important matters transacted was 
the appointment of a committee to nominate 
officers for the election in January. 

Mr. Moore, the librarian, also read a notice of 
the career of the late Judge Macdonald, and 
offered a series of resolutions expressive of the 
regret of the Society for the loss of one who, 
amid the annoyances of ill-health, so cheerfully 
devoted himself to literary and historic pursuits. 

The paper of the evening, a Memoir of Edward 
Lovington, the law-giver of Louisana, was read- 
by Mr. Charles H. Hunt, and was an interesting 
account of one of our greatest men. 

Among the donations presented were the 
accounts of Washington's executors, rescued 
at Fairfax Court House by Captain James B. 
Kirker, and presented to the Society. 

Onondaga Historical Association. — Syra- 
cuse, Dec. 3. — Officers: President, Mr. Clark; 
Vice-Pres., N. B. Smith; Secretary, R. F. 
Trowbridge. The regular meeting was held at 
the Society's rooms, President Clark in the 

A number of contributions to the library and 
museum were reported. 

The Secretary read a letter from H. C. Van 
Schaack, Esq., offering to present an unbroken 
file of the New York Spectator for more than 
twenty years, on certain terms, which were 
agreed to by the Board. 

A communication from Prof. Agassiz having 
been received, Mr. Smith moved that the Lecture 
Committee be instructed to circulate a sub- 

Mr. Noxon introduced Mr. Griffin, an Indian, 
who produced a number of Indian curiosities. 
His conversation showing him to be intelligent ; 
he was employed by the Board to secure Indian 
relics and curiosities for the Museum, and a 
sum of money advanced to him for that purpose. 

Mr. Noxon, from the Committee on Rooms, 
reported the bills of expenditure, &c, in re- 
arranging the rooms. The bill of D. S. & S. 
P. Geer $32.29, Alpetre & Hoffman $95.41, 
E. R. Dandford $24.60, balance of Stoddard's 
account $19.75, Jas. Noxon $7.22, were audited 
and ordered paid. 

Mr. Leach reported the lease as drawn, wnich 
was accepted, and on motion the President or 
Vice-President was authorised to execute it on 
the part of the Association. 




Mr. Noxon moved that an insurance cf $1,000 
be procured on the property of the Association. 

The following letter was read by the Secre- 
tary : 

Syracuse, N.Y., Dec. 3, ^S. 
E. F. Trowbridge, Esq., Sec'y of Onondaga Co. 

Historical Society, &c. : 

Dear Sir: — Please accept in behalf of the 
Onondaga Historical Society the accompanying 
portrait and biography of one of Onondaga's 
pioneers — Capt. Oliver Teall. It is needless for 
me to pronounce a eulogium upon his charac- 
ter, for he was too well known throughout this 
section of the State to require it at my hands. 
Suffice it to say that he was one of Nature's 
noblest works — an honest man. 

Yours, for the welfare of the Association, 
Geo. G. Gardner. 

The portrait and biography were received, 
and the thanks of the Association given to the 

The thanks of the Association were also voted 
to several other donors, and the Board ad- 


Fire Lands Historical Society, New London, 
December 9, 1863. — The Society convened in the 
M. E. Church at half past 10 o'clock, A. M., 
and was called to order by Judge S. C. Parker, 
Vice President. 

The minutes of the Quarterly Meeting of Fair- 
field were read, after which the report of the Se- 
cretary was presented. It noticed the progress 
of the work of the Society, the reception of pub- 
lications from the Essex Institute of Salem, 
Mass., H. A. Smith, Esq., of Cleveland, A. Ban- 
ning Norton, Esq., of Mt. Vernon, and Judge 
Parker, of Greenfield, and called attention to the 
necessity of early steps to secure the publication 
of the next volume of the Pioneer. 

Letters were read from Samuel Holden Par- 
sons, Esq., of Middletown, Conn., and Rev. John 
Seward, of Tallmadge, Ohio. The former, a 
grandson of Judge S. H. Parsons, the first Judge 
of the Northwestern Territory, suggested some 
corrections in the history of the Fire Lands 
grant, in the 3d vol. of the Pioneer, from docu- 
ments in his possession. The latter gave some 
additional facts concerning his Missionary tour 
to the Fire Lands in 1819, and expressed his in- 
tention to give a more full description of it at 
some future time. 

The names of standing Historical Committees 
of the several townships were called, and the 
following presented reports: Dr. Skellenger, 

of New London — Sketches of Joseph Seymour 
Menifield and Mrs. Hendrix, early Settlers of 
that township. D. A. Pease, Norwalk — a gene- 
alogical sketch of Rev. Hezekiah Ripley, from 
whom the township of Ripley was named, and a 
letter from the venerable Thomas D. Webb, of 
Warren, relating to the manner in which the 
Fire Lands were distributed among the proprie- 
tors. Rev. C. F. Lewis, Wakeman — Indian Re- 
miniscences, relating in particular to the method 
of manufacturing canoes, sap troughs, etc., of 

The following special Committees, appointed 
to secure the histories of the townships named, 
reported their work as in progress : Greenwich, 
Luther Mead ; Richmond, J. H. Niles ; Ruggles, 
S. C. Sturtevant ; Sherman, D. H. Pease. 

The Constitution was then read, and thirty- 
nine persons became members of the Society. 
A portion of the last Annual Report of the Se- 
cretary was then read by the Rev. C. F. Lewis, 
and on his motion the Society requested the press 
of the Fire Lands and other papers circulating 
there to publish it. The Society also, on motion 
of the same, voted to request of the Rev. L. B. 
Gurley a copy of the Poem referred to in his ad- 
dress, for preservation. 

The President, Piatt Benedict, Esq., having 
arrived, made a few appropriate remarks on as- 
suming the chair, expressing for himself and the 
Society their gratification at the interest mani- 
fested at this meeting by the citizens of New 
London, as well as of Ruggles, Rochester, and 
other adjoining towns, so many of whom were 

The Rev. John Keep, of Oberlin, then deli- 
vered an address on the duty and advantages of 
not only gathering history for ourselves and pos- 
terity, but of living it. It was remarkable for 
power, variety, and originality, and held the 
undivided attention of the crowded audience till 
its close. The Society, on motion of Dr. Skel- 
lenger, unanimously requested a copy for publi- 
cation. The Rev. Mr. Keep also presented the 
Society a copy of the book containing the first 
sermon ever preached in New England, and 
also accounts of the first prayer meeting and first 
Thanksgiving on " Wild New England Shore;" 
a book entitled " Congregationalism and Church 
Action," and last, but " not least," a copy of the 
New England Primer, edition of 1691. 

Castalia was selected as the place for the next 
meeting, March 9, 1864. 





The American Baptist Historical Society, 
was founded in Philadelphia about ten years ago. 
It aims to collect whatever remains of the history 
of the Church, and especially of such portions of 
it as in every age have maintained the sentiments 
of those who now constitute the Baptist deno- 
mination. Also books and pamphlets by Baptist 
authors on any subject, all religious Baptist peri- 
odicals, existing or extinct ; likenesses, autograph 
letters and manuscripts of British ministers ; and 
views of Baptist churches and literary institu- 

The Society is incorporated. President, Rev. 
Howard Malcom, D.D., LL D. Its library is yet 
small, embracing about 1200 volumes, 7000 
pamphlets, and some valuable manuscripts. Its 
constitution connects it intimately with the 
American Baptist Publication Society, and its 
room is in their building, 530 Arch street, Phila- 


The Vermont Historical Society. — Mont- 
pelier, October 20, 1863. — At the annual meeting 
of this Society, October 20, choice was made of 
the following officers : 

Highland Hall, North Bennington, Presi- 

Daniel Kelloerg, Brattleboro', Rev. William H. 
Lord, Montpelier, George W. Benedict, Bur- 
lington, Vice-Presidents. 

George F. Houghton, Recording Secretary. 

Albert D. Hager, Proctorsville, John S. 
Adams, Burlington, Corr. Secretaries. 

Charles Reed, Montpelier, Librarian and 
Cabinet- Keeper. 

George B. Reed, Montpelier, Treasurer. 

Rev. John A. Hicks, D.D., Burlington, Rev. 
P. W. Shelton, Montpelier, Henry Clark, Esq., 
Poultney, Rev. P. H. White, Coventry, Dugald 
Stewart, Middlebury, and John B. Perry, Swan- 
ton, Curators. 

The Publishing Committee were, on motion, 
requested to publish a volume of Collections as 
soon as sufficient funds were raised for the pur- 
pose. Dr. David P. Holton argued the import- 
ance of preserving a careful record, not only of 
Vermont officers, but of all the men who had 
joined the Volunteers from Vermont. Albert 
D. Hager, Esq., then read a paper on the " Cop- 
per Mines of the United States and Canada." 
Several valuable donations were reported from 
General J. Watts de Peyster, of Tivoli, N.Y., 
Hon. W.C. Watson, of Port Kent, N.Y., H. B. 

Dawson, Esq., of Morrisania, Rev. W. H. Lord, 
and Dr. Earl Cushman, of Orwell. Messrs. L. C. 
Kellogg, A. Clark, Moses Cheney, Dr. H. F. 
Stevens, and A. D. Hager, Esq., were requested 
to prepare papers on given subjects to be read 
at some early meetings of the Society. The 
subject of " Ancient Mining in the Lake Superior 
region" was assigned to Albert D. Hager, Esq. 
In the evening the annual address was delivered 
to a large audience in the Representatives' Hall, 
by General J. Watts de Peyster, of Tivoli, N.Y., 
upon the subject of Secession in Switzerland. 
The speaker drew a line of comparison between 
the secession of Swiss Cantons and the Seceded 
States of the American Union. He traced the 
war for the preservation of the Swiss Republic, 
and told the tale of the triumph of those braves 
who triumphed for human liberty. General de 
Peyster predicted a similar success in our own 
country, and that the doom of the rebels in 
Switzerland awaits the Southern arch-rebel 
and his co-conspirators. The address was learned 
and eloquent, and very acceptable to the large 
audience assembled at the State House. 

The President then introduced Hon. Winslow 
Watson, of Port Kent, N.Y., who read an ela- 
borately prepared and interesting paper on 
" The Life and Services of Hon. Richard Skinner, 
Governor of Vermont in 1820, '21, and '22." 

Thanks were returned to the speakers, and 
copies of their papers solicited for the archives 
of the Society. 

Luther G. Emerson, Esq., of Ontonogon, 
Michigan, was, on motion, elected a corres- 
ponding member of the Society. 

The next special meeting of the Society will 
be held at Brandon, January 27th and 28th, 
1864, and the summer. meeting will beholden at 
St. Johnsbury in the month of June, 1864. 

The Standing Committees for the year 1863-4 
are constituted as follows : 

On< Library and Cabinet — F. W. Shelton, 
Albert D. Hager, and Henry Clark. 

On Printing and Publishing — George F. 
Houghton, Charles Reed, and Pliny H. White. 

On Finance-^D&mel Kellogg, Albert D. 
Hager, and Charles Reed. 

To Manage and Superintend the Historical De- 
partment — W. H. Lord, P. H. White, and Henry 

To Manage and Superintend the Department of 
Natural History — George W. Benedict, John B. 
Perry, and John A. Hicks. 

To Manage and Superintend the Department of 
Horticulture — Daniel Kellogg, John A. Hicks, 
and Dugald Stewart. 




fates m §uif. 

.4n Address delivered at the Celebration by the 
New York Historical Society of the Tii'o Hun- 
dredth Birth-day of Mr. William Bradford, who 
introduced the art of Printing into the Middle 
Colonies of British America. By John Wm. 
Wallace, of Philadelphia. Albany : Munsell, 
1863. 8vo. 

A tribute to a printer most fitly calls for typo- 
graphic beauty, and Mr. Wallace, in giving his 
address in full, inserting the parts omitted in 
delivery, has given Mr. Munsell full scope, and 
must certainly feel satisfied with the edition 
which he has privately issued. Of the address 
itself we need not speak. Our readers are to 
some extent already acquainted with it. 

It is here given complete, with many in- 
teresting notes, including a well merited tribute 
to the Alban disciple of Aldus. 

Mr. Wallace, in his enthusiastic admiration 
of our first printer, has gathered all the 
items of his history, and gleaned all interest- 
ing information as to the issues of his press, but 
not content with embodying all this in his 
address, makes it in itself a more permanent 

The work is inscribed to the honor and memory 
of the late Mr. Bradish, and we have seldom 
met with a dedication more noble in idea or 
more appropriate in word. 

Journal of the Expedition against Quebec, undet 
command of Col. Benedict Arnold, in they eat 
1776. By Major Return J. Meigs ; with an 
Introduction and Notes by Charles I. Bush- 
nell. New York : Privately Printed, 1864 
8vo. pp. 57. 

The readers of the Magazine will recollect a 
query as to this journal, announced on the title 
but not found in the body of an Ohio work. Mr. 
Bushnell has therefore done well to give it in 
this attractive form. His notes elucidate all 
obscurities and give the needed information as to 
the characters that figure in it. There is a dis- 
position, which we certainly commend, to save 
these Revolutionary relics, arid gentlemen could 
not find a better work for leisure moments and 
a comparatively small expenditure than to put 
them beyond all possibility of loss, as Mr. Bush- 
nell has so frequently done. 

Historical Sketch of Continental Paper Money. 

By Samuel Breck. Philadelphia: 8vo. 1863. 

This is a timely reprint by Mr. Kline of the 
very interesting paper of the late venerable Mr. 

Breck, which many have since used with profit. 
As the original pamphlet was printed twenty 
years ago, it has become quite rare. 

The Federalist : A Collection of Essays written in 
favor of the Neiv Constitution as agreed upon 
by the Federal Convention, September 17, 1787. 
Reprinted from the original text, with an His- 
torical Introduction and Notes. By Henry P. 
Dawson. In two volumes, Vol. I. New 
York : Charles Scribner, 1863. 
No work more timely than that which Mr. 
Dawson has so well performed. This edition of 
the Federalist is a national boon. At the moment 
when broader and more statesmanlike discus- 
sions of our Constitution must occupy the public 
mind, when the plan of a new government will 
be debated, a thorough study of the present 
Constitution and its adoption must be made. 

New York was most averse to the new Con- 
stitution, and the articles of Hamilton, Madison, 
and Jay undoubtedly won over the State and 
enabled the General Government to commence. 
Mr. Dawson, as part of his plan, presents in this 
volume the text of the Federalist, printed from 
the newspapers on which it originally appeared, 
without the least alteration, and with such notes 
only as the authors gave at the time : a second 
volume will contain the alterations made by the 
authors and illustrative notes, with a full and 
copious index. A subsequent volume will em- 
brace, under the title of the Anti-Federalist, the 
essays which these of Hamilton, Madison, and 
Jay so successfully met. 

Mr. Dawson, in giving this authentic copy ot 
the Federalist, renders his edition of the highest ■ 
authority : this great service is increased by the 
valuable introduction. It embraces a history 
of the circumstances which led to the work, 
gives a full, fair statement of the claims as to the 
authorship of certain numbers, especially 18, 19, 
20, 48 to 57, 61 to 63, and a table showing the 
various claims. A full bibliographical account 
of the various editions of the work completes the 
history of the Federalist. 

It is a matter of gratification that an edition 
has at last appeared, edited by one so thoroughly 
conversant with the history of the period, so 
painstaking, accurate, and critical. It is the only 
edition to stand on the shelf of a choice library, 
and is one that few libraries can dispense with. 

A Brief and True Narrative of the Hostile Con- 
duct of the Barbarian Natives towards the 
Dutch Nation. Translated by E. B. O'Cal- 
laghan. 8vo. pp. 48. Albany : Munsell, 

This is quite an interesting little tract of the 



[Jan., 1864.] 

Dutch times, the value of which is enhanced by 
an appendix containing the treaty of 1645, cor- 
respondence in regard to it, opinions of Stuy- 
vesant, La Montagne, Yan Tierhoven, a list of 
the survivors of Van de Capelle's Colony, and 
the Proclamation of January 27, 1656. 

A Sketch of the History of the Episcopal Church 
in Portland, Maine, from the organization of 
St. PauTs Church, Falmouth, Nov. 4, 1763,. to 
the Present Time. By the Eev. W. S. Perry, 
M.A. Portland: 1863. 
A very interesting history of the Episcopal 

Church in Portland during the last century. Mr. 

Perry is too thorough a historic scholar and too 

polished an orator to fail to invest his narrative 

with interest and value. 

Life and Letters of John Winthrop, Governor of 
the Massachusetts Bay Company at their Emi- 
gration to New England, 1630. By Eobert 
C. Winthrop. Boston : Ticknor and Fields, 
1864. 8vo., pp. 452. 

This elegant volume is the first part of the 
life of John Winthrop, written with all the 
affectionate interest of a scholarly descendant, 
but in no spirit of what might have been excused 
as a laudable pride. The narrative is told mainly 
by Winthrop and his family in their letters and 
other writings. Apart from its interest as a 
biography of one of the great men of American 
colonization, as a picture of the life of the gentry 
in England at the time, it possesses a re- 
markable value to all readers here and in 

Another thought arises. Where is the vaunted 
gentleness of the Virginian and more southerly 
families ? How stands the assumption that all 
at the South are descended from the English 
gentry, and all at the North from the boors ? 
What Southern State can give us a life of its 
first governor, written by a descendant main- 
taining a position of honor and distinction in 
the State ? 


Mr. C. B. Richardson, the publisher of this 
Magazine, has commenced the United States Ser- 
vice Magazine, a periodical devoted to the inte- 
rests, descriptive of the progress, and illustrative 
of the honorable services of the United States 
Army and Navy, regular and volunteer. 

This enterprise has been undertaken at the 
solicitation of many prominent officers. 

It is under the editorial care of Henry Coppee, 
Esq., Professor of English Literature and History 
in the University of Pennsylvania (Philadel- 
phia), whose military experience and literary 
attainments are sufficient warrant that the Ma- 
gazine will be rendered .worthy the patronage of 
all, in and out of the Service, who are interested 
in military and naval affairs. 

Its principal articles will cover the entire scope 
of war topics, including Modifications and In- 
ventions of Arms of all kinds; Notes on the 
Organization of Armies and Navies ; Historical 
Sketches and Illustrations ; Interesting Narra- 
tives of Personal Experience ; Stories of Military 
and Naval Life; Military Hygiene, and such 
other themes as are directly or indirectly con- 
nected with the great subject. The Publisher 
has the pleasure of announcing that, in this de- 
partment, contributions are promised by many 
of our most distinguished officers, and other 
writers of the highest authority. 

Mr. Faxon, of Hartford, paid a soldier $5 for 
a lot of relics from the Revolutionary battle- 
ground before Yorktown, Va. He found among 
the articles a small red stone, which upon clean- 
ing proved to be a garnet ; and a further inspec- 
tion revealed the interesting fact that it had 
once formed a part of the signet ring of the Mar- 
quis de Rochambeau, the liberty loving com- 
mander of the French army in this country, who 
acted in concert with Washington in plans which 
won for us the battle of Yorktown. It contains 
the noble Count's motto, in Latin, and his family 

On the 19th of October, 1863, the St. Jean 
Baptiste Society of* Quebec, C. E., inaugurated an 
elegant monument on the heights of St. Foy to 
commemorate the battle of April 28, 1760 — the 
second battle of Quebec in which the French s> 
nearly regained the colony. It is a bronzed 
metal column on a stone base, surmounted by a 
bronze statue of Bellona, presented by Prince 
Napoleon. The base bears the inscription, " Aux 
braves de 1760, erigee par la Societe St. Jean 
Baptiste de Quebec 1860 ;" and on two other faces 
the names of Levis and Murray. It stands on a 
beautiful spot on the brow of the cliff overhang- 
ing the valley of the St. Charles. The successful 
erection of this tribute to the brave of the last 
century is due in no slight degree to Dr. Bardy. 



Vol. VIII.] 

FEBRUARY, 1864. 

[No. 2. 

<§mral IMprtmtnt. 



Masonic Portrait of Washington. — 
Mr. Charles B. Richardson, the publisher of 
this Magazine, some time since showed me 
a photograph from a portrait of Washing- 
ton, representing him in Masonic Regalia. 
The original was stated to be by an artist 
named Williams, and preserved in the 
lodge at Alexandria. At my request Mr. 
Benson J. Lossing undertook an inquiry 
into its authenticity, and at the same time I 
addressed a letter to Mr. C. Cammack, Sr., 
Grand Treasurer of the District of Colum- 
bia, for the same purpose. Mr. Lossing has 
obtained from Mr. & Hay den of Athens, 
Bradford Co., Pa., an account of the pic- 
ture, from which I extract the following : 

Mr. Hayden has no knowledge of the ar- 
tist beyond what is stated in the records of 
the Alexandria lodge, by which it appears 
that in August, 1793, Mr. Williams offered 
to compliment that body with a portrait of 
the President of the United States, provi- 
ded it would prevail upon him to sit, and 
that the lodge made application to that ef- 
fect accordingly. In October, 1794, the 
portrait was received, and an appropriation 
passed to defray the expenses of the artist 
in going to Philadelphia on the business. 
In the " Recollections and Private Memoirs 
of Washington," p. 523, there is a mention, 
which Mr. Hayden cites, as follows : " A Mr. 
Williams, a painter in Crayons, had sittings 
about 1794, and made a strong likeness, 
but we have no further knowledge of him 
or his works." He is undoubtedly the per- 
son referred to in a letter to Gov. Lee of 

Virginia, dated at Philadelphia in July, 
1792, at which time Washington declined 
to sit, but it would appear that the request 
of Alexandria lodge, of which Washington 
had formerly been Master, subsequently 
prevailed on him. Mr. Hayden has seen a 
copy of this portrait in the possession of a 
Baltimore ledge, and surmises that others 
may exist, as it seems to have been the ar- 
tist's expectation to make them. 

The authenticity of the portrait as one 
taken from life may be therefore considered 
as established. It represents Washington 
as bearing greater marks of age than any 
other I have seen. He wears the apron, 
sash, collar, and jewel of a Past Master of 
Masons. The picture, with the other pro- 
perty and archives of the lodge, has been 
removed since the rebellion broke out, but 
they are said to be insecurity. The apron, 
Mr. Cammack informs me, was a present to 
Washington from Madame de la Fayette. 
These articles all belong to the Alexandria 
lodge, but the gavel with which he laid the 
corner-stone of the Capitol at the city of 
Washington (which he did in regalia), is 
now in the custody of a lodge at George- 

It may be added that a full length statue 
of Washington in Masonic dress was ex- 
ecuted by Powers just before the rebellion, 
and was designed to be erected at Frede- 
ricksburg. It never was set up, however, 
and is now concealed somewhere at the 

The Williams portrait is now being pho- 
tographed from Mr. Richardson's copy by 
Fredericks of Broadway, New York, where 
cartes de visite can be obtained. 


A well known, though not very common 






engraving, is one of quarto size, in an oval 
included within a shaded square, " publish- 
ed by T. Holloway, and the other propri- 
etors, May 21, 1*794," representing Wash- 
ington in military dress, with a tablet 
beneath of Cornwallis's surrender, lettered 
" Event of the 19th of Oct., 1781, at York- 
town, in Virginia," and with the following 
note, " The English Artist has followed 
the lines of the Print in the French origi- 
nal after a picture by Piehle, on account of 
the remarks of Mr. Lavater." The fea- 
tures, as Mr. Tuckerman has observed, 
would not be recognised for those of Wash- 
ington. I have never seen the French 
print, but am able to give a clue to the pic 
ture by "Piehle." Dr. Charles Beck, of 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, informs me that 
it was formerly the property of a Mr. 
Streckeiser, of Basle, in Switzerland, and 
now belongs to his daughter, Mrs. Righi- 
ner. The late Theodore Parker, who saw 
the picture when travelling in Europe, re- 
quested Dr. Beck to procure a copy, and 
that gentleman caused two to be executed, 
one of which he retains himself. It is a 
small painting, and bears the following in- 
scription ; " Le General Washington, Peint 
d'apres nature a Philadelphie, par N. 
Piehle en 1783." The family account of it 
is that it was purchased in a shop in Paris 
during the French Revolution. , This is in 
all probability one of those by C. W. Peale. 

brown's statue in union square. 
The head in this is taken from a marble 
duplicate of Houdon's bust, originally ex- 
ecuted by that artist for the Hon. Rufus 
King, which came into the possession of 
the late Col. George Gibbs, and is now the 
property of the Hon. Hamilton Fish. 


I have recently seen a profile photograph 
of Washington, purporting to have been 
taken from " the wax original by Mrs. 
Wright." Having in my possession a wax 
medallion of Washington, apparently its 
counterpart, I am anxious to ascertain 
upon what authority the one referred to is 
ascribed to that artist. 

This portrait, which is in about half the 
actual relief, and is encased in a deep oval 

frame, is nine inches in height, including 
head and bust, and represents Washington 
with much the same profile as in Houdon's 
marble. The hair is drawn back from the 
forehead, curled at the side, and tied with a 
ribbon in a very long queue. A military 
cloak is thrown back over the shoulder so 
as to exhibit the epaulette, upon which are 
three four-pointed stars.* The lappel of 
the coat is buttoned back, showing the 
waistcoat, and a very prominent shirt frill. 
The profile looks to the right. 

The Mrs. Wright in question is undoubt- 
edly Mrs. Patience Wright, an American 
who pursued her art in England, as a mo- 
deller in wax during the war of the Revo- 
lution, where she made herself useful to her 
country by transmitting valuable informa- 
tion to Franklin, then in Paris. A short bio- 
graphical notice of her may be found in 
Dunlap, and an amusing anecdote in El- 
kanah Watson's " Men and Times of the 
Revolution." In a note to a letter of 
Franklin, by William Temple Franklin 
(Works of Franklin, vol. vi.) she is styled 
Mehitable Wright, but Dunlap writes her 
name as Patience on the authority of her 
own letters, and says that she was also 
called Sybilla, as she professed to predict 
future events. The following letter from 
her to Jefferson is published by Dunlap. 


London, at the Wax Work, 
Aug. 14, 1785. 

" Honoured Sir: I had the pleasure to 
hear that my son Joseph Wright had paint- 
ed the best likeness of our Hero, Wash- 
ington, of any painter in America ; and my 
friends are anxious that I should make a 
likeness, a bust in wax, to be placed in the 
State house, or some public building that 
may be erected by Congress. The flatter- 
ing letters from gentlemen of distinguished 
virtues and rank, and one from that Ge- 
neral himself, wherein he says: ' He shall 
think himself happy to have his bust done 
by Mrs. Wright, whose uncommon talents, 
&c, &c.J make me happy in the prospect 
of seeing him in my own country. 

* Mr. Klias Dexter also has a photograph, apparent- 
ly from one of these medallions, in which the stars 
have five poinls. 




"I most sincerely wish not only to make 1787, by her modelling in wax. The 
the likeness of Washington, but of those younger daughter married Hopner, the 
Jive gentlemen who assisted at the signing rival of Stuart and Lawrence as a portrait 

the treaty of peace, that put an end to so 
bloody and dreadful a war. The more pub- 
lic the honours bestowed on such men by 
their country, the better. To shame the 
English king, I would go to any trouble 
and expense to add my mite in the stock 
of honour due to Adams, Jefferson, and 
others, to send to America ; and I will, if 
it is thought proper to pay my expense of 
travelling to Paris, come myself and model 
the likeness of Mr. Jefferson ; and at the 
same time see the picture, and if possible 
by this painting, which is said to be so like 
him, make a likeness of the General. I 
wish likewise to consult with you, how we 
may honour our country by holding up the 
likenesses of her eminent men, either in 
painting or wax work. A statue in marble 
is already ordered, and an artist gone to 
Philadelphia to begin the work {Houdon). 
This is as I wished and hoped." 

It is to be inferred from this letter that 
she had not at its date (1785) executed 
any model of Washington. Certainly she 
could not have done so from life, for she 
had never seen him, and according to Dun- 
lap she died during the same year. 

Mrs. Wright's son, Joseph, not only ex- 
ecuted a portrait, well known among those 
taken of Washington, but as mentioned by 
Watson, took a cast of his face in plaster in 
the year 1784, and Washington, in describ- 
ing the operation, mentioned that an im- 
pulse to smile "gave his mouth a slight 
twist or compression of the lips observable 
in the busts Wright afterwards made." 
Whether the busts thus spoken of were in 
wax, or what other material, I cannot find. 
They are not, I believe, mentioned in the 
catalogues of the Washington portraits. 
There is nothing peculiar in the mouth of 
the one I have. 

Besides this son, Mrs. Wright had two 
daughters, of whom Dunlap says: "The 
elder married an American of the name of 
Piatt, and inheriting some of her mother's 
works and talent, returned to this country 
and died here. Mrs. Piatt made herself 
well known in New York about the year 

painter." It might be conjectured that the 
medallion in question was by Miss, instead 
of Mrs. Wright, but I should judge from 
Dunlap's expression that she had married 
before her return to America. 

I trust that some correspondent will 
ascertain by whom the medallion really 
is ; how many copies of it there are, what 
other works by the same hand exist, and 
finally if any authentic modellings by Mrs. 
Wright, her son Joseph, or her daughter 
Mrs. Piatt, are yet to be found.* 



Monday, 19th of July, 1779. — The fleet 
sailed from Nantasket road this morning, 
consisting of 16 armed vessels, with about 
20 transports. 

Wednesday, 2\st. — We arrived at Town- 
send about sunset, where 1000 militia were 
in readiness to embark, including those 
that came from Boston in the transports 
under command of General Lovel. 

Friday, 23d. — The troops embarked on 
board the transports. 

Saturday, 24th. — This morning we sailed 
from Townsend, Or Booth-Bay Harbour, 
and favoured by a pleasant N.W. gale, ar- 
rived at Penobscot Bay, anchoring under 
four islands, about one league above Owl's 

Sunday, 25th. — We made sail, and about 
two o'clock came up to the entrance of a 
harbour called Magebagiduce, about 12 
leagues from the sea, where lay at anchor 
three British ships, viz. the North of 20 
guns, the Albany of 18, and the Nautilus of 
1 8, &c. On the north side of the harbour 
was the British flag displayed from a large 

* There is a notice of "Wright's bust in a letter from 
"Washington to Mrs. Wright, dated June 26, 1785 
(H. M. vii. 65), but it throws no additional light on 
the subject of the medallions. 




fort on a regular eminence, below which 
were two batteries, on the south side ano- 
ther battery was forming ; the whole made 
a pretty formidable appearance. Some of 
our largest ships passed by the harbour's 
entrance several times within reach of their 
cannon, and discharged a number of broad- 
sides at the ships and fortresses, which 
were returned with great vigour and intre- 
pidity ; in the meantime our transports 
came to anchor about one mile above, co- 
vered by the ship Sally and brig. 

Monday, 26th. — Our ships in turn ap- 
proached the harbour's mouth several 
times in the course of the day, within three 
quarters of a mile of the British encamp- 
ment, and discharged many cannon, receiv- 
ing an equal number M 7 ith little annoyance, 
excepting one unfortunate shot which over- 
set one of our boats, as they were landing 
some troops on the south point, out of 
which Major Littlefield and two privates 
were drowned. They pursued their object 
with great activity, and dispossessed the 
British party of their unfinished fort, killing 
one man ; after which our troops finished 
it and brought several 18-pounders to bear 
upon the ships, which caused them to be 
removed further up. This evening our 
ships came to anchor in a line across the 
harhour's mouth. 

Tuesday, 21th. — A council of war was 
held this day on board the Commodore's 
frigate, the result of which was that the 
marines from all the ships should join the 
troops and land under cover of the Hunter 
and Sky-Rocket ; pursuant to which, about 
two o'clock at night, the ships came to an 
anchor within musquet shot of the place 
assigned for the landing the men, being 
the north side of the harbour on a beach 
just above which arose a very high hill full 
of trees, brush, and craggy rocks, where 
two or three hundred Highlanders and 
some Britons lay in ambush. 

Wednesday, 2bth. — About four o'clock 
in the morning the two ships began to fire 
into the woods, which was continued al- 
most incessantly for about half an hour, 
that the troops might have the opportunity 
to land without being annoyed ; as soon as 
the boats had landed our men (who were 

in number about six or seven hundred) the 
Britons from the hill fired upon them and 
killed 16 men, and wounded as many ; our 
men with great resolution returned the 
fire, ascended the almost impassable preci- 
pice, routed them and took possession of 
the hill, killing (as they supposed) about as 
many as they lost, and taking a few prison- 
ers ; from thence they advanced to a bat- 
tery near the large fort, and possessed 
themselves of it, with considerable artillery 
and baggage. The action continued near 
an hour with great spirit and resolution on 
both sides ; the party that ascended the 
hill and put the Britons to flight were 
chiefly marines, consisting of about one 
hundred ; the Captain of marines and eight 
privates belonging to the Warren were 
killed. The troops are this day engaged 
in building a breastwork near the large 
fort, to which all those that fled had re- 
sorted. Several of our men have been 
wounded in the course of this day by shot 
from the fort. A number of cattle are 
taken and brought on board the ships. 

Thursday, 29th. — Our troops continue 
to fortify, p. m. All the ships are ordered 
to anchor within the mouth of the harbour, 
where they were considerably annoyed and 
some men wounded by shot from the fort. 
The prisoners inform us, that the fort and 
shipping contain about 1000 men, much ar- 
tillery, and two years' provision. The 
prospect of succeeding appears at present 
very dubious, the British ships are removed 
further up the harbour out of our reach. 

Friday, 30th. — Our troops continue to 
fortify without much annoyance within half 
a mile of the British fort. 

Saturday, 31st. — This day the Commo- 
dore, in consultation with the Captains of 
the fleet, is concerting a plan for all the 
marines to go ashore about midnight, un- 
der the command of Captain Burke, and 
in conjunction with the land troops, to 
attack a breastwork on a point near the 
British shipping just below their fort, think- 
ing by taking that, the communication 
would be cut off between the fort and 

Sunday, August 1st. — The attack was 
made about 2 o'clock at night with great 




vigour and resolution, and notwithstanding 
the arduous opposition that was made with 
cannon and small-arms, they were obliged 
to desert the breastwork in a little time 
and repair to the fort. We lost about 
fifteen men, and had as many wounded 
dangerously, killing and wounding (as is 
supposed) about as many of the British 
party; after being in possession of the 
place it was found impracticable to main- 
tain without much annoyance from the fort 
and ships, therefore after destroying a few 
hogsheads of rum and dismounting the 
three nine-pounders in it, we resigned it to 
them again. 

Monday, 2d. — Major Sawyer and the 
Second Lieutenant of the Vengeance, with 
several others, died this day of their 

Tuesday, 3d. — Many shells as well as 
shot are thrown from our fort into the 

Thursday, 5 th. — Many cannon are dis- 
charged thi3 day from our fort into the 

Friday, 6th. — A signal from the Com- 
modore was displayed for all the Captains 
of the fleet to come on board to consult 
about attacking the British shipping and 
fort ; the result was, that if the General 
would attack the fort with his army, which 
consisted of about 1200 men, including 
officers, a number of the largest ships 
should go into the harbour and attack the 
shipping. The plan was sent to the General 
for approbation. 

Saturday, 1th. — The above plan was not 
conceded to by the General, supposing 
that, as his army consisted chiefly of mili- 
tia that were undisciplined, he should be 
defeated in the attempt, therefore the con- 
clusion was to continue the siege till intel- 
ligence could be obtained from Boston 
respecting reinforcement. Several boats 
were discovered to be landing men from 
the British ships on the south part of the 
harbour above our small breastwork, which 
were prevented by the landing of about 
100 men from our ships near by, in the 
mean time a skirmish commenced between 
a party of our men near our three-gun bat- 
tery on the north 6ide of the harbour, and 

about 100 regular troops who were near 
their two-gun battery, tho' they were not 
near enough to inspire each other ; the 
British party soon retired to their fort, 
after which some of our people set fire to a 
number of houses and large barns near the 
fort, which were soon entirely consumed. 
The procedure was judged to be conducted 
with great imprudence, as it would only 
have a tendency to distress the poor inha- 
bitants ; previous to the landing of the 
British boats the Commodore and the Cap- 
tain of the Hampden had landed in the 
same place to view the land, who were 
obliged to flee into the woods, losing their 

Sunday, Sth. — The Commander returned 
to his ship about ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing, after much fatigue, travelling through 
the woods. 

Monday, 9th. — A signal was displayed 
from the Commodore for all Captains to 
come on board, to consult what measures 
should be most advisable ; after much de- 
bate and vote passed for the ships to go 
into the harbour, and attack the British 
ships, though it was judged by the Com- 
modore and many others, that the attack 
would be attended with great risque and 
danger of having our ships much injured, 
as we should be exposed to the fort, which 
we could not in the least annoy. The con- 
dition of this vote was, that the General 
should attack the British fort at the same 
time, which was sent to him for concur- 
rence. A general uneasiness is discovered 
through the fleet at being detained so long, 
many desert from the ships every night. 

Tuesday, 10th. — Consultation was at- 
tended upon this day on board the Com- 
modore ; the result of which w r as, that an 
attack should be made the ensuing day, by 
the ships entering the harbour, and the land 
forces attacking the British fortress at the 
same time. 

Wednesday, 11th. — The General not be- 
ing ready for the proposed attack, thought 
proper to advance out upon a plain between 
the British citadel and the harbour to ma- 
noeuvre his men, being about 750, leaving 
about 500 in the fort, a detached party of 
250 proceeded to the small battery near 




the S.E. point to excite the British troops 
to attack them from their citadel ; after 
they had paraded themselves in the bat- 
tery, about fifty-five regular troops sallied 
from their citadel, and advancing with reso- 
lution and intrepidity, put the whole party 
to flight, without discharging a gun ; they 
-pursued them to the main body, and then 
discharging a volley, drove the whole se- 
ven hundred and fifty into the fort, in the 
greatest confusion imaginable — the officers 
damning their soldiers, and the soldiers their 
officers for cowardice, many losing their 
implements of war, &c. The Captains of 
our ships were invited to see this grand 
manoeuvre of the militia troops. The de- 
tached British party returned, exulting 
with loud huzzas. A Council was convened 
this night by the General in camp, the 
result of which was, That he judging his 
army was not sufficient to oppose the Bri- 
tish on account of their inexpertness and 
want of courage, and not being in expect- 
ation of any reinforcement, thought it high- 
ly advisable, with the advice of his officers, 
to raise the siege. This being transmit- 
ted the ensuing morning (Thursday, 12th) 
to the Commodore, a general council with 
the Captains of the navy were held in camp, 
passing a vote to continue the siege, not- 
withstanding they thought themselves in- 
adequate to the attempt proposed ; that is, 
of encountering the Britons in the field, so 
as to give our fleet an opportunity of at- 
tacking the ships. For unless the General 
could possess himself of the point near the 
British ships, it would not be advisable for 
our ships to go in, as they would be ex- 
posed to the fort and artillery run down 
from the point, which would annoy us to a 
very great degree ; as the harbour is so 
narrow that we cannot readily get out 
again, — therefore the plan for the ships 
going in has proved abortive. 

Friday, 13th. — Very great uneasiness 
appears throughout the fleet at being thus 
detained at the risk of British reinforce- 
ments arriving, and the prospect of reduc- 
ing the place, either by sea or land, was so 
dubious. Three weeks have now elapsed 
since our siege began, and little or nothing 
is effected to our advantage. In the mean 

time our opponents are fortifying, and have 
compleated a very formidable citadel, 
where they are secure against us ; which 
at our arrival was only a breastwork, con- 
taining five or six-pounders, which then, in 
all probability, we could have reduced very 
easily, as also their shipping, as they have 
since acknowledged; in the course of which 
time thirteen or fourteen councils of war 
have been held, resolving one day to at- 
tack, and the next day reversing their 
schemes. The Commodore complaining 
that the General is backward, and the Ge- 
neral that the fault is in the Commodore ; 
the people censuring both, and are deter- 
mined, unless something is directly done, 
that is either to attack vigorously or raise 
the siege (preferring the former) that they 
would leave the ships, and not risk an at- 
tack by a superior force which was daily 
expected. While matters are thus alter- 
cating, five or six British ships hove in 
sight, making a formidable appearance, 
which has thrown our fleet and army into 
great consternation, the ships are all heav- 
ing up, the land forces embarking onboard 
the transports, waiting to see what force 
this consists of, and consulting how to es- 
cape if the force should be superior, con- 
cluding to attempt an escape by the west 
side of Long Island, or run the ships ashore 
and betake ourselves to the woods. 


That the Indo-European or Caucasian 
race is the leading family of mankind, 
': — the heir of all the ages in the foremost files of 

time ;" 

and that its Germanic branches, more 
or less pure — whether unmixed Teuton, 
Anglo-Saxon, Franco-Celtic, or Composite 
American — furnish its file-leaders and the 
champions of every genuine and prolific 

* Die Deutschen Huelfstruppen in Nordamerika- 
nischen Befreiungskriege, 17 7 bis 1783. Von Max 
von Eelking. 

The German Auxiliary Troops in the North Ameri- 
can War of Independence, 1776 to 1783. By Max 
von Eelking. Hanover, 1863. Two vols. 8vo., pp. 
397 and 271. 




thought of modern days — these are truths 
which we hold to be as evangelical as that 
Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, cor- 
rectly understood, are the birthright and 
the destiny of the whole human species. 
Numerous are the means which it has 
pleased Divine Providence to employ in 
disseminating over the earth this goodly 
seed of Teut: their love of travel and 
adventure, not loath to take the kindred 
Norman graft of piracy, so palpable in our 
British brethren; their assimilative tend- 
encies, whereby they make themselves 
everywhere at home, even as they once 
Germanized the Eternal City while Roman- 
izing themselves ; their habits of industry, 
wherewith, as their own poet says, they 

" Gather on every plain honey thej r know not for 

their loyalty to their chiefs, which leads 
them to make their prince's foreign quarrel 
their own domestic grief, and his shrewd 
policy their plain interest. 

The hated Hessian of our Revolutionary 
war came hither to fight against our fathers 
under this last influence. He had been 
brought up by the good old rule and sim- 
ple plan to " fear God and honor the king," 
for Napoleon Bonaparte, the potent " Ho- 
bespierre d chevcd," had not yet leavened 
with new ideas the European lump. The 
type and representative hero of these old- 
fashioned docile men might well be seen in 
their commander-in-chief, Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral Baron von Knyphausen, sitting, as he 
is depicted in the attractive production 
before us, on a rock in front of Fort Wash- 
ington, New York Island, holding his 
watch in his hand till the one halt-hour 
which he had granted the besieged Colonel 
Magaw for capitulation should expire, and 
looking down with contemptuous abhor- 
rence on the captured rebel standards as 
they were successively laid at his feet. 
The " blinde Hess,'' even now not famed 
for insight, as this his standing title shows, 
must then have thought it the height of 
sentimental absurdity that his fidelity to 
the sovereign, who, in profound king-craft, 
had, by solemn treaty, sold him to Great 
Britain, should be imputed to him as the 

! baseness of a hireling. This feeling, excu- 
sable in the anxious patriots of those preg- 
nant days, has long subsided and given 
place to an enlightened curiosity to learn 
from trustworthy German authorities the 
details, from their own point of view, of 
their countrymen's share in resisting our 
great appeal to arms. 

Now appears the worthy Captain von 
Eelking — already favorably known to us 
as author of " The Life and Actions of 
General von Riedesel," commander of the 
Brunswickers in Burgoyne's expedition — 
with his two excellent volumes, which go 
very far toward satisfying our desire. If 
we can be allowed to pun, we will say that 
he bears an appropriate family-name, for 
the Eel is well known to be — forgive us, 
Max ! — a scavenger of the waters, or, more 
delicately speaking, a gleaner of neglected 
matter, and Max is a king among such lite- 
rary eels. He gives a list of no fewer than 
thirty-eight manuscripts — principally dia- 
ries kept by officers during the war — which 
have been made use of by him as sources 
of information. This being the fact, the 
work has that inimitable freshness and life- 
like movement which can never pertain to 
a stately history compiled from second- 
hand materials. The Life of Riedesel has, 
we believe, been overlooked by translators, 
and is, therefore, accessible only in German. 
That such should be long the case with the 
book which we are considering, w^e think 
quite impossible. It must, from its subject 
and the merit of its execution, eventually 
take rank, when Anglicized, as a standard 
and essential complement of all narratives 
of the war. 

Many an interesting observation on the 
city of New York and its vicinity, during 
that fateful period, enlivens this new con- 
tribution to American historic literature. 
A few of these remarks we purpose to 
translate, by way of whetting the appetite 
of the antiquarian reader, till some pains- 
taking linguist serve him up a full repast in 
the guise of a complete version. After an 
ocean-passage, on which the Hessians were 
so crowded, herring-like, between decks, 
that the oldest man was placed at their 
right wintx to {rive a word of command 




when they had all lain till one side was 
" ripe," whereat all turned over on the 
other side, the troops disembarked, in 
August, 1776, on Staten Island. 

" On landing, the Hessians were most 
joyously welcomed by the English, as a 
long-desired aid, with salvos of cannon and 
musketry. The officers, in particular, vied 
one with another to meet the Germans in 
a friendly manner, and invited them into 
their tents. General von Heister was asked 
to dinner by the British commander-in-chief. 
The English camp was on a rocky height 
advantageously situated with a splendid 
view of the harbor of New York, and 
over a part of the interior country, as well 
as over the adjacent American camp on 
Long Island. The wonderful scenery, and 
the charm of novelty, after the long, mono- 
tonous, and toilsome voyage, cheered up 
officers and men." 

" Immediately on their arrival, the Ger- 
man officers were obliged to have every- 
thing of silver removed from their uniforms, 
as the British had already done. The ob- 
ject was to make them less easily recogniz- 
able by the dreaded riflemen, who were 
especially fond of aiming at officers." P. 
27, vol. i. 

We have next a sketch of the condition 
of affairs in America at that moment, in- 
cluding curious pen-and-ink portraits of the 
two brothers, Lord Richard and Sir Wm, 
Howe. Has a faithfully minute biography 
of the former, in succeeding years one of 
England's greatest naval heroes, ever been 
written ? We think not. He it was, who, 
as we recall to mind from our anecdotal 
odds and ends, bore among the sailors the 
nickname " Black Dick,'' from his swarthy 
and serious countenance, and in whose 
honor, doubtless, after his great victory 
over the French fleet off Ushant, June 1, 
1794, was drunk the queer and very apt 
toast, "First and Second of David's 
Third !" which the sagacious reader may 
interpret for himself. A veracious life 
of the admiral, comprising, of course, pro- 
per notice of his brother, the popular, 
good-natured, bon-vivant general, who, 
fortunately for the American cause, filled 
a position originally destined for that Ben- 

gal tiger, Lord Clive, would, if well related 
by some judicious countryman of theirs, 
hardly fail to afford us important facts as 
w r ell as amusing gossip. We are disposed 
to class with Carlyle's "books which are 
no books," the pompous and decorous 
" Life of Richard Earl Howe, KG., Ad- 
miral of the Fleet, and General of Marines ; 
by Sir John Barrow, Bart, F.R.S.," where- 
in w r e read that the mother of the two 
Howes w r as "Mary Sophia Charlotte, 
daughter of Baron Kielmansegge, Master 
of the Horse to George I., when Elector 
of Hanover, by Sophia Charlotte, daughter 
of Count Platen, of the Empire;" whereas 
it- is no secret that she was the natural 
child of the Hanoverian "Defender of the 
Faith," Richard and William being thus, 
with a bar sinister, cousins-german to King 
George the Third's Father, Frederick, 
Prince of Wales. 

The battle of Long Island was now im- 
pending, and some of the newly arrived 
Hessians relieved a portion of the English 
troops hitherto posted on Staten Island, 
but destined to take part in that action. 
This movement gives occasion for a de- 
scription of Staten Island and its inhabitants 
and neighbors at that date : 

" Von Stirn's brigade received the order 
to move forward upon the Jersey Sound, 
an arm of the sea which separates the is- 
land from the mainland, and there to 
relieve the 35th English regiment and a 
part of the 5th. In the morning of the 
19th of August the brigade began its march, 
their tents and baggage being packed in 
wagons. The singular vehicles, small, 
painted red, and drawn by two little 
horses driven by a negro, appeared to the 
good Hessians new and strange enough. 
When the brigade arrived at its destined 
place, the English officers had the politeness 
to invite the Germans to dinner. The relief 
took place at nightfall. The advanced posts 
were stationed, which stood very near to 
and opposite those of the enemy on the 
other side of the narrow sound. The entire 
brigade was distributed along the shore in 
small detachments. The regiment of'body- 
guards took its position at Amboy Ferry. 
The camp was pitched in two lii.e;, but in 




a few days had to be moved some distance 
backwards, as the Americans fired across 
from the other side with their long rifles. 
The out-posts being more and more molest- 
ed in this way, Grenke, lieutenant of artil- 
lery, was directed to pitch a few cannon- 
balls into Amboy, after which the Americans 
behaved more quietly." 

4 The width of the sound might be a 
little over three hundred paces. The 
Americans on the other shore, who here 
saw for the first time the dreaded German 
strangers, collected themselves in crowds 
on the bank, more to satisfy their curiosity 
than to await a demonstration from this 
side. A Hessian officer says in his journal : 
4 They stretched their necks mighty long. 
Some among them were in uniform, but 
the most in the dress of a promiscuous 
rabble.' » 

" The landing of the foreign re-enforce- 
ments had spread no slight terror among 
the Americans, Especially did they fear 
the Germans, whom they imagined to 
be half devils. A large part of the in- 
habitants had therefore fled with the 
greatest haste into the principal towns, 
particularly to New York, leaving their 
property, and even, to some extent, money 
and valuables. This dread was further 
increased when the troops took possession 
by force of the quarters assigned them, 
and refused at first by the obstinate in- 

" The soldiers had been most urgently 
commanded by their superiors to exercise 
the greatest moderation towards the people, 
even those of hostile sentiments ; for the 
hope of an amicable arrangement of differ- 
ences was still cherished, and it was desired 
to spare 'his Majesty's subjects' as much 
as possible, and avoid everything that 
might irritate them still more." 

44 Such was the serious wish of the Ger- 
man generals as well as the British. But 
this moderation was, in many instances, 
not recognized; the billeted soldiers were 
met in the rudest manner, nay, there was 
even a disposition to kick them at once out 
of doors, which naturally gave occasion to 
all sorts of collisions and excesses, since 
officers and men considered themselves to 


be at war in an enemy's country. When 
the first fear and excitement of the popula- 
tion had passed away, and they perceived 
that, after all, they had no robbers or can* 
nibals to deal with, the fugitives gradually 
returned, and were not a little surprised, 
not only to find their dwellings just as they 
had left them, but also their furniture, uten- 
sils — aye, even money and valuables, for 
the Germans, accustomed to discipline as 
they were, demanded no more than was 
due to them. The mutual relations now 
assumed a more agreeable aspect, and not 
unfrequently some rank liberal treated 
his billeted inmate better than a guest, 
and carefully tended the sick or wounded 

44 The portions of country thus taken 
possession of, situated in a mild climate, 
had, with their rich and changeful natural 
beauties, joined to their great fertility, the 
appearance of a paradise. The finest fruits, 
the most fragrant and beautiful flowers, 
grew here almost wild. Everywhere neat 
and cheerful country-houses and villages 
met the eye, and newly-founded towns 
which were manifestly growing. Almost 
universally, prosperity, even luxury, pre- 
vailed among the inhabitants, who with 
slight toil gained an easy and abundant re- 
turn. Almost every little farmer had his 
cabriolet and his black servants. Although 
Staten Island and Long Island had, since 
the beginning of the war, been occu- 
pied, now by our side, now by the 
American, and had, therefore, been dis- 
puted points, yet this had left scarcely a 
trace behind. The newly arrived Germans 
wondered greatly how it could occur to 
people thus living in superfluity and com- 
fort to rebel against a government under 
which they were apparently so well off. 
And how trifling were the imposts and 
taxes in this country compared with those 
of the German States ! The country-noble- 
man in Germany lived hardly so much at 
his ease in his castle as the most ordinary 
agriculturist did here upon his farm." Pp. 
30-32, vol. i. 

But military marauding is a genuine 
German practice, as the verb 4t to maraud" 
is a genuine German word, derived from 




the old Counts of Merode, noted freeboot- 
ers in the Thirty Years' War, whose castle 
we have seen between Aix-la-Chapelle and- 
Cologne. The national trait developed 
itself in the subsequent stage of the con- 
test, when reconciliation had become hope- 
less, and it was no longer thought worth 
while to treat the insurgents with forbear- 
ance. More particularly was this absence 
of restraint observed while Knyphausen 
commanded the garrison of New York dur- 
ing Sir Henry Clinton's successful expedi- 
tion to the South. It was the celebrated 
winter of 17*79-80, concerning whose 
severity we gain from Eelking some new 
facts : 

" The ice on the East River was eight- 
een feet thick, a thing without precedent. 
The soldiers had to chop up old ships, and 
even fell the trees in the beautiful walks 
and gardens, as the only means of procur- 
ing necessary fuel. A small board cost 
from six to eight pence." P. 83, vol. ii. 

For the privations and anxieties of this 
season, during which the city was accessi- 
ble to the enemy on every side, the ice 
being, as is well known, strong enough to 
bear the transportation of heavy artillery 
from New York to Staten Island, Knyphau- 
sen, early in the ensuing spring, indemni- 
fied his men by a plundering excursion to 
Hackensack. The detachment consisted 
of English, Hessians, and Bayreuthers. 
Among the latter was a certain musketeer, 
Doehla, who has left on record the follow- 
ing naive account of his winnings : 

" We gained considerable booty, as well 
in money, silver watches, silver plates and 
spoons, as also in furniture, good clothes, 
fine English linen, silk stockings, gloves, 
and cravats, with other costly silk stuff, 
satin, and dry goods. My plunder, which 
I safely brought back with me, amounted 
to two silver watches, three silver buckle- 
rims, a pair of woman's woolen stockings, 
a pair of man's mixed summer stockings, 
two shirts and four chemises of fine English 
linen, two fine table-cloths, one silver table- 
spoon, and one silver teaspoon, five Spanish 
dollars and six York shillings in money. 
The rest, namely, eleven ells of fine linen, 
and over two dozen silk handkerchiefs, with 

six silver plates and a silver goblet, all tied 
together in a bundle, I had to throw away 
and leave to the pursuing army, on account 
of the long and rapid march." P. 86, 
vol. ii. 

The city of New York, as it existed in 
those days, seems to have struck the 
strangers with admiration. Even at an 
advanced period of the war, when much 
injury and mischief must have been already 
done, troops are represented as marching 
with music through its " beautiful streets" 
to occupy their camp near Corlaer's Hook. 
(p. 48, vol. ii.) In the night between Sept. 
20 and 21, 1776, one-third of the town had 
been reduced to ashes by a conflagration 
which American writers agree in deeming 
accidental, but which our author views as 
undoubtedly the act of a fanatic mob. He 
expresses his surprise, too, that no attempt 
has ever been made to give it the color of 
a great national sacrifice, which the burn- 
ing of Moscow is wrongly supposed to 
have been. As early as the winter of 
1776-7, the British army being encamped 
about one mile north of the city, in two 
masses, the left wing on the Hudson and 
the right on the East River, the sidewalks 
had begun to lose that peculiar ornament 
for which the New York of former days 
was so distinguished. 

" Owing to the impending want of fuel, 
many of the beautiful trees had been cut 
down, which stood along the houses, on 
both sides of the streets, and were wont to 
yield a cooling shade amid the heat of the 
sun." P. 103, vol. i. 

From his authorities Eelking proceeds to 
describe, as follows, the situation of things 
in New York at that time : 

" On the harbor stood Fort St. George, 
a quadrangular work, with four bastions and 
mounted with twenty guns. Not far from 
it lay the former Government House and a 
chapel, in ruins since 1741, both buildings 
having been demolished in the Negro In- 
surrection of that epoch. Wooden barracks" 
for the reception of the garrison had now 
been built within them. Another fortifica- 
tion of stone was situated beneath the 
former, on the water-side, extending along 
the point of the island, and mounting ninety 




cannon. It was particularly intended for 
the defence of the mouth of the Hudson. 
Along the East River stretched the fine 
streets, Queen and Water streets, in which 
wealth and luxury had chiefly gathered, for 
here lived the foremost men of the mercan- 
tile class in houses like palaces." 

" Many churches served as prisons for 
the many prisoners.'' 

" As everywhere, so in New York, par- 
ties were at bitter variance. In spite of 
the stagnation of business, and although 
many families, the loyal as well as the 
liberal, had fled when the change occurred, 
yet great prosperity manifestly existed. At 
the helm of municipal affairs now stood 
royalists only, consisting of one mayor, 
seven aldermen, and as many members 
from the people. The city was divided 
into seven wards. Most of the male citizens 
were impressed as militia, and provided 
with arms for the defence of the town. 
Willingly would the Germans have taken 
up their winter-quarters in this great, rich, 
and every way agreeable place, but Howe 
assigned to a portion of them another 
station." Pp. 103-104, vol. i. 

Things wore another look in the season 
of 1*782-3, just before the cessation of hos- 
tilities : 

- " On York, Staten, and Long Islands, 
hard work on the fortifications was kept 
steadily up during the winter, for another 
attack was expected here from the Ame- 
ricans and French. When the weather 
was too cold for digging, fascines and other 
things were got ready. Each German 
regiment gave daily 150, or even 200 men 
to the labor.'' 

'"On the 8th of January, the regiment 
of Body-Guards and Prince Carl's regiment 
marched to MacGowan's Pass, where the 
newly-built barracks for these troops had 
just been finished. Here, too, intrenching 
went on without cessation. The greatest 
activity, however, was shown in and around 
New York. 'This little island' — says 
Dinklage's diary— ; is being completely 
turned up. On every hill is a redoubt. 
No other trees than fruit trees are to be 
seen upon it, and even these are no longer 
spared. The beautiful groves an* 1 walks 

are no more : in a word, the exquisite 
loveliness of this island has been converted 
into fearful ruin. It pains a well-disposed 
man to see destroyed in one day what it 
will take generations to restore." Pp. 166- 
7, vol. ii. 

We have already expressed our desire 
that this work may be translated. We also 
trust that it may be well edited. It is full 
of blunders which no one, perhaps, but a 
New Yorker is capable of thoroughly rec- 
tifying. Take, for instance, the passages 
last quoted. Without dwelling on Eel- 
king's comparatively venial ignorance that 
MacGowan's Pass is on New York Island, 
at the northern extremity of the Central 
Park, we think he should have known that 
the Negro Plot of 1741 was, like the Popish 
Plot in England in 1678, a panic rather 
than a reality. The only burning con- 
nected with it was that of the thirteen 
wretched blacks who were in this manner 
savagely put to death where Pearl (then 
Queen) street intersects the present Chat- 
ham.* The " Province House,'' so called, 
the building referred to by our author as 
in ruins, was accidentally consumed at mid- 
night, Dec. 17, 1773. The family of Gov- 
ernor Try on, who occupied it as his official 
residence, escaped with difficulty, his 
daughter leaping from the second story 
window, and her maid, who was afraid to 
follow her, losing her life. No great criti- 
cal stress is to be laid on his mere peculiari- 
ties and mistakes in spelling, though laugh- 
able and too frequent : Wallaboud for 
Wallabout ; Heights of Guiana for Heights 
of Go wan us ; Woodberrey ; Vallay-Forge ; 
New-Wark ; Terrytown ; Verglants-Point 
for Verplanck's Point ; and many others. 
Who, we should like to know, was the 
"treacherous Oberst John," or Colonel 
John, of whom we find the following tale, 
quite new to us, in Eelking's account of the 
battle of Long Island ? Probably a Jones, 
whose honesty would, it seems, have been 
improved if Timothy Titcomb's letters to 
that numerous family had been in his days 
given to the world : 

* But the church and buildings in the fort were 
burned at the time, and this fire as well as others laid 
to the Negroes.— En. H. M. 




" Colonel John, of the rebels, is dead. A 
grenadier took him prisoner, and magnani- 
mously granted him his life, telling him to 
go to the battalion in the rear, for the 
grenadier was a flanker. The colonel 
wanted cunningly to murder his captor 
from behind, and stealthily drew a pistol, 
but only wounded the arm of the gren- 
adier, whereat the latter regaled him with 
three or four bayonet thrusts." Pp. 40-1, 
vol. i. 

But this writer has been betrayed into 
more serious inaccuracies. Not content 
with one great fire at New York in the 
autumn of 1776, the same conflagration 
which we have already mentioned, he treats 
us to another, Nov. 20, in which, as he as- 
serts, Trinity church was destroyed. This 
is altogether imaginary and surprisingly 
confused. Trinity church was burned, with 
much of the lower part of the city, on the 
night of Sept. 20-21; and the patriots on 
the other side of the Hudson, at Paulus 
Hook, now Jersey City, are said to have 
raised a loud hurra as its steeple sank into 
the flames. Our friend Eelking gives the 
following strange version of the occur- 
rence : 

" A portion of the exasperated populace 
had assembled on the hill of St. Paul's 
church, and contemplated with cannibal- 
like mirth and rough jests the destructive 
progress of the mighty flames. A wild 
shout of joy accompanied the fall of the 
tower of that fine old English house of 
God." P. 56, vol. i. 

" Paulskirche" and " Paulus Hook" are 
here very curiously confounded. Our old 
St. Paul's still stands as it stood before the 
Revolution ; and its spire, added, we think, 
since that period, but in the graceful Eng- 
lish taste of Wren, Gibbs, and their school, 
really shames the two hideous abortions in 
white stone and brown, which deform the 
upper part of the Fifth avenue. 

This is not the only error of fact we have 
detected in the work. But we have done 
with censure. The book is a good book, 
valuable as well as entertaining, and, when 
carefully translated, revised, and anno- 
tated, will be acknowledged by the Ameri- 
can public to contain exact as well as ani- 

mated pictures of the men aad things of 


In the year 1785, several so called " dark 
days" occurred in Canada, and excited 
much apprehension among the ignorant 
and speculation among the learned. Low- 
er Canada only was peopled by civilized 
man at that time, so that we have no 
account of the "dark days" in Upper 

It is recorded in the Quebec Gazette of 
October 20th, 1785, that on Sunday, Octo- 
ber 16th, 1785, it was so dark soon after 
ten in the morning that printing from 
ordinary type could not be read. The 
phenomena are described with some degree 
of minuteness by Chief Justice Sewell. 

"On October 9th, 1785, a short period 
of obscurity occurred at Quebec about 
four in the afternoon, and during its con- 
tinuance the sky in the north-east quarter 
of the heavens exhibited a luminous appear- 
ance upon the line of the horizon of a 
yellow tinge. On the 15th there was a 
repetition of the same phenomena at a little 
earlier hour, with violent gusts of wind, 
lightning, thunder, and rain, accompanied 
as on the 9th. The morning of October 
16th was perfectly calm, and there was 
thick fog. Towards nine o'clock a light 
air from the north-east sprang up, which 
increased rapidly. The fog by ten o'clock 
was entirely dissipated ; black clouds were 
then seen rapidly advancing from the 
north-east, and in half an hour print could 
not be read. The darkness lasted for about 
ten minutes. At twelve, a second period 
of obscurity took place; then a third, and 
a fourth, and fifth, at intervals : at half- 
past four it was dark as midnight." 

Four distinct accounts of similar pheno- 
mena are recorded by Chief Justice Sewell* 
as occurring on July 3rd, 1814. One from 

* "A Few Notes on the Dark Days of Canada." 
By the Honorable Chief Justice Sewell, President of 
the Library and Historical Society of Quebec. 




the pen of an officer of the Royal Engi- 
neers, supposed to be Captain Payne, taken 
from Tulloch's Philosophical Magazine, 
describes the appearances at the Bay of 
Seven Islands, above Anticosti, on July 
2nd and 3rd. A second describes what 
occurred on the 2nd at Cape Chat, from 
observations made by some officers who 
were on board the transport " Sir William 
Heathcott," which lay the whole of the 
day at anchor in the river St. Lawrence at 
that point. The third contains some addi- 
tional observations respecting the appear- 
ances on July 2nd, made on that same day 
in another ship, which also lay off Cape 
Chat. And the last relates to the pheno- 
mena which were observed by the Chief 
Justice himself upon the banks of New- 

On July 3rd, twenty miles from the Bay 
of Seven Islands, the clouds appeared to 
be coming rapidly from the northward; 
the atmosphere was thick and hazy, and at 
night the darkness excessive. About 9 
p.m. a sort of dust or ashes commenced 
falling, and continued during the night; 
towards the morning the whole atmosphere 
appeared red and fiery to a wonderful 
degree, and the moon, then at the full, not 
visible ; the appearance through the cabin 
windows and crystal lights singular in the 
extreme, as if surrounded by a mass of 
fire ; the sea sparkling much, and in a man- 
ner not usual in these latitudes. On the 
following day the sea was found to be 
covered with ashes, the wind having died 
away to a dead calm early in the morn- 

A bucket of water taken up appeared as 
black as writing ink ; the ashes, from the 
quantity which had fallen, " appeared as if 
those of burnt wood?"* 

On July 4th the ashes were still observed 
to be falling in small quantity. " The ashes 
collected on deck appeared to be those of 
burnt wood, but darker and more heavy 
than the ashes of a tobacco pipe." 

The narrative of the officers who were 
on board the transport "Sir William 
Heathcott'' states that on July 2nd, 1814, 
there was a heavy fall of ashes and sand. 
The wind blew gently from the north shore 

of the St. Lawrence. The third account 
states that on July 2nd, when off Cape 
Chat, for three days previously some ashes 
and smoke had been observed, but on the 
second no symptoms of burnt wood were 
seen ; but at 2.30 p.m. of that day the sun 
was obscured, and a total darkness set in, 
which continued until about sunset. 

The Chief Justice's own observations 
were as follows: "July, 1814 — Sunday — 
A most extraordinary day. In the morn- 
ing dark thick weather, and fog of a deep 
yellow color, Which increased in density 
and color until four o'clock p.m., at which 
hour the cabin w\as entirely dark, and we 
dined by candle-light ; the binnacle also 
was lighted shortly after." 

The relative positions of the different 
observers at the time when the phenomena 
described in the preceding paragraphs 
occurred, show that the northerly wind 
which blew on July 2nd carried clouds of 
ashes, sand, smoke, and vapor across the 
river St. Lawrence, in a line from the Bay 
of Seven Islands, to Cape Chat, and then 
by the westerly wind w T hich set in on the 
night of July 2nd across the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence and the island of Newfoundland 
to the great banks, and on July 3rd enve- 
loped the vessel in which the Chief Justice 
was sailing in the same obscurity in which 
the other ships off the Canada coast were 
shrouded on the preceding day. 

Chief Justice Sewell attributes these 
phenomena to volcanic action rather than 
to an extensive conflagration. He says: 
" As to the conflagration of a forest, the 
facts of which we are in possession do not 
appear to warrant a belief that such can be 
the cause. It seems impossible to suppose 
that the conflagration of a forest could 
have produced a mass of smoke so dense 
and so extensive as to overspread, as it did 
in October, 1785, the surface of a territory 
exceeding certainly 300 miles in length, 
and probably 200 miles in breadth, and 
producing at its utmost longitudinal extre- 
mity, and at mid-day, the obscurity of the 
darkest night. And as the whole of the 
cause of this obscurity proceeded appa- 
rently from the Labrador country, where 
forest trees are few in number, stunted 




in size, and spread in isolated patches over 
a general surface of rock, it is the more 

The Chief Justice inclines to the view 
that the phenomena of the " Dark Days of 
Canada " are to be attributed to an active 
volcano in the Labrador Peninsula, and 
he draws attention to the coincidence in 
the narratives of the different observers 
quoted, and those which are mentioned by 
Charlevoix in his description of the earth- 
quake in 1663 : " A Tadoussac," says Char- 
levoix, " II pleut de la cendre pendant six 
heures " — torn. i. p. 367 ; also on page 336, 
he adds, "Une poussiere qui s'eleva fut 
prise pour une fumee et fit craindre un 
embrasement universel.'' 

Tadoussac was situated at the mouth of 
the Saguenay River. The Chief Justice 
also states that among the Indian tribes on 
the north shore of the St. Lawrence a 
traditional belief of the existence of a vol- 
cano in the Labrador country is said to 

In his journal of a voyage in the country 
of the Papinachois, a Montagnais tribe on 
Lake Manicouagan, in 1664, Henry Nouvel, 
a Jesuit missionary, states that on May 11 
he arrived at a river which the Indians 
called Kouakueou, and saw the effect of 
the earthquake on the rivers, the water 
which flowed in them being quite yellow, 
and preserving this color until they min- 
gled with the St. Lawrence. The same 
effect was noticed on Bersamites River, and 
the Indians dare not venture on them in 
their canoes. 

He also relates that the earthquake had 
such a powerful effect upon an Indian con- 
jurer named Ouiskoupi, that he renounced 
his craft and gave up his medicines to the 
missionary, who burnt them.* 

Lieutenant Ingall, who explored the 
country between the St. Maurice and the 
Saguenay in 1828, states that the opinion 
very generally prevails, borne out by tradi- 
tion, that an active volcano is somewhere 
in existence among the mountains south- 
east of the Saguenay, but, he adds, it 
wants the confirmation of ocular proof, for 

* Relation des Jesuitcs. 

not one of the Indians who traverse those 
regions in search of game has ever seen 
the slightest appearance of fire issuing from 
the earth, nor did Lieutenant Ingall hear of 
any scoriae or vitrified rock having been 
discovered in the country.* Without 
doubt the coast between Cape Tourmente 
and Malbay is frequently troubled with 
shocks of earthquakes, but whether these 
shocks are occasioned by the working of 
some neighboring volcano is a matter of 
mere speculation. Nor does the appear- 
ance of the land bear evidence of there 
having ever existed a volcano to the south 
of the River Saguenay, as from the well- 
known fertility of decomposed lava we 
should find a very different soil from that 
hitherto discovered. If a volcano is at the 
present period in a state of active opera- 
tion, I should be much more inclined to 
suppose it seated among the unexplored 
mountains of Labrador, to the north-east 
of the Saguenay or the Gulf of St. Law- 

In October 1785 the obscurity extended 
so as to comprehend on one side Frede- 
rickton, New Brunswick, and on the other 
Montreal. A ship, the Adamant, was on 
the morning of Oct. 16th off the end of the 
island of Anticosti. There it was then 
clear weather; but towards the west the 
ship's company saw a heavy black cloud, 
and by twelve on the same day had sailed 
into it, and very shortly afterwards found 
themselves in darkness. 

In 1828 Captain F. H. Baddely, R. E., 
was engaged by the Canadian government 
in exploring the Saguenay country, and in 
his Report, which was published at the 
time, he states that Malbay or Murray Bay, 
on the St. Lawrence, 90 miles below Que- 
bec, has long been remarkable for the 
frequency of earthquakes. 

Shocks are most frequent in January or 
February ; they occur about nine or ten 
times a year. "It is not," says Captain 
Baddely, " perhaps generally known that 

* Remarks on the Country lying between the 
Rivers St. Maurice and Saguenay, on the north shore 
of the St. Lawrence. By Lieutenant Ingall, 1.1th 
Regiment. Transactions of the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society of Quebec, 1830. Vol. II. 




there exists highly respectable evidence of 
a volcanic eruption having happened some- 
where in the rear of St. Paul's Bay, not far 
from Murray Bay. No one, we think, will 
feel disposed to doubt the fact after perusing 
the following account of it, with which, 
through the politeness of Messrs. Gagnon 
and Chaperon, we have been furnished. It 
is the former gentleman who writes : 

" In the place of a journal, which hap- 
pens to be lost, receive the following : — 

" Tuesday, December 6, 1791. — At St. 
Paul's Bay, and at other neighbouring 
places, at about a quarter after seven, a 
severe earthquake was felt ; the whole night 
was disturbed by small ones repeated at 
intervals, and by a sudden shaking running 
towards the east. The shocks were felt for 
forty-one days, from two (shocks) to five a 
day. On Monday, December 5th, the 
shocks were fully one-third weaker than 
those of the 3rd ; the others were only 
small ones, or rumbling noises, the weather 
being always gloomy. Before the night of 
the 26th, 27th, I had not yet remarked any 
eruption or thick smoke, at times curling 
into a flame. The temperature at a quarter 
after seven in the evening was 11° above 
zero by the thermometer of Reaumur (plus 
56°.7 of Fahrenheit) ; the next morning 
the heat had risen to 21° (plus 79 J of 
Fahrenheit). Two mountains near my 
dwelling at some 40° north-west have a 
valley between them, so that you may see 
beyond them. It is by this valley or pas- 
sage that I saw a continual eruption, mixed 
with smoke and flame, which appeared 
very plain on the horizon, at other times 
struggling among themselves, as if too 
oppressed in their issue. I have remarked 
several times that this eruption is always 
followed by shocks of earthquake the same 
day, and when it fails a dark and yellowish 
day follows. ^ When the earthquake arises 
you can predict that it is going to be so 
much the nearer as this agitated smoke 
struggles to get out. Some persons to 
whom I had shown these preparations of 
the earthquake, warned me in their- turn 
that in a moment the earth would shake. 
And the effect confirms it. Finally, on this 
night of the 26th, 27tb, a most beautiful 

spectacle was produced. The whole atmo- 
sphere was in flames and agitated, one's face 
suffered from the heat, the weather was 
very calm, the eruption continued the 
whole night with flames. The certain 
approach of the earthquake is known, 
when, by the passage between the moun- 
tains, you see a cloud, or smoke, quiet or 
agitated, and on the left and right the 
horizon is perfectly clear." 

" A fall of ashes covering the snow in 
1791 was also within the recollection of 
many of the inhabitants of St. Paul's Bay. 

The list of earthquakes on the next page 
which have occurred in Canada is from the 
Catalogue prepared by Mr. Mallet for the 
British Association.* 

The number of earthquakes which have 
visited Canada since its discovery by Euro- 
peans has been at least twenty-nine,f but it 
is highly probable that this enumeration 
falls far short of the actual occurrences of 
this phenomenon. Respecting the fire 
mountain of the Nasquapees north of Lake 
Manicouagan, about 200 miles from the 
coast, too little is known to assert posi- 
tively that it is an active volcano. The 
name is suggestive, although it is probable 
that, from the long intercourse between 
many families of this people and the fur 
traders, such a remarkable feature of the 
country would have been known to them. 

Lake Manicouagan was visited by a 
Jesuit missionary in 1664, but although he 
mentions the earthquakes, he does not men- 
tion the fire mountain. 

Assuming that there existed in the great 
peninsula of Labrador no other combusti- 
ble material besides the stunted trees, there 
would be good ground for attributing the 
u Dark Days of Canada" to some other 
agency than that of burning vegetable mat- 
ter ; but when we reflect that the country 
is almost everywhere covered with a thick 
coat of lichens and mosses where these 
have not been burnt, and that they are even 
better adapted, when dry, to burn with 
extraordinary rapidity, and afford during 

* Quoted in Notes on the Earthquake of October, 
1360. By J. TV. Dawson, LL.D., F.G.S. 

\ Notes on the Earthquake of October, 1860. 




their combustion a greater cloud of smoke 
than forest trees, it will be apparent that 
the precise element for producing the phe- 
nomena of smoke and ashes existed in the 
Labrador Peninsula to a remarkable degree. 
Dry caribou moss burns with wonderful 
rapidity, as we found to our cost ; it also 
emits dense volumes of smoke, and leaves 
behind a great quantity of ash and char- 
coal. There is no reason to suppose that 
the table-land of the Labrador Peninsula 
was covered with forests centuries ago, for 
the missionary before mentioned, Henri 
Nouvel, states that an Oumamiois chief 
told him that in the country north of Lake 
Manicouagan the trees were very small, 
and there was no birch bark to make 
canoes. The whole of the burnt country 

near the table-land through which I passed 
in 1861 is still covered with this charcoal 
and ashes, where sand forms the sub- 
stratum : from the rocks they have been 
washed away by rains, but on the sandy 
flats they form still a black cake. The 
occurrence of sulphur in the ashes, as 
described by the writer in the Quebec 
Gazette of October 27th, ] 785, is proble- 

After having witnessed the combustion 
of caribou moss on a large scale, and the 
appearance of the burnt country on the 
borders of the great table-land of Labrador, 
I am inclined to the opinion that the "Dark 
Days of Canada" were the result of a vast 
conflagration in the interior of the Labra- 
dor Peninsula, and that the materials which 

Year. Month. Remarks. 

1663 February 5 . . . • Very violent. 

1665 "24 Tadoussac and Murray Bay, violent. 

" October 15 Violent. 

1672 March and April* 

1732 September5 

1744 May 16 . . . . . . Quebec. 

1755 October Unusual rise and fall of the water of Lake Ontario. 

1791 December Severe shocks at St. Paul's Bay. 

1796 February A violent shock. 

]816 September 9 A severe shock at Montreal. 

" " 16 A second shock, less violent. 

1818 October 11 Felt near Quebec. 

1819 August 15 At St. Andrews. 

" November 10 At Montreal, slight, followed by an awful storm with rain — 

impregnated with matter like soot. 

1821 February At Quebec, a slight shock. 

1823 May 30 On shore of Lake Erie. 

1828 August 20 

1831 July 14 At Murray Bay, Beauport, &c. "Walls and chimneys thrown 

down at the former place. 
1833 March and April .... Severe shocks at Murray Bay. 

1840 September 10 . . . .At Hamilton. 

1841 Spring Said to have been felt at Quebec. 

1842 November 8 and 9 Montreal, Three Rivers, <fcc. 
1844 " " .... Montreal. 

1847 " " " 

1856 May 1 At Ottawa and its vicinity. 

1857 October In the Upper Province. 

1858 January 15 At Niagara, 

" May 10 . . . . .At Richmond, slight. 

1859 " At Metis (Lower St. Lawrence). 

1860 October 17 Yery violent at the River Ouelle, and other places in the 

Lower St. Lawrence ; chimneys were thrown down, and 
walls damaged. 

1861 July 12 Violent at Ottawa, throwing down chimneys. 

* This earthquake was observed by Pere Francois de Crepieul, in the country north of Tadoussac, and is 
recorded by him in a letter dated June 2, 1672. The Pere says that it was the continuation of the terrible 
earthquake of 1662, "which has not since ceased in this quarter of the north, although it is felt but little 
and at intervals." — Relation de la Nouvelle France en VAnnee 1672. , 




assisted most in feeding the fires were the 
lichens and mosses which grow in such rich 
and extraordinary luxuriance and beauty in 
that desolate country. The astonishing 
speed with which fire runs through the 
moss has been described by several writers, 
and tli ere is no valid reason why a fire 
should not stretch from Hudson's Bay to 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence in a few days, 
as far as the combustible nature of the fuel 
is concerned ; but its progress is arrested 
by the presence of lakes, many and broad, 
and the swamps by which many of them 
are terminated. A broad sheet of flame 
stretching for many miles across is at once 
divided by a lake, and as these lakes often 
occur one after another for many miles, the 
fires are broken and become local in their 
effects, except in certain cases when the 
direction of the wind changes in such a 
manner as to distribute them more wildly. 
A fire in the Labrador Peninsula, where 
the trees are few and far between, very 
much resembles a fire in the prairies ; but 
owing to the extraordinary dryness of the 
caribou moss it spreads with much greater 
rapidity. It would be impossible to escape 
from an approaching sheet of flame in 
Labrador by speed. The only plan is to 
scrape the moss from a few square yards, 
which is done with the utmost ease, as it 
adheres to the rock or soil very loosely, 
and then to lie down upon the bare earth. 
The smoke arising from a fire made by this 
material is very penetrating. The air is 
filled with 6ne dust arising from the ashes ; 
and on sandy plains, where the lichens and 
mosses are deep, and other varieties besides 
the caribou lichens exist in abundance, the 
charcoal that remains behind covers the 
soil with a uniform mantle of black. If a 
volcanic eruption had taken place since the 
time when Canada was discovered, it is 
probable that the early missionaries, the 
Couriers des Bois, the fur traders, or the 
officers of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
would have recorded the phenomena or 
learnt the fact from Indians. Still it must 
be acknowledged that the term "fire 
mountains," common among the Nasqua- 
pee Indians, taken in connection with the 
earthquakes which have visited the region 


of the Lower St. Lawrence from time to 
time, and the testimony of Monsieur Gag- 
non, is quite sufficient to turn attention to 
the probability of such an occurrence 
having taken place in recent times and the 
possibility of its renewal. 


To the Horible. the Mayor, Recorder, Al- 
dermen and Commonalty of the City 
of New York. 


I received your address, and the freedom 
of the city with which you have been 
pleased to present me in a golden Box, 
with the sensibility and gratitude which 
such distinguished honors have a claim to. 
The flattering expression of both stamps 
value on the acts ; and calls for stronger 
language than I am master of to convey 
my sense of the obligation in adequate 

To have had the good fortune, amidst the 
vicissitudes of the long and arduous contest, 
" never to have known a moment when I did 
not possess the confidence and esteem of my 
country" — and that my conduct should have 
met the approbation, and obtained the 
affectionate regard of the State of New 
York (where difficulties were numerous 
and complicated), may be ascribed more to 
the effect of divine wisdom, which had dis- 
posed the minds of the people, harassed 
on all sides, to make advances for the em- 
barrassments of my situation, whilst with 
fortitude and patience they sustained the 
loss of their capital, and a valuable part of 
their territory — and to the liberal senti- 
ments and great exertion of her virtuous 
citizens than to any merit of mine. 

The reflection of these things now, after 
the many hours of anxious solicitude which 
all of us have had, is as pleasing as our 
embarrassments at the moment we encoun- 
tered them were distressing, and must 
console us for past sufferings and per- 




I pray that Heaven may bestow its 
choicest blessings on your city. That the 
devastations of war, in which you found it, 
may soon be without a trace. That a well 
regulated and beneficial commerce may 
enrich your citizens — and that your State 
(at present the seat of empire) may set 
such examples of wisdom and liberality as 
shall have a tendency to strengthen and 
give permanency to the Union at home, 
and credit and respectability to it abroad. 

The accomplishment whereof is a remain- 
ing wish and the primary object of all my 

G°* Washington. 

gtofcs mi %ffl$n. 


The Temple, the Hasbkouck House, 
etc. — The building called the " Temple," 
in which Washington read to his officers 
the address in answer to the " Newburgh 
Letter" (see Historical Magazine, vol. vii, 
page 351), was built upon the ridge east of 
the Cranberry Meadow, south of Snake 
Hill, a short distance back of Newburgh. 
The land on which it stood was owned by 
Jabez Atwood, and now by the heirs of 
David Moore. It was constructed of 
palisades split from oak logs, and was 
about thirty-five feet square, one story 
high, and had a high, square roof. The 
floor was close to the ground. It remained 
in good condition for several years after 
the close of the war, and was occupied as 
a dwelling by a poor family. There are 
no traces of the building left, and have not 
been for more than fifty years. At the 
time it was built the army lay in three 
divisions (though the first and third might 
properly be called but one) in the imme- 
diate vicinity as follows : 

The First Division on the upland, west 
of what is now called u the square," and on 
the land owned by the father of Isaac 
Hamilton, Esq., of Albany. 

The Second Division (which was the 
main force) was encamped on the east and 
west of the Cranberry Meadow, and south- 
west from the farm of James Patten. 

The Third Division on the east portion 
of the farm of the late John R. Caldwell. 
After the army was disbanded, a num- 
ber of families took possession of the 
barrack which had been erected by these 
divisions, and occupied them until they 
became unfit by reason of decay for further 
use. No portion of these buildings now 
remain. The material of their construction 
was the same as that of the Temple. 

At the time the divisions were so encamp- 
ed, General and Mrs. Washington stayed at 
the stone house of the Hasbrouck family, in 
the south part of the village of Newburgh. 
The room occupied by them was in the 
north-east corner of the house. It is said 
that Col. Pickering died in the north-east 
room, but I have never been able to trace 
the tradition satisfactorily. Hamilton, La- 
fayette, and Burr were staying there also. 
Gen. Knox had bis quarters at the time in 
the low, long stone house which is still 
standing near " the square." Mrs. Wash- 
ington remained at the Hasbrouck House 
more than a year, it is said. I was so in- 
formed by the late Jonathan Hasbrouck, of 
Newburgh, from whom the State of New 
York acquired its present title to the pro- 
perty. When Mrs. Washington left the 
house, at the close of the war, she presented 
to Mrs. Hasbrouck her chair, which she had 
brought from Mount Vernon. It is very 
plain and simple, has quite a high back and 
low seat, and was painted green. It has 
passed to the fourth generation, and is now 
owned by Mrs. William R. Eager, of Great 

Washington took final leave of many of 
his officers on the green in front of this old 
house at the close of the war. The build- 
ing was thoroughly repaired at the expense 
of the State when it purchased it. The 
interior is substantially as it was at the 
close of the Revolution. Many valuable 
revolutionary relics have been presented 
and deposited in the rooms. Some of the 
most valuable of them were presented by 
Enoch Carter, Esq., of Newburgh. One 




of the silver spurs of Major Andre, a lock. The 6th day of April, old style. 

of the hair of Washington, and many other This is the mark of Wame X tappack, 

rare curiosities adorn the walls and shelves. Sachem. 

The gun of Harvey Birch (the American | This is the mark of X Minnequahem. 

Spy, who gave the English cow-boys so This is the mark of x Attewaram. 

much trouble) was there at one time/ j This is the mark of x Oramysy. 

John M. Eager. I This is the mark of X Rammyeraen. 

N. Y. 

This is the mark of x Pauwangum. 
This is the mark of X Kameneck. 

Indian Deed for Canarise, Long [ This is the mark of x Wauaclyck. 
Island.— The following translation, made ; This done by me, the constable, as witness, 
by me, from the Dutch records on file in the | Minne Johannes, 1665. 

Clerk's office in Flatland, Kings Co., of the j On the date of the || April, the purchase 
Indian purchase of Canarise, and of the! of the Indians, the first payment m 
amount paid for the Nicolls and Lovelace | _ wampum . . 600* 

patents, I send to you for publication, if 

deemed of sufficient importance. 

T. G. Bergen. 

On this 23rd day of April, 1665, was 
agreed as follows, to wit: — Wametappack, 
Sachem of Canaryssen, and Rammieracy, 
Minneguahum, Camenuck, Panwangum, 
and Attewaram, lawful owners of Canary- 
sen and the appendages thereto appertain- 
ing, have agreed and sold to the inhabi- 
tants of the town of Amesfoort a parcel of 
land lying on Long Island, by and in the 
vicinity of the village of Amesfoort, begin- 
ning by the west side of " Muskyttehool," 
at a certain marked tree ; thence stretching 
to where the end of the Flats come by the 
two trees situated on the north side of said 
Flats to a certain marked tree ; from thence 
to the Fresh Kill meadows, stopping at the 
path from the Great Flatts to the Fresh 
Kill meadows, and stretching in the Flats, 
with all meadows, kills, and creeks therein 
contained ; and that for the sum of one 
hundred fathoms wampum, one coat, one 
pair stockings, four adz's, two cans of 
brandy, and one half barrel of beer, with 
condition that the purchasers, once for 
always, a fence shall set at Canarysen for 
the protection of the Indian cultivation, 
which fence shall thereafter by the Indians 

One coat comes to . . . .60 
One pair of stockings ... 6 

One pair shoes . . . . .16 
Four adz's . . . . . 16 

Two cans brandy .... 8 
One half barrel beer ... 15 

" Paid for the patent of Richard Nickel- 
son to Matys Nickel, one hundred schepel 

" Paid for the patent of Franszoos Loflys 
to Matys Nickelson, twenty schepel 
wheat." f 

Southern Currency. — The following 
advertisement, from a North Carolina 
paper, is curious as a proof of the worth- 
lessness of the money there, and the long- 
headed prudence of the Friends : 

New Garden Boarding School. — The 
53d session of New Garden Boarding 
School opened the 16th day of 11th month 
instant, and will continue 2.0 weeks. 
Board and washing will be furnished by the 
month for 133 pounds of flour, 25 pounds 
of pork, and 2^ bushels of corn, or the 
equivalent in money. 

The tuition, per session of 20 weeks, may 
be paid by 250 pounds of flour, 35 pounds 
of pork, and 4 bushels of corn, or the 
equivalent in money. 

The school will be under the charge of 
be maintained, and the land which becomes | N>reus Mendenhall as principal teacher, 
inclosed in fence shall, by the Indian own- j a,,d Jonathan E. Cox and wife, Superin- 
ers above-mentioned, all their lives, be j tenderits. 

used, to wit, by Wametappack, the Sachem, I Hth month 30, 1863. 

with his two brothers. All done without ~ * Probably guilders (40c). 

fraud or deceit. f Schepels are equal to bushels. 




Carondelet. — Vide Poche. — Caronde- 
let, in Missouri, was formerly called, from its 
povetry, Yide Poche {Empty Pocket), and 
these lines commemorate its origin : 


In seventeen hundred and sixty-seven 

Delor de Tragette, a man of renown 
(To his name all honor and praise be given), 

Laid out the foundation of Vide Poche town; 
And, tho' ninety odd years have passed away, 
Vide Poche stands there at this very day. 

Near the river's brink, 'neath a young elm tree, 
The Frenchman erected his cabin small, 

That the dancing waters his eye might see, 
As they swept the base of the white bluff tall ; 

And could hear the song of the voyageur 

By the echoes repeated far and near. 

And a few friends went with the good Tragette, 
And built their snug cabins hard by his own, 

Made of rough-hewn logs that on end were set, 
With roofs that ran up to a sharpened cone ; 

"While hazel bushes, mud, gravel, and straw 

Stopped the cracks secure from the winter's blow. 

They planted their corn in the month of May, 

Their gardens with gumbo were green in the spring ; 

They caught the cat-fish that wallowing lay 
At the river's bottom, with horse-hair string ; 

And the huge bullfrog that croaked in the pond 

Made a dish of which they were very fond. 

When the autumn came they gathered their crops, 
And Lent being over they had a dance ; 

And tradition says that those Vide Poche hops 
Were merry as any e'er seen in France ; 

For a King and Queen were managers then, 

And a Vide Poche boy was the prince of men. 

But now times have changed, and the gay Tragette 
Has passed from the earth with all his gay friends ; 

Their grand-children only can now be met, 
But the elm tree still in majesty bends 

Like a mourner drooping o'er friends loved well; 

Could it speak, what a tale that elm could tell ! 

The cabins are gone of these early days, 
The fields are barren, the gardens in weeds; 

The bullfrogs no more from the green pond gaze, 
The mud-cat secure in the water feeds ; 

The yellow Des Peres, in its 'hoarse debouche, 

Sings a wild, sad dirge for the old Vide Poche. 

The bluff which the French boys so loved to climb 
Mas been cut away for the iron steed ; 

The river, that bristled with snags sublime, 
Is lashed by the steamer that flies with speed ; 

And the railroad car, with conductors smart, 

Has taken the place of the old French cart. 

New houses of brick, and " ivory " streets, 

Are seen where once were the cabins and lanes ; 

And one of the finest of country seats 
Is Monti Pice with its Gothic vanes ; 

The dry dock is there by the river's side, 

And steamers by scores to the shore are tied. 

'Tis Vide Poche no more, but Carondelet, 
With its city council, its Marshal and Mayor ; 

How would it astonish good old Tragette, 

Could he come to life and once more be there ; 

For the " empty pocket " is filling fast, 

And ancient Vide Poche has itself surpassed ! 

Dialects of the Mutsun Language of 
California. — The late Mr. Turner called 
attention to this language in the Magazine 
some years since ; and since Ethnology met 
so severe a loss by his death, Arroyo's 
Grammar and Vocabulary have been pub- 
lished. The language was, for a Califor- 
nian one, wide-spread, and it may be well 
to preserve in the Magazine the following 
vocabulary of the Indians at the Mission of 
Santa Cruz, a Mutsun dialect. It was 
prepared in September, 1856, by Padre 
Juan Cornelias, for A. S. Taylor, Esq., and 
given in his Indianology paj)ers in the 
California Farmer. 

The words are evidently to be pro- 
nounced as Spanish. 







avelones or 

wicked spiril 

; uten 








quitchguema black 










infant, child 



lachcamin ' 







great, big 




small, little 
































live, life 




dead, death 








warm, hot 


























neck harcos 

arm ysu 

hand spalmish 
Indian shoes sholoc 

bread missoy 
pipe, calumet torejo 

tobacco macher 

sky, heaven chara 

sun ishmen 

moon char 

fingers rarash 

nails tur 

body uara 

belly ramaina 

leg coro 

feet hatash 

toes rorash 

bone chaie 

grasshopper urua 
condor or vulture cayas 

whale chime 

heart mini 

blood payan 
town, village puebla 

chief uit-tres 

friend onient 

house, hut rua 

kettle amamsha 

arrow chemo 

bow liti 

knife chippi 

star usi 

day tujish 

light charco 

night muruch 

darkness heuep 

morning munsha 

evening we-ac-say 

spring etuenpire 

summer elau 

autumn puty 

winter asir 

wind taris 

lightning uilep 

thunder chura 

rain amani 

snow wacani 

hail yopoc 

fire yuelec 

crow sharac 

bear ores 
turkey-buzzard humish 

water si 

ice ucani 

earth, land pire 

«ea calay 

river rumay 

lake hoicol 

valley ruum 

hills, sierra satos 

mountain huya 

island tepeol 


this neppe 

that hemit 

all nappi 
many, much yasir 

who atu 

near amatica 

to-day naja 

yesterday uican 
to-morrow munsa 

yes eje 

no ec ka 

east yachmu 

west arras 

north tamarte 

south ramay 

one impech 

two uthin 

three caphan 

four catuash 

five mishur 

six saguen 

seven tupuytuc 

eight usatis 

nine neu-ku 

ten I-esh 
eleven imheshwacaiish 

twelve utheniish 

thirteen capan-ush 

fourteen catush ush 

fifteen mishur-iish 

sixteen saquen iish 

seventeen tupuy-tac-iish 

eighteen natis-tish 

nineteen ni-koo-ish 

twenty uthin-i-uesh 

thirty cappan-iuesh 

forty catuash-uiesh 

fifty mishar-iuesh 

sixty saquen-iuesh 

hundred tappan 

eat amay 

drink uit 

run uricay 

dance chitte 

go hui-coo 

sing shane 

sleep echen 

speak aiua 

see hiri ri 

love hasan 

kill nimi 

walk chaumespi 

salt aues 

wild-cat toroma 

elk tibu 

deer toch 
mud-tortoise aunishmin 

fly mumura 

eagle nuppi 

musketo cash up 

feather lipos 

wings uima 


stone, rock e-ni 

tree luspin 

leaf tapash 

grass guay 

herb guay 

oak arue 

pine-tree gireni 

flesh, meat ris 

beaver gupi 

wolf umu 

coyote mayan 

dog hichas 

fox yurig 
squirrel (ground) ejh 

rabbit wiren 

hare cheyes 

bird winac 

goose patch 

duck epe 

pigeon molmol 

Cal, quail acas 

hawk cacrui 

sea-muscles sharo 

fish helai 


wild oats tapoc 
acorns rapac 

salmon hurac 

name racat 

lime uani 

affection nunco 
sit taurait 

stand corhonmi 

come uate 

earthquake ymi 
eclipse nanup 

name racat 

morter (to pound 

acorns etc.)semhoshmin 
sardines tupur 
tule or bullrushes haa-le 
cloud risha 

fog puhay 

humming-bird umanu 
chenati, or 

blackbird sucrin 
serpent, or snake mumana 
culebra, or 

rattlesnake hinchirua 

The rancherias of Indians near this Mis- 
sion, all within eight or ten miles of Santa 
Cruz, among which this vocabulary was 
spoken, were : Aulintac, the rancheria pro- 
per to the Mission ; Chalumii, one mile 
north-west of the Mission; Hottrochtac, 
two miles north-west of the Mission ; Wal- 
lanmi ; Sio Cotchmin ; Shoremee ; Onbi ; 
Choromi ; Turami ; Payanmin ; Shiuguer- 
mi : Hauzaurni. 

Historical Reminiscence of Buffalo. 
— The patient research of our townsman, 
L. K. Haddock, Esq., has brought to light 
many historical events connected with the 
early settlement of the country bordering 
on the lakes. The commerce then and now 
compared shows the giant strides that have 
been made in the onward march of pro- 
gress, and the incidents given in the fol- 
lowing communication will be of general 
local interest : 

Mr. Editor — At your request I copy 
from my note-book some items respecting 
the now " Great West." I have corre- 
sponded with many of our historical cele- 
brities with a view to make this narrative 
more complete, but have gained no addi- 
tional facts. It is possible that the descen- 
dants of the persons named may have 




papers or letters which will give us 
valuable information. I presume Gen. 
Amherst's and Bradstreet's, and Henry 
White's papers are still extant. Can any 
of your readers oblige me with an inspec- 
tion of Evan's Essays, or Mante's history 
of the late war ? 

I find mention made of the Gladwin 
Chippewa, Capt. Robinson, Lady Charlotte, 
and the Beaver being on Lake Erie in 


Sterling & Porteus, merchants of De- 
troit, sent down the lake on board the 
Charlotte, in September, fifty packs of fur. 

The Beaver was a new vessel, belonging 
to Commodore Grant. She was lost in 
May, near Sandusky, with £3,000 of furs, 
and 17 men. 

It is quite probable that Lewis Gage, 
who was appointed Ensign 35th Regt., 
20th February, 1766, when, and ever since 
he had been in command of the lakes, was 
Captain of the Beaver, and was lost with 

This year Campbell, Phyn & Ellice, of 
Schenectady, with Sterling & Porteus, of 
Detroit, built the Angelica, of 45 tons. J. 
& A. Stewart, of New York, furnished the 


Richard Wright, of Wood 

Bridge, near New York City, was the 
Captain. Wages £120 per annum. She 
was a very successful vessel, and Grant & 
Robinson were very angry, and tried to 
purchase Campbell's interest, which was 
one-sixth. Upon Lake Ontario was the 
Charity, conveying stores to Edward Pol- 
lard, sutler, at Niagara, and flour for the 
use of the garrison, which was ground by 
" Jilles Funda." Amongst the supplies 
ordered from New York was a hat from 
Jewes, the Comstock of New York, two 
firkins of butter, and three pounds of green 
tea. James Munier, Postmaster at Al- 

In 1772, the Charity, on Lake Ontario, 
John Leighton, master, did not earn enough 
to pay her crew. The freight on sheep 
across Lake Ontario was 7 shillings. Mr. 
Pollard, sutler, at Niagara, is making 
money, and sends Nancy to New York, 
which she " likes very well," and Masters 
Ned and Bob to that, then as now, famous 

seat of learning — Schenectady. T. De 
Couagne, interpreter at the Fort, sends 
his son to the same place. " He is a very 
decent lad." Mr. Pollard consoles himself 
for the absence of his children by playing 
billiards. Is advised to make butter and 
cheese if the expense of keeping cows is 
not too great. Writes to New England 
for a Yankee laborer. Is not able to get 
newspapers — the ^Express was not then in 
existence, I think. Major Ethrington is in 
command at Niagara. " He is an old 
soldier, and the depth of his understanding 
past finding out." 

Pfister and Stedman have come to some 
accommodation. The latter having the 
carrying trade around the Falls. Duffin is 
to engage the men and Stedman is to keep 
tavern. At Fort Erie, Rutherford is in 
command. Norman McLeod, Commissary. 

General Gage has given permission to 
build a store-house at Fort Erie. 

Two of the King's vessels are to remain 
at Fort Erie till the 10th regiment goes 
up. Binnerman and Graves command 
these. The sloop Betsy is sailed by Captain 
Friend. This is her third year on Lake 

At Detroit are James Porteus, formerly 
from Crieff, Perth Co., Scotland ; James 
Sterling, Gordon, and McComb, Hugh 
Boyle, Lieuts. George McDougal and 
John Hay, Abbott, and Edgar. 

John Thompson, of New York, sends a 
Negro to Detroit to be sold on his account. 
Upon his arrival methinks I hear the hon- 
est old Scotchman James Porteus exclaim : 

"We start to think that hapless race 
Must shape our good or ill ; 
That laws of changeless justice bind 
Oppressor with oppressed; 
And, close as sin and suffering joined, 
We march to Fate abreast." 

Alexander Grant winters at Detroit ; he 
has usually spent his winters in New York. 
Rumor will have him entangled in the 
meshes of a net set by the beautiful Miss 
Thereasea Barth. 

John Askin is located at Mackinaw. 

Mr. Norbury, a Russian, holding a com- 
mission in the GOth -Reffiment at Maeki- 



11 aw, goes to Lake Superior with A. 
Henry. — Buffalo Express. 

The Last Wild Buffalo in Ohio. — 
In the last century this animal ranged ex- 
tensively over the southern half of the ter- 
ritory, now embraced in the State of Ohio. 
Two were killed in the forks of Symmes 
Creek, near the south-eastern corner of 
Jackson Co., in the year 1800, and were 
the last ever discovered within these 
limits. Up to that period extensive fields 
of the wild cane or gigantic reed were 
common in the valleys of the Great and 
Little Miamia rivers, and the paroquett 
and swallow-tailed hawk were then com- 
mon birds. All of them have long since 
disappeared from these localities. k. 

Cleveland, O., Jan. 8, 1864. 

Poughkeepsie. — In a volume of Dutch 
records, entitled "Notarial Paperz, 1677- 
1695," preserved in the office of the Clerk 
of Albany County, is to be found a deed of 
gift under date of 5th May, 1683, of which 
the following is an extract : — * * " Een 
seeckere hooglantsche Wilt (genaemtMas- 
sany) De welcke bekent midts deesen uyt 
een Vrye gift gegeeven to hebben Een 
Bouwery aen Pieter Lassingh (Lassen), 
Ende Een Bouwery den Jan Smeedes 
Jonge glasemaeker En Een Val aen Strant 
ora een Moolen op te setten, — de Val is 
gcnaemt Pooghkepesingh, — ende het Landt 
is genaemt Minnissingh, geleegen aende 
Oost Wal van de Rivier" (Hudson) ; * * 
which may be translated as follows : 

* * A certain Highland Indian (named 
Massany), who, by these (present), acknow- 
ledges that he has given as a free gift, a 
bouwery to Peter Lassingh (or Lassen), 
and a bouwery to John Smeedes Jonge, 
glass maeker (glazier) ; — and a fall on the 
shore to set a mill upon ; the fall is named 
Pooghkepesingh ; and the land is named 
Minnissingh, lying on the east bank of the 
River (Hudson). 

This seems to be the original conveyance 
from the native proprietor of the plot of 
ground now occupied by the city of 

This fact may be familiar to the local 

antiquaries of the place, but to most of the 
readers of the Magazine, doubtless, it is 
new. The noisy water-fall may appro- 
priately be called Pooghkeepesingh, but 
surely the beautiful word Minnissingh 
should not have been lost ; it should have 
been retained as the name of the city. 

J. p. 

Schenectady, June 4, 1864. 

Curious Origin of a Christian Name. 
— In Canada, Delima is a common and 
rather pretty name for girls. Its origin 
would not easily be suspected. A clergy- 
man from France had a child brought to 
him to baptize, and was requested to 
christen it by this name. " This is not a 
fit name," was his reply. "You should 
give her the name of some saint." *' But, M. 
le Cure, it is a saint's name." " No, there 
is no such saint in the calendar." M Why, 
M. le Cure, don't you know Ste. Rose de 
Lima?" He certainly did, and found that 
people finding Rose de Lima too long, 
dropped Rose, and ran Delima together. 


The American Editions of the Re- 
deemed Captive, condensed from Hist. 
Mag., vol. vii. p. 382-4, with additions and 

1. (Copies in library of Mass. Hist. Soc, 
Am. Antiq. Soc, etc.) Boston, 1707. 

2. uf The second edition." Boston: T. 
Fleet, for Samuel Phillips. 

3. Spoken of by 6r., but not seen or 

4. Edited by T. Prince (not seen). Bos- 
ton, 1758. 

5. " The fourth edition." New London : 
T. Green (N.D.), 1772. 

6. u The fifth edition." Boston: John 
Boyle, 1774. 

7. " The fifth edition." New London : 
T. Green (N.D.), 1780. 

8. "The fourth edition." Greenfield: 
T. Dickman, 1793. 

9. "The sixth edition." Boston: Sam- 
uel Hall, 1795. 

10. "The sixth edition." Greenfield: 
T. Dickman, 1 800. 

11. New Haven : W. W. Morse, 1802. 




12. Brookfield: Hori Brown, 1811. 

13. Greenfield: C. J. J. Ingersoll, 1837. 

14. Northampton : 1853. 

We have some reason to suppose that 
one or more editions were printed in 
Philadelphia or New York before the year 
1800, but we have not seen them. 

A pamphlet with the following title be- 
longs to the same family as the Redeemed 
Captive : 

"A Sermon preached at Mansfield 
(Conn.), August 4th, 1741, at a time set 
apart for Prayer for the Revival of Religion ; 
and in behalf of Mrs. Eunice (the Daughter 
of the Reverend Mr. John Williams), 
who was there on a visit from Canada, 
where she has been in a long captivity. 
By Solomon Williams, A.M., Pastor of the 
First Church in Lebanon." 

Boston : Printed by S. Kneeland and 
T. Green, 1742. 

It appears from the sermon that Eunice 
Williams, her Indian husband, and two 
children were present on the occasion 
which drew together " such a numerous 
audience," and the aim was (Eunice being 
a Catholic) " to find some way for her de- 
liverance from the snares and thick-set 
stratagems of the Devil, and make her a 
monument of Glorious and Almighty 

But tradition says that Eunice would not 
be converted, but preferred to return to (in 
the language of the preacher) " the bar- 
barous and heathen people among whom 
she had lived for thirty-eight years ; a 
people bred up in Popish superstitions, 
blindness and bigotry." 

h. o. 

Borrowing Names of Places — In- 
teresting Letter from Doctor O'Cal- 
laghan. — At a late meeting of the Onon- 
daga Historical Association, the following 
interesting letter by Dr. O'Callaghan was 

Albany, Nov. 19, 1863. * 

Dear Sir — I received only late last even- 
ing your kind invitation to attend the first 
meeting of the Onondaga Historical So- 
ciety, which is to take place this evening, 
at Historical Hall, Syracuse. 

I beg to congratulate you, as I do most 
sincerely, on the event ; and I have no doubt 
of the future prosperity of your Society and 
of its success in rescuing from oblivion 
much that will prove valuable both to the 
local and general historian. Already New 
York, Buffalo, Brooklyn, Kingston, and 
Ulster county are engaged in the good work, 
and the county of Westchester is, as I am 
informed, about to organize a similar 
society to yours. Livingston county, too, 
has, I am told, its Historical Society. 
Through the labors of these several as- 
sociations, public opinion will be so enlight- 
ened, and public taste so directed as to 
relieve our maps and geographies, in time, 
I hope, from many of the out-of-place names 
which have been imposed on our cities and 
towns, when a false hankering after Euro- 
pean and classical nomenclature distorted 
and vitiated rules that ought properly to 
have been observed at the time. 

Our mountains, our hills, our lakes, our 
valleys, and our streams are purely and 
exclusively American. God gave them in 
all their sublimity and beauty to America. 
It seems to me that they ought to be dis- 
tinguished by names identified with the 
history of the country. 

Europe borrows not names for her classic 
lands from America. Why then go to 
Italy, Greece, or elsewhere for names to 
designate the hunting grounds and homes 
of the Iroquois of New York, or to dis- 
tinguish the spot where, as Mr. Street 
beautifully expresses it, the pioneer felled 
the forest and let in the first ray of sunlight 
on the soil? 

Your labors will avail much in correct- 
ing the false taste here indicated. 

It would afford me great pleasure to 
attend your meeting, but want of leisure 
and pressure of duties which cannot be 
neglected, must plead my excuse. 

With best wishes for your success and 
kind regards to each member of your so- 

I remain, Dear Sir, 

Yours very respectfully, 
E. B. O'Callaghan. 

R. F. Trowbridge, Esq., Rec. Sec, On. 
Hist. Soc, Syracuse, N. Y. 




Immigration from New England to 
the State of New York. — Surveyor- 
General De Witt to Governor Clinton. — 
[Land Papers, See's Office, Alb., vol. 1., 
p. 79.] 

'Albany, 15th April, 1791. 

Sir — Almost every day the New Eng- 
land People make application to me for 
Lands, in the 20 Townships — some of them 
witli Money in their pockets raised for the 
purpose of purchasing. I can neither get 
rid of their Questions or give them satis- 
factory answers. I am obliged to tell them 
that these lands will be shortly advertised 
for sale, but that the mode and terms are 
left by Law to the discretion of the Com- 
missioners of the Land Office. Many of 
them will settle immediately and run the 
risque of purchasing afterwards. Numbers 
of them who have gone thither with the ex- 
press view o£ making pitches and prepare 
places to which to remove their families, 
are exceedingly anxious to have the oppor- 
tunity of buying. I think it will be the 
interest of the State to give them two or 
three years time for the payment of a part 
of the purchase money. 

I am, Sir, your Excy.'s 
Most obedt. Servant, 

M. De Witt. 

Governor Clinton. 

[The 20 townships above-mentioned are 
principally in the present counties of Madi- 
son and Chenango. The words in italic 
are so marked in the original. — e. b. o'c] 

Syracuse. — This is the most ancient 
white settlement west of Albany. It dates 
as far back as 1056, in which year a num- 
ber of Frenchmen planted a colony on the 
margin of Lake Onondaga, whose salt 
springs had been discovered in 1654. The 
site of this colony is, we understand, a spot 
of remarkable prettiness ; and what is par- 
ticularly interesting is the fact that the 
spring mentioned in the French account of 
the settlement, still flows from the side of 
the hill upon which the missionaries erect- 
ed their chapel and the soldiers their little 
fort. It is known at this day as the "Je- 
suit Well." 

It is now in contemplation to erect a 

hist. mag. vol. vin. 9 

monument over this spring, in commemo- 
ration of the discovery of the Salt Springs 
and the founding of the first European set- 
tlement in Central New York. Those 
familiar with the enterprise and public 
spirit of the citizens of Syracuse have no 
doubt that an undertaking so laudable will 
be worthily carried out, 

e. b. o'c. 

Resolved Waldron. — In the paragraph 
in the last number of the Historical Maga- 
zine on this person the words Strong Creek 
ought to have been printed " Stony Creek." 

John Brown's Tract. — This famous 
summer resort for sportsmen and tourists 
lies partly in Lewis, but mostly in Herkimer 
County. It is a wild, mountainous re- 
gion, interspersed, however, with lakes 
and deep valleys. When first laid out 
under the directions of Simon De Witt, 
Surveyor-General, it was divided into eight 
townships, which were made in a manner, 
by their names, representatives of all the 
virtues required by the inhabitants of that 
region to realize a living there ; for they 
were called Unanimity, Frugality, Per- 
severance, Sobriety, Regularity, Enterprise^ 
Economy, and Industry. 

Letter of Lafayette to Gen. Knox 
in 1781. — The original of the following 
letter is in the hands of W. F. Bacon, Esq., 
Theological Seminary, Bangor, Maine : 

Forks of York River, August 18, 1781. 

My dear Sir— In spite of the 24r's, the 
mortei s, and the whole noisy Hellish train 
of your siege artillery, I want you to hear 
the voice of a friend whose attachment to 
you deserves some share in your affection. 
I realy Believe I possess it, my good friend, 
and notwithstanding your silence, I am 
sure you feel for me in every transaction of 
this most difficult command. 

last campaign I was sighing for .... 

j This campaign I was trembling for them as 

! in the Beginning. 

There was no difference between a skir- 

j mish and a Battle — a Battle and a total 

I defeat, we were so lucky as to escape an 
action and keep ourselves clear of that 



mounted that wasgallopping 

around us. Then we had our turn, and 
for many, many mile had the pleasure to 
occupy his lordship's Hd. quarters. You 
had accounts of the two skirmishes. I 
thought all was over, and owing to your 
siege of New York, I anticipated great 
deal of ease and happiness. Indeed, I 
could not help growing jealous, and began 
to think of a visit to your Batteries, But 
soon found there was in this quarter work 
enough for me, great deal to much indeed 
for my youth and the means that I have. 

Lord Cornwallis Having not succeeding 
in land journeyings, has undertaken a water 
voyage. I thought first the man was going 
to New York, then to Pottomack, or Bal- 
timore, But on a sudden he entered York 
River, and is at York and Gloster out of 
our reach, refreshing his troops and 
meditating mischief. York is on high 
ground, surrounded with creeks and 
marshes available by one high a . . . . 
this to my surprise he does not fortify. 
Gloster is a neck of land projecting into 
the River, and very useful to the defeat of 
shipping, these my lord is fortifying. Ports- 
mouth is not evacuated, so that he is 
divided in three points, two of which I 
confess are the same thing. But should a 
naval superiority come great advantages 
might be obtained in this quarter. I wish 
my dear friend our conduct may have 
met with your approbation. I wish both 
from esteem and friendship. 

At the present I am trying to conjure up 
a cavelry to collect levies, to arm and as- 
semble militia, to replenish our few con- 
tinentals, — to have a part of them in re- 
diness to Reinforce General Green, and am 
waiting at that fork of York River to 
oppose either way His lordships ma- 
nuievers . p . . 

Lord Cornwallis abilities are to me more 
alarming than his superiority of forces. I 
ever had a great opinion of him, our papers 
call him a Mad Man. But was any ad- 
vantage taken of him when he commanded 
in person ? To speak plain English, I am 
devilish afraid of him. 

Major Cush Having gone to the North- 
ward, we are in want of an artillery field 

officer. Had C tn - Lamb been only a 
Major, I should have asked for him. I 
wish C tn - Stephens might make it con- 
venient to return. 

My most respectfull and affectionate 
compliments to Mrs. Knox. I am so im- 
prudent as to take the liberty to address a 
kiss to Lucy and a paternal one to my son. 

Yours for ever, 


General Knox. 

Quebec in 1*701. — In a manuscript en- 
titled " Lettres Canadiennes" is the follow- 
ing description of Quebec in 1701 : 

The curiosity of learning and knowing, 
so common to all mankind, made me ex- 
amine Kebec closely on my arrival. This 
town is situated 2000 leagues from France. 
It is divided into the upper and lower 
town. In the latter reside the merchants 
and those who trade by sea. The- houses 
are all built quite comfortably of a black 
stone as fine and hard as marble. The 
roadstead is defended by a large platform 
in the middle, which is level with the water, 
so that hostile vessels could not be at 
anchor without being badly handled as 
well by the cannon of this platform as by 
those of a fort which commands the city 
and harbor, on one of the most precipitous 

From the lower to the upper town there 
is a road which winds around imperceptibly 
for carts and waggons, which have never- 
theless much difficulty in ascending. The 
upper town is situated at an extraordinary 

The house of the viceroy or governor- 
general is in the upper town in the most 
prominent point. It is one hundred and 
twenty feet long, and two stories high, 
with several pavilions which form additions 
in front and behind, with a terrace of 
eighty feet overlooking the lower town 
and the river below, whence you can de- 
scry all that you desire to see. 

The governor-general who now resides 
in this castle is called M. C. Chevalier de 
Caillieres, formerly governor of the city of 
Montreal, sixty leagues above Quebec. 




This gentleman is respected and beloved New York: T. and J. Swords, 1796, 
both by the French and the Indians, who 8vo. 16 pp. ; of the visits in 1798, Mr. 

equally regard him as the common father 
of all the inhabitants of Canada. To him 
we are indebted for all the fortifications of 
the country, which have been erected by 
his care. All persons of distinction also 
reside in the upper town. There is a 
bishop and canons whose chapter is com- 
plete. There is also a fine seminary and 
several churches, among which that of the 
Jesuits and that of the Recollects are the 
first. This last faces the castle, and is the 
most modern in the country. The cloister 
of these good fathers is lighted on all sides 
with stained glass windows bearing the 
arms of several benefactors of the house. 
The intendant's office alone is badly situated 
on a low spot near the little river. 

The city, upper and lower, is situated 
between two considerable mountains, one 
higher than the other. One is called Cap 
au Diamants, because an extraordinary 
quantity is found on the rocks, which are 

Hardie published an account that I have 
not seen; of those in 1799 and 1803, I 
know no accounts published at the time ; 
of that of 1805, there is " An Account of the 
Malignant Fever which prevailed in the 
city of New York, during the Autumn of 
1805." By James Hardie. New York : 
South wick and Hard castle, 1805, 8vo. 
196 pp. ; of the last great visit there is 
" An Account of the Yellow Fever which 
occurred in the city of New York in the 
year 1822, to which is prefixed a brief 
sketch of the different pestilential diseases 
with which this city was afflicted in the 
years 1798, 1799, 1803, and 1805," <fec., by 
James Hardie. New York : Samuel 
Marks, 1822, 12mo., 120 pp. 

The reports of Dr. Miller to the governor 
in 1803 and 1805, contain accounts for those 
years, but I do not know that they were 
printed separately. 

Many medical treatises on the fever 

not surpassed in beauty by real diamonds, appeared during these visitations, or after 

and only lack hardness. The other moun 
tain is called Saut au Matelot, so termed, 
because during the first times of the esta- 
blishment of the French in this colony, a 
sailor who went too near the brink went 
down in spite of himself. Around this last 
mountain a little river runs by the inten- 
dant's. — JOAbeille. 

Accounts or the Yellow Fever in 
New York. — The city of New York was 
several times visited by this dreadful 
scourge, which had become habitual at 
New Orleans till a beast removed the 
beastly things which engendered it. Of 
the first visit, in Aug., Sept., and Oct., 
1791, there is a dissertation by Dr. J. S. 
Addom ; of that of 1 793, I know no special 
account ; of that of 1795, there is " A brief 
Account of the Epidemical Fever which late- 
ly prevailed in the city of New York," <fcc., 
by M. L. Davis. New York: 1795, 8vo. 
66 pp. ; and also, " An Account of the 
Epidemic Fever which prevailed in the 
city of New York during part of the Sum- 
mer and Fall of 1795," by Richard Bayley. 

them, as " Inquiry into the cause of the 
prevalence of the Yellow Fever in New 
York," by Dr. Valentine Seamen ; " Ori- 
gin of the Pestilential Fever," by Dr. 
E. Smith ; " Manley's Dissertation on the 
Yellow Fever," etc. A. 

"Sir Christopher Gardiner, Knight 
of the Golden Melice. — Hon. Robert 
C. Winthrop, in his remarks at a meeting 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society, in 
1858, was, I believe, the first to suggest 
that the "melice," which has puzzled so 
many readers of Winthrop's Journal, and 
given occasion to much fanciful specula- 
tion, was nothing more than the Italiati 
milizia, or French miliee, applicable, in 
either language, to any order of knight- 
hood. Thus, the vocab. della crusca, with 
other significations of milizia, gives " per 
ordine di grade cavalleresco." 

Mr. Winthrop does not, however, appear 
to have been aware that the title assumed 
by this English adventurer was literally 
translated from the Italian " Cavaliere 
della milizia aureata," or the correspond- 
ing French, M Chevalier de la miliee 




doreef the proper designation of a Papal 
order formerly in high repute, and which 
is more popularly known as " Knights of 
the Golden Spur" (Cavalieri dello Sperone 
d'oro). The diploma of a knight of this 
order names him " Auratae niilitise equitem, 
ac Aulae Lateranensis et Palatii Apostolici 
comitem," etc., with permission to bear 
" torquem aureum, et ensem, et aurata 
calcaria (Bonanni, Catalog o delli Ord. 
JEquest. e Milit., 16). This honor was 
conferred by the Pope in person (or some- 
times by a nuncio, or prelate of the highest 
Papal court), " on official persons, learned 
men, artists, and other persons who had 
rendered service to the State, or whom the 
Holy Father selected for such distinction, 
and even upon foreigners. Neither rank 
nor station, but simply the profession of 
the Roman Catholick Religion, is required 
as a qualification to receive it" (Carlisle's 
Orders of Knighthood, p. 292). Anciently 
this ranked first among the Papal orders 
of merit, and Knights of the Golden Militia 
took precedence of Knights of Malta. But 
even in Sir Christopher's time, the suspi- 
cion that the honor was to be obtained for 
money had somewhat depreciated its 
value ; and now the rights and privileges of 
the knights are merely nominal. Some 
twenty years ago the Abbe Glaire was 
created "Chevalier de la Melice doree" 
by Gregory XVI., in recognition of his 
services to the Church, in the compilation 
of the "Encyclopedic Catholique." 

It is not probable that the name of the 
order or its source was known to Gov. Win- 
throp and his fellow-magistrates, which was 
well for Sir Christopher's interests, perhaps. 
So patent evidence of his being a favorite 
son of Rome would hardly have been regard- 
ed as a title of honor by the good people of 
the Bay, or induce them to judge the 
English knight more leniently in the mat- 
ters whereof he was accused. 

J. H. T. 

Hartford, Conn. 

[There are, we think, knights of this 
order in the United States at present ; 
among others, the Rev. Charles Constan- 
tine Pise, of Brooklyn, well known as a 
poet and polished writer,] 

Semmes on Privateering. — The famous 
captain of the Alabama, whose career has 
been so destructive to our shipping and 
may prove so expensive to England, thus 
discourses of privateering in his " Service 
afloat and ashore :" 

" General Salas made strenuous efforts to 
get afloat a number of privateers which 
should prey upon our commerce. If 
Mexico had been a maritime people, this 
would have been her true policy, A few 
fast-sailing vessels, distributed in different 
seas, and officered and manned by bold 
fellows in the pursuit of plunder, might 
have inflicted incalculable injury upon us. 
This system of predatory warfare, more 
than any other, equalizes the strength of 
nations on the w r ater. Fleets and heavy- 
armed ships are of no avail against the 
lighter heels and more erratic wanderings 
of this description of force. But Mexico 
had no materials whereon "to operate. To 
render privateering available to her, under 
the laws of nations, it was necessary that 
at least a majority of the officers and crew 
of each cruiser should be citizens ; not 
citizens made ad hoc, in fraud of the law, 
but bona fide citizens ; and any vessel 
which might have attempted to cruise 
under a letter of marque and reprisal, with- 
out this essential requisite, would have be- 
come, from that moment, a pirate. As 
Mexico had never possessed any marine, 
military or commercial, worth the name, 
and as what little she had at the commence- 
ment of the war had been taken from her 
by our cruisers, she found it impossible to 
fulfil this condition, except to a very limited 
extent. President Salas, in order to over- 
come the difficulty, endeavored, contrary 
to the good faith which should exist among 
nations, even when at war, and in violation 
of the plainest principles of common sense, 
to manufacture citizens for the occasion. 
For this purpose he issued blank certificates 
of naturalization to the Mexican consuls at 
Havana and other places, with directions 
to these officers to fill them up with the 
names of any adventurers that might offer, 
irrespective of those great principles so well 
understood and practised upon by all civil- 
ized nations, in a procedure of such mo- 




ment Every foreigner "who 

might have undertaken to prey upon our 
commerce would have been deemed to be, 
and would have been treated, as a 

pirate There is a growing 

disposition among civilized nations to put 
an end to this disreputable mode of war- 
fare under any circumstances. It had its 
origin in remote and comparatively bar- 
barous ages, and has for its object rather 
the plunder of the bandit than honorable 
warfare. The cruisers being private vessels, 
fitted out for speculation, and officered and 
manned generally by unscrupulous and un- 
principled men, it is impossibe for the 
government which commissions them to 
have them under proper control. Bonds 
and penalties, forfeiture of vessel, etc., are 
entirely powerless to restrain the passion 
of cupidity and revenge when once fairly 
aroused. From the nature of the materials 
of which the crews of these vessels are 
composed — the adventurous and desperate 
ot all nations — the shortness of their cruises, 
and the demoralizing pursuit in which they 
are engaged, it is next to impossible that 
any discipline can be established or main- 
tained among them. In short, they are 
little better than licensed pirates ; and it 
behoves all civilized nations, and especially , 
nations who, like ourselves, are extensively 
engaged in foreign commerce, to suppress 
the practice altogether." 

Early Spanish Missionaries in Texas. 
— I find, in a curious account, mention made 
of the following Texas missionaries : Fa- 
ther Jose del Rio, 52 years on the mission, 
chiefly in Texas and Sonora ; F. Cayetano 
Aponte y Lis (a native of Pontevedra, 
came to America in 1730, died May 25, | 
1791, aged 93), ten years in Texas; F. 
Esteban de Salazar, a native of Cascajares, 
a missionary in Texas and Sonora, died 
August 6, 1797, aged 77; Father Juan 
Saenz de Gumiel, a native of Mendavia, 
eight years in Texas, twice Guardian of] 
the College of Queretaro, died March 11, 
1807, aged 83 ; Father Antonio Perera 
died at Queretaro, April 16, 1698; Father 
Antonio Margil died August 6, 1726; Fa- 
ther Felipe Guillen, a native of Piles in the 

kingdom of Valencia, came to America in 
1770, two years in Texas, killed by the In- 
dians in Sonora, April 27, 1778; Father 
Francis Casanas de Jesus Maria, born at 
Barcelona in 1656, entered the order at 
the age of 14 ; was one of the founders of 
the College of Queretaro ; missionary in 
Campeachy, Texas, and New Mexico ; killed 
by the Apaches in New Mexico in 1696 ; 
Father Jose Guadalupe Ramirez dePrado, 
born at the mission de las Palmas in the 
Sierra Gorda, near Mexico, 27 years in 
Texas, died at Queretaro, August 19, 1777, 
aged 72, having been 55 years in the order ; 
Father Juan Salvador de Amaya, sent to 
Texas about 1728, remained 24 years; died 
there November 17, 1752. J. de c. 

Slavery in- New York. — It is some- 
what curious to find slavery recognised as 
existing in New York, in the ordinances 
revised in 1845, and in force till 1859, yet 
such is the fact ; and a fine of $25 imposed 
upon any pawn-broker, dealer in second- 
hand articles, or keeper of a junk shop, 
dealing with a slave. 

Michel Gauvin. — In his tour from 
Hartford to Quebec, Professor Silliman 
says : — 

" Our driver (to the Falls of Montmo- 
rency) was Michel Gauvin, a very intel- 
ligent and obliging young man, a French. 
Canadian, who spoke both English and 
French ; and his horse (an iron grey) was 
one of that small but hardy breed which, 
being in this country left in their natural 
state, are extremely stout and courageous, 
and carry the heavy calash and three men 
apparently with more ease than our horses 
draw our chaises and two grown per- 

Mr. Michel Gauvin, who is now ad- 
vanced in age, is one of the most respect- 
able citizens of Quebec. He has fully re- 
alized the good prognostics of the worthy 
professor, has been at the head of a large 
livery stable for many years, and is still 
one of the proprietors of the winter stage 
line between Quebec and Montreal, on 
the north shore, a concern which is not, 




however, so flourishing since the opening 
of the railroad on the north shore. 

p. c. 


Brothers-german — Capt. John Camp- 
bell petitions for a grant of land for his 
" brothers-german," Archibald and Alexan- 
der Campbell. I do not find the word in 
Webster's Dictionary. Is it synonymous 
with step-brother ? o'c. 

Pater Vaer. — A suit was brought in 
the court at New Amsterdam in 1646 by 
Pater Vaer for the possession of a negro 
wench he had purchased from one John 
Wilcox. The judgment of the court was 
that Wilcox should satisfy the Swedish 
Governor and Pater Vaer. In what sense 
is Pater used here, and who was he ? o'c. 

Webster and Smith's Journal of the 
Voyage of the Hankey. — In 1796 or 
thereabout, Noah Webster and Dr. E. H. 
Smith published at New York a journal of 
the voyage of the ship Hankey from Bu- 
lam to Grenada. Where can a copy be 
found ? s. 

the City of New York (ed. 1845, p. 342, 
ed. 1859, p. 330), I find this word in this 
phrase : No person shall cast any anchor, 
grappling or killick (ed. 1859, killock) into 
or near any of the docks, &c. What does 
it mean, and what is its origin ? 

Henry Francisco. — In his interesting 
tour from Hartford to Quebec (New 
Haven, 1820), Professor Silliman has a 
chapter under the title the " Old Man of 
the age of Louis XIV." 

When did Henry Francisco, the person 
referred to, die ? Where, and in what 
manner ? 

When Professor Silliman saw him on 
the Salem road, two miles from White- 
hall, he was said to be 134 years of age, 
and said he was born in France, in a place 
which he pronounced something like Essex. 

Was Francisco (which is not a French 
name) his real name ? Was it not rather a 
nick-name from his being French ? 

In that case, what was his real name, 
and where and when was he really born ? 

Horseheads. — This is the name of a 
new town, erected in Chemung county in 
1854. Can any of the readers of the Hist. 
Mag. explain its origin ? 

Thariolin. — The last Huron of pure 
blood at the mission of Lorette, near Que- 
bec, bore the name of Thariolin. His 
portrait was painted about 1840 by Pla- 
mondon. Can any reader inform us where 
it is preserved ? 

Barbastro's Account of Sonora. — 
The Franciscan Father, Francis Antonio 
Barbastro, who was one of the first Fran- 
ciscans in Sonora after the expulsion of the 
Jesuits, and who died June 22, 1800, at 
Aconchi, among the Opatas, left a history 
of Sonora. Does it still exist ? 

Introduction of the Honey Bee. — 
When and by whom was the first colony 
of honey bees introduced into North Ame- 

They evidently were cultivated in New 
Jersey as early as the year 1683 (vide 
Hist. Mag., vol. vi., page 268) ; and, ac- 
cording to Peter Kalm, in 1748, they had 
become wild in Pennsylvania, but had not 
then extended their flights westward be- 
yond the Blue Ridge, which is the eastern 
range of the Alleghanies. — Vid. Halm's 
Travels, vol. i., page 22 6. 


Cleveland, O., January 8, 1864. 

Killick-Killock. — In the Ordinances of 

Doctor Cowpry's Journal. — A diary 
kept by Dr. Cowdry, Surgeon of the U. S. 
frigate Philadelphia during the captivity 
and enslavement of her officers and crew 
by the Tripolitans, from October 21st, 
1803, to June 3d, 1805, was published in 
a series of numbers in the American Mer- 
cury, at Hartford, Ct., in the autumn of 
the last-named vear. 



Was it subsequently republished in a 
more permanent form, and has it been 
preserved ? 


Cleveland, O., January 8th, 1864 

Authors of Whim Whams. — In 1828, 
a collection of sketches in prose and poetry 
was published under the following title : — 
" Whim Whams. By Four of Us." 

• So prolyficke is our penne 
Ye'll think therre be a score of us ; 
But, on ye wordes oi* gentilmenne, 
Therre be only Four of Us. 

"We'll make ye smyle, or make ye sighe, 
Thenne, what can ye want more of us? 
Ye can't doe better than to buye 
This littell Boke, by Four of Us. 

Madrigals of Ancient Mynstrelsie. — 
Boston : Published by S. G. Goodrich, 
1828. 18mo. pp. 204. I would like to 
ascertain the names of the authors or 
author of this volume. 

About the same time that this book ap- 
peared, a volume of about the same size, 
and, if I recollect aright, of a similar cha- 
racter, was published by Bowles and Dear- 
born, of Boston, under the title of 
u Ps and Qs." This latter work is said, in 
the Booh of the Zockes, p 114, to have 
been the joint production of Charles H. 
Locke, Joseph H. Buckingham, Edwin 
Buckingham, and Siles P. Holbrook. All 
of these gentlemen, except the second, are 
now dead, I think. 


any of 

op the Northern Whig. — Can 
your correspondents inform me 
whether a file of the "Northern Whig," 
or any other paper published in Hudson, 
N". Y., during the year 1814, is in existence, 
and if so, where can it be found? The 
knowledge of this is of great importance to 
the querist ; and he would be much oblig- 
ed for any communication throwing light 
upon this question. w. l. s. 

tion of this little work? I have one pub- 
lished at Newark in 1826, by Benjamin 
Olds, and have seen a later one printed at 
Brooklyn, but desire an exact description 
of the first edition or account. 

Curious Hexameters (vol. v. p. 188). 
— The translation seems to be by supply- 
ing est in some places and quod in one. 
What was to be is what is ; what was not 
to be, is what is to be ; to be, what is not 
to be ; what is, is not to be what shall be. 

The Wonderful History of the 
Morristown Ghost. — Can any one give 
a bibliographical account of the first edi- 

Peck on Universalis^: (vol. vii. p. 
380). — We cannot give X. Y. Z. any in- 
formation concerning the author, but the 
title of his work is as follows : 

"A Short Poem containing a Descant 
on the Universal Plan," etc. Second edi- 
tion. Keene, N. H. Printed by John 
Prentiss, 1802. 

Also, third edition: And over, N". H. : 
Printed by E. Chase, 1820. 

Also, Boston. Printed for Nathl. Cov- 
erley, 1818. 

It is intended as a satire on the doctrine 
of Universal Salvation, and the following 
extract will give an idea of the style of the 
author : 

" Huzzah I brave boys — loud be our joys, 
Your sins shall be forgiven ; 
O skip and sing, our God and King 
Will bring us all to heaven. 

charming news to live in sin, 
And die to reign with Paul ; 

'Tis so, indeed, for Jesus bled 
To save the devil and all." 

B. S. 

Kentaienton (vii. p. 380).— Will P. 
show from what book he makes his query ? 
There is no place in Ohio having any such 
name, but the context may show where it 



Butternuts (vii. 122, 197.) — The expla- 
nation on page 122 is correct as to the ap- 
plication of the name, but wrong as to the 




reason. Household manufactures have 
been preserved at the South to a much 
greater extent than at the North, and hence 
the source of supply for clothing. The 
bark of the black walnut tree, but more 
generally the hulls of the nuts, are used for 
coloring brown ; the butternut is not 
much used ; for making a yellow color 
the bark of the hickory is used. 

In 1822, when it was still a common 
thing for farmers and country laborers to 
go down to New Orleans in flat-boats with 
their own crops, or on a trading voyage, it 
was easy to tell from what State the boatmen 
came, by the color of their linsey. Ohio 
was blue and white ; Kentucky, blue mixed 
with black and white, and twilled ; Indi- 
ana was yellow ; Illinois and Missouri 
were not so much known. 

When the Northern soldiers saw the 
brown color of the Confederate dress, 
they supposed that it was butternut, and 
so called them. j. h. j. 

LFkbana, Ohio, Jan. 25, 1864. 

is not exactly a term of endearment, though 
that feeling may sometimes enter into it. 
The term denotes power, trustiness, and 
something more. Of a man who is vigor- 
ous and efficient, it will be said : " He's a 
hoss" — " he\s all hoss." It enters also into 
the common phrase of the Mississippi Boat- 
men in old time : " half horse, half alliga- 
tor:'' j. h. j. 

Ukbana, Ohio, Jan. 23, 1864. 


"Jo Daviess" (viii. p. 38). — In Decem- 
ber, 1831, I was at Baltimore, as a member 
of the Clay Convention, and sitting with 
Col. Samuel W. Davies, who was a delegate 
from Cincinnati, he told me this : That the 
first time he ever went to New York, and 
the Eastern cities (I think he said Philadel- 
phia), he was sitting alone in his room at 
the Hotel ; a man entered his room and said, 
" You spell your name Davies ?" " Y r es, 
that is the way my father always spelled it, 
and I follow him." " By God, I almost 
knew that I was wrong. I was sure that it 
ought to have an e in it, but I have got it 
wrong." This was Joseph Hamilton Da- 
viess ; this was the beginning of an acquaint- 
ance between them which continued during 
the life of that eccentric genius, j. h. j. 

Ukbana, Ohio, Jan. 1864. 

"Old Hoss" (vii. p. 98).— J. F. J. 
asks if this word is really* a corruption of 
the word horse. The pronunciation was 
very common at the South, and was and 
is still preserved in the epithet " Old 
Hoss," which may have been applied to 
Washington, but not to him peculiarly. It 

Patrons of Literary Enterprises in 
New York, etc., about One Hundred 
Years ago. — The return of Captain James 
Cook from his first famous voyage of dis- 
covery, in 1771, caused as great a stir 
among the curious as almost any event 
since the return of Sir Francis Drake from 
his voyage of circumnavigation. The 
whole world was impatient to learn the 
events of the great expedition, and means 
were. at once taken to gratify so laudable a 
curiosity. In Colonial America there was 
quite as much anxiety to learn the details 
of the great voyage as in the mother coun- 
try, and we might venture to say even 
more. It was very important that a man 
qualified should be employed to draw up 
the account. Dr. John Hawkesworth was 
then enjoying considerable literary reputa- 
tion ; from making watches he turned his 
attention to study, and soon acquired an 
extensive reputation by the " Adventurer," 
and Archbishop Herring had conferred on 
him the degree of Doctor of Laws. He 
was applied to to write the history of the 
voyage, and he undertook it for the snug 
sum of six thousand pounds. We think it 
was a snug sum, because he had every aid 
from the well-kept journal of Captain Cook, 
with the help of the papers of the learned 
Joseph Banks, afterwards Sir Joseph 
Banks, F.R.S. 

How well Dr. Hawkesworth executed 




his task does not come within the scope of 
this paper to consider ; but our impression 
is, that it did not come fully up to what 
was expected ; and that after a lew years 
it found but few readers. However, it 
was full and minute, and that was what 
was at tirst desired. Therefore, no sooner 
had a copy of Dr. Ha wkes worth's two 
ponderous quartos reached the hands of 
the well-known publisher, James Rivington, 
than he made preparations for reissuing 
the work in New York. Mr. Rivington 
at once issued his proposals to print the 
work by subscription, in two moderate 
sized octavos. A copy of his edition is 
now before us, as evidence that he carried 
out his intention. There is further evi- 
dence that Mr. Rivington was pretty well 
patronized in the undertaking, for his list 
of patrons' names, published immediately 
after the title-page, occupies seventeen 
pages. This brings us to the main object 
of this paper, which was to say something 
upon the patronage of literary enterprises 
about one hundred years ago. 

The imprint of Rivington's edition is 
simply "New York: Printed by James 
Rivington, 1774." The first four pages of 
subscribers' names are taken up with those 
■ living in the city and vicinities of New 
York, and in New Jersey." This part of 
the list is of great historical interest, as 
indeed are the names on all the seventeen 
pages ; but to an old resident of New York, 
those at the commencement of the list must 
be peculiarly so. Some one might do good 
service by preparing notices of them for 
the Historical Magazine. There are one 
hundred and fifty-six names on the four 
pages, a few of which follow : — " The Rev 
Myles Cooper, LL.D., President of King's 
College ; Capt. Anthony Rutgers, Isaac 
Ogden, Esq., of New-Ark ; the Honourable 
Charles Apthorpe, Esq., Mr. Richard 
Deane, Capt. John Montresor, Mr. Peter 
Keteltas, Capt. Cornelius Haight, Mr. 
Theophilact Bache, Mr. Samuel Verplank, 
Mr. Nicholas Hoffman, Mr. Jacobus Van 
Zandt, Rev. Charles Inglis, Dr. Mitchell, 
of his Majesty's Hospital ; James Delancy, 
Esq., Mr. Bernard Romans, Mr. John 
Andrew Johnston, of Perth Amboy ; Mr. 


William Smith, printer ; Mr. John Serjeant, 
of Stockbridge ; Mr. James Havens, of 
Shelter Island ; Capt. John Freebody, of 
Rhode Island ; John Livingston, Esq., the 
Rev. T. B. Chandler, D.D., Mr. Okey 
Hoogland, of Bordenton ; Mr. Benjamin 
Ledyard, Mr. Francis Allison, Practitioner 
of Physick in New London ; Dr. John 
Sparhawk, of Philadelphia ; Lindley Mur- 
ray, Esq., the Rev. John Ogilvie, D.D., 
Capt. Alexander Grant, commanding his 
Majesty's vessels on the great Lakes ; John 
Tabor Kemp, Esq., his Majesty's Attorney 
General for the Province of New York ; 
Ensign John Blennerhassett, of his Majes- 
ty's 10th Regiment ; Dr. James Mont- 
gomery, Surgeon to ditto ; Mr. Commissary 
McLean, at Niagara; Mr. Ephraim Van 
Veghton, of Albany; Mr. Alexander 
Fraser, of Niagara ; Mr. John Stedman, 
of ditto ; Mr. Philip Stedman, of ditto ; 
Elisha [Elias?] Boudinot, Esq., of New 
York ; Jacob Le Roy, Esq., John Foxcroft, 
Esq., his Majesty's Post Master General ; 
Col. Cleveland, commanding his Majesty's 
Royal Artillery in North America ; Abra- 
ham Ogden, Esq., of Morristown ; the 
Hon. William Axtell, Esq., Mr. Vivian 
Davenport, Mr. Abraham Beekman, the 
Right Hon. the Earl of Sterling, Dr. 
Ogden, of Long Island ; Mr. Henry Cuyler, 
Col. Barnard, commanding the Royal 
Regiment of Welch Fusileers ; Mr. Thomas 
Udall, of Islip ; Nicholas Gouverneur, Esq., 
at Mount Pleasant, New Jersey ; Hector 
St. John, Esq., of Orange County ; Richard 
Washington, Esq." These are all we have 
space for. Of course many passed over 
have as good claim for notice as these. 
Those will, doubtless, at some time receive 
due attention. 

We next have "List of Subscribers' 
Names at Philadelphia and its Vicinities," 
occupying two pages. Then "Names at 
Newbern, North Carolina," in number 
fifty-seven. This list looks much like one 
made up at random in N. C. a few years 
past. Then comes a long list of four pages 
"from Kingston, in Jamaica." Then a 
short list " from Westmoreland, in Savan- 
nah Le Mar, in Jamaica." Next a list " at 
Antigua," of about thirty. A small list of 




five from Pensacola. Then a list " in Bos- 
ton, in the Province of Massachusetts, and 
its Vicinities." It would, doubtless, gratify 
many if we could give the list entire, but 
we can only say it consists of forty-two 
names, the first of which is " Honoura- 
ble John Adams, Esq." We see, also, Mr. 
Lewis Deblois, Tristram Dalton, Esq., of 
Newbury Port ; William Tudor, Esq., 
Captain Jabez Hatch, Mr. William Bur- 
beck, Col. John Erving, Col. Phips, Cam- 
bridge ; William Witmore, Esq., Salem ; 
Rev. Aaron Whitney, Northfield ; Josiah 
Quincy, Esq., Braintree ; Rev. Zabdiel 
Adams, Lunenburg; Hon. James Hum- 
phreys, Esq., Weymouth; Mr. Nathaniel 

Among the Connecticut subscribers we 
notice the names of Silas Deane, Esq., of 
Weathersfield ; Christopher Leflingwell, 
Esq., of Norwich ; and the Rev. Simon 
Waterman, of Wallingford. 

" At Quebec" there was a goodly num- 
ber of patrons, as also u in the Great Nine 
Partners." On the seventeenth and last 
page of the subscribers is a list " at 
Dominica," among which are some well- 
known surnames, as Tench, Tyson, Bernard, 
Cameron, Fowle, and Wentworth. The 
" Rev. Mr. Zubly lived then in Savannah, 
Ga. He subscribed for ' six sets.' " " Mr. 
John Anderson, Printer, New York," and 
" Mr. Thomas Updike Fosdick," close the 
list. It may be difficult for readers in 
general to locate the " Great Nine Part 
ners," as modern Gazetteers do not men- 
tion such a place. It was in the Province 
of New York, adjacent to Connecticut, 
extending to the Hudson river, in which 
were afterwards the towns of Amenia, 
Clinton, Stanford, and Washington. 

Nothing has been said about the sub- 
scribers in several places. It may be well 
to remark that the list of Philadelphians is 
quite respectable, and would probably con- 
siderably out-number the present list of 
subscribers to the Historical Magazine. 
The first name is that of " His Excellency 
William Franklin, Esq., Governour of New 
Jersey." The next is " the Honourable 
James Hamilton, Esq.," then " Joseph Gal- 
loway, Esq., Speaker of the Honourable 

House of Assembly." Oddly enough we 
find among the " Kingston, Jamaica" names, 
" Benjamin Franklin, Esq." 

In this connection we will inquire what 
is the earliest work published in this coun- 
try containing a list of its patrons ? G. 

Soxiriies an& iljttr f imtop. 


Chicago Historical Society. — January 19, 
1864, the regular monthly meeting was held, 
the President, W. L. Newberry, Eq., in the 

The additions to the Library for the past two 
months (2,289, of which 206 were bound books) 
included extensive publications from Rev. Joseph 
Allen, D.D,, of Massachusetts, from Mr. Consul 
Eastman, of Bristol, England, in behalf of mem- 
bers of the Society of Friends, in Great Britain, 
embracing comprehensive serials and pamphlets 
of religion, benevolence, and reform ; and nume- 
rous other sources. 

To the cabinet, among others, were contributed 
a piece of canvass, believed to be a relic of the dis- 
astrous expedition of Sir John Franklin, brought 
by Mr. R. Kennicott, from a scientific tour in 
the extreme North. Mr. J. A. McAlister obli- 
gingly presented a copy of the print entitled 
"Congressional Pugilists," Philadelphia, 1798. 
Mr. Consul Eastman forwarded specimens of sea- 
weeds from " Bristol Channel," and a beautiful 
piece of carved wood from the " Screen" sepa- 
rating the choir and the chancel of the parish 
church in Wrington, Somerset, England, where 
Hannah More worshipped — believed to be 500 
years old. 

Files of the " Deseret News," vol. 2 to 12th 
inclusive, bound, were received from Great Salt 
Lake City ; also the Mormon Bible, first edition, 
Palmyra, 1830. 

The correspondence for two months (49 let- 
ters received, and 128 written) was submitted. 
Mr. A. J. Hill, U. S. A., announced his intended 
publication of an exclusively " aboriginal" map 
of Minnesota, designating mounds, Indian vil- 
lages, trails, &c, with a complete restoration (as 
far as possible) of aboriginal names of localities, 

W. H. Smith, Esq., of Nashville, Tenn., for- 
warded for the Society's collections, two origi- 
nal letters of Andrew Jackson ; in one of which 




the writer freely expressed (in 1845) his impres- 
sions of a late President of the United States. 

A letter was read asking aid to an intended 
i history of the " Kankakee Valley," in Illinois. 

Hon. H. S. Baird, of Green Bay, presented to 
the Society manuscript copies of two papers pre- 
pared by him, one on the Settlement of Green 
Bay, the other on the North American Indians. 

A monograph on the u Siege and Capture of 
Island No. 10," prepared by Mr. G. P. Upton, 
an eye-witness, was obligingly presented by that 
gentleman. It gives a complete view of the 
principal operations resulting in the reduction of 
that formidable post. 

The Hon. J. B. French, of Lowell, Mass., for- 
warded the annual report for 1863, of the month- 
ly and yearly rain-fall at Laconia, at the outlet 
of Lake Winnipiseogee, N. H., also at Lake Vil- 
lage, four miles south, on the s me stream. 
The yearly aggregate was at the former 52.35 
inches ; at the latter, 48.31 inches. (Blodgett 
gives the mean annual rain-fall at Chicago, at 30 

The Treasurer's report for the last year sub- 
mitted, exhibited a total expenditure for the 
year of $1,363.94, leaving a balance in hand of 
$172.61. Outstanding indebtedness would pro- 
bably be met by the balance in the treasury and 
the collection of unreceived dues. 

The Society's " Investment Fund," recently 
commence 1, now amounts to $1,800. 

George F. Eumsey, Esq., was elected Trea- 


Boston Numismatic Society. — Boston, Mass., 
January 7. — The annual meeting of this Society 
was held on Thursday, and was very well attend- 
ed. Several donations were received, and the 
annual reports of the officers were presented. 
The Treasurers report showed a balance of 
money to the credit of the Society, and the Cura- 
tor stated the number of coins and medals to 
be about one thousand, among which are seve- 
ral rare pieces. A committee was appointed to 

present a list of officers for the present year ; | paid the ordinary expenses, leaving the 
they reported the former board for re-election, ' entirely free from debt, and a balance in the 
which was the pleasure of the Society. The offi- treasury of $45.25. The permanent funds dur- 

knovvn ; a half-dime of 1802, one of five, the 
whole number believed to exist at present, or 
rather known to collectors to exist, and a New 
York copper of 1787, with the head of George 
Clinton, which is by far the finest of the half- 
dozen known. The collection also contained 
other rare varieties of New York coppers, unu- 
sually perfect specimens of early dimes, and rare 
patterns prepared at the U. S. Mint, but never 
adopted for the coinage. Mr. Seavey also show- 
ed the two half-eagles by the acquisition of which 
he had completed his series of the issues of gold 
of the United States. Other gentlemen exhibit- 
ed coins of less value and interest. The meeting 
was an unusually pleasant and successful one. 

Dorchester Antiquarian and Historical 
Society. — Dorchester, Jan. 22. — At the twenty- 
second annual meeting of this Society, on Friday, 
officers were elected as follows : 

President — Edmund P. Tileston. Curators — 
Edmund J". Baker, Charles M. S. Churchill, Sam- 
uel Blake. Corresponding Secretary — Ebenezer 
Clapp. Librarian — Edward Holden. Assistant 
Librarian — Samuel Blake. ChronoJogist — Na- 
thaniel W. Tileston. In the increase of the library 
and cabinet and in finances, the Society was 
shown to be in good condition. 

New England Historic Genealogical Socie^ 
ty. — Boston, Jan. 6. — The annual meeting was 
held at three o'clock this afternoon, at the So- 
ciety's rooms, No. 13 Bromfield-street, President 
Lewis in the chair. 

The report of the Corresponding Secretary 
showed that since the last meeting letters accepts 
ing membership had been received from Charles 
O. Whitmore, of Boston, D. P. Corey, of Mai- 
den, Augustus Thorndike Perkins, of Boston, as 
resident members ; and Hon. Win. M. "Wilson, of 
Greenville, Ohio, Buckingham Smith, of New 
York, as corresponding members. 

The report of the Librarian showed that since 
the last annual meeting there had been received 
327 volumes, 1192 pamphlets, and 44 manu- 
scripts, maps, and charts. 

The report of the Treasurer showed that 
during the past year the ordinary receipts have 


cers are therefore as follows : President — Dr. 
Winslow Lewis. Vice-President and Curator — 
Jeremiah Colburn. Treasurer — Henry Daven- 
port. Secretary — Wm. S. Appleton. 

Mr. Seavey exhibited a sma'l parcel of very 
choice and valuable American c >ins. Among 
them were a silver dollar of 1794, the finest 

ing the same period have been increased $2500, 
all of which has been or may properly be placed 
in the hands of trustees, and the income thereof 
only annually expended. 

The Committee on Lectures and Essays re- 
ported that there had been fourteen papers read 
before the Society at its monthly meetings dur- 




ing the past year, seven of which have been 
published, and most of the others will soon ap- 
pear in print, all of which were read by members 
of the Society. 

The Committee on Life Memberships reported 
that thirty-four life members have been added 
during the past year, and proposed that the 
proceeds thereof be made a permanent fund, the 
principal and interest and any additions to be 
devoted to procuring a permanent location for 
the Society. 

The Trustees of the Bond Fund reported that 
the property remained much the same as last 

The Trustees of the Barstow Fund reported 
that the Society during the past year had again 
been indebted to the liberality of John Barstow, 
Vice-President of this Society for Rhode Island, 
for a donation of five hundred dollars. The 
prudence and foresight of the donor have been 
such that no change in the investments has been 
made. With the income of this fund, which is 
devoted to the preservation of the library, 150 
volumes have been bound during the past year, 
a fact of real value to the society, and there is 
now a balance unappropriated of $21.81. 

The committee appointed to prepare biogra- 
phies of deceased members reported that the 
work was progressing favorably, and that in the 
course of the present year the society would 
probably have within its archives properly pre- 
pared memoirs of all or nearly all its deceased 

The report of the Historiographer showed 
that during the past year there had deceased 
fifteen members of the society ; of these the 
memoirs of fourteen had been read before the 

The report of the Finance Committee showed 
the society free from debt and its finance, in a 
flourishing condition. 

A donation of $1000 was received from 
William B. Towne, of Brookline. Whereupon 
the following resolutions were adopted : — 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be 
tendered to Wm. B. Towne, Esq., for his liberal 
donation of one thousand dollars, and that in 
accordance with his request this money be 

Resolved, That this fund be called the Towne 
Memorial Fund, and that the proceeds be applied 
in the manner suggested by the donor. The 
Trustees of the Barstow Fund were made Trus- 
tees of this fund. 

Appropriate resolutions were offered by Fre- 
deric Kidder, and adopted by the society, to the 
memory of the late Lieut.-Governor H. W. 
Cushman, of Bernardston, who it is understood 

has made a bequest of his library an<J the balance 
of the edition of the Cushman Genealogy to the 

On motion of Mr. Whitmore, it was voted 
that a committee of five be appointed by the 
Chair, with full power to solicit, in the name and 
in behalf of the Society, information in regard 
to the early settlers of New England, to arrange 
and preserve such information, and to mature a 
plaa for its publication by the Society ; also, 
that the committee be empowered to fill all 
vacancies and to elect additional members. 

Wm. H. Whitmore, Wm. B. Trask, Rev. F. 
A. Whitney, Abner C. Goodell, and John W. 
Dean, were appointed a committee by the Chair 
for that purpose. 

The President, Dr. Lewis, then delivered an 
elaborate and very interesting address, which 
will probably be published. 

The following officers were elected for the 

ensuing year: — 

President — Winslow Lewis, 


,,..,,.,, M.D., of 
Boston. Vice-Presidents — Massachusetts, Rev. 
Martin Moore, A.M., of Boston ; Maine, Hon. 
John Appleton, A.M., of Bangor; New Hamp- 
shire, Hon. Samuel D. Bell, LL.D., of Manches- 
ter ; Vermont, Henry Clark, of Poultney ; 
Rhode Island, John Barstow, of Providence; 
Connecticut, Rev. F. W. Chapman, A.M., of 
Ellington. Honorary Vice-Presidents— New York, 
Hon. Millard Fillmore, LL.D., of Buffalo; New 
Jersey, Hon. Joseph C. Hornblower, LL.D., of 
Newark ; Pennsylvania, N. Chauncey, A.M., of 
Philadelphia; Maryland, S. F. Streeter, A.M., 
of Baltimore ; Ohio, Hon. Elijah Hayward, A. 
B., of McConnelsville ; Michigan, Hon. Lewis 
Cass, LL.D., of Detroit; Indiana, Hon. Ballard 
Smith, of Terre Haute; Illinois, Hon. John 
Wentworth, A.M., of Chicago ; Wisconsin, Hon. 
I. A. Lapham, LL.D., of Milwaukee ; Iowa, Rt. 
Rev. Henry W. Lee, D.D., of Davenport; Dis- 
trict Columbia, Hon. G. P. Fisher, of Washing- 
ton. Corresponding Secretary — Rev. Caleb 
Davis Bradlee, A.M., of Roxbury. Recording 
Secretaries — Edward S. Rand, Jr., A.M., of 
Boston ; H. Alger, Jr., A.B., of Cambridge, 
Assistant. Treasurer — William B. Towne, of 
Brookline. Historiographer — William B. Trask, 
of Dorchester. Librarian — John H. Sheppard, 
A.M., of Boston. 

Directors — Rev. Martin Moore, A M., of 
Boston ; Joseph Palmer, A.M., M.D., of Boston ; 
Hon. George W. Messinger, of Boston ; John 
Barstow, of Providence, R. I. ; Rev. H. M. 
Dexter, A.M., of Boston. Committee on Lec- 
tures and Essays — William Reed Deane, of Brook- 
line ; Rev. F. W. Holland, A.M., of Cambridge ; 
Rev. Washington Gilbert, A.M., of West New- 




ton; Hon. C. Hudson, A.M., of Lexington; 
Rev. E. F. Slnfter, of Boston. Committee on 
Finance — Frederic Kidder, of Boston; Hon. 
George W. Messinger, of Boston ; John M 
Bradbury, of Boston ; J. W. Candler, of Brook- 
line. Committee on the Library — Jeremiah Col- 
burn, of Boston ; Rev. Abner Morse, A.M., of 
Boston; E. R. Humphreys, LL.D., of Boston; 
G. Mountfort, of Boston. 

Tite American Statistical Association. — 
Boston, January 15. — The twenty-fourth annual 
meeting of this Association was held this after- 
noon, the President, Dr. Jarvis, in the chair. 

Mr. Walley made some statements relative to 
the condition of the banks in the United States 
during the past year, and concluded with a few 
remarks upon the probable working of the new 
National Banking System. 

Mr. Walker spoke of the value of diagrams in 
illustrating statistics, and exhibited some that he 
had prepared himself to show the bank statistics 
of this country in the year 1856. 

Mr. Mason, the Treasurer, made his annual 
report, by which it appeared that the receipts 
for the last year had exceeded the expenditures 
by $83.90, and that there was a balance in the 
treasury of $297.03. This does not include the 
legacy of George C. Shattuck, M.D., LL.D., 
formerly president of the Association, which re- 
mains invested as when received. 

The following gentlemen were then chosen as 
officers for the current year : 

President — Edward Jarvis, M.D., of Dorches- 
ter. Vice-Presidents — Hon. Amasa Walker, A.M., 
of North Brookfield, and J. Wingate Thornton, 
A.M., of Boston. Corresponding Secretary — 
Joseph E. Worcester, LL.D., of Cambridge. 
Recording Secretary — John Ward Dean, of Bos- 
ton. Treasurer — Lyman Mason, A.M., of Bos- 
ton. Librarian — David Pulsifer of Boston. 
Counsellors — Hon. Samuel H. Walley, A.M., of 
Boston ; Ebenezer Alden, M.D., of Randolph ; 
and George S. Hale, A.M., of Boston. 

After the adjournment of the Society, the 
Board of Directors held a session, at which Ed- 
ward Jarvis, M.D , J. Wingate Thornton, A.M., 
and Rev. Rufus Anderson, D.D., were chosen 
the Publishing Committee for 1864. 

The Old Colony Historical Society. — Taun- 
ton, January 4. — At the annual meeting of the 
Society, reports were presented, by the Corre- 
sponding Secretary of the acceptance of mem- 
bership by several gentlemen, and by the Com- 
mittee on the Library of the completion of a 
catalogue of its books, pamphlets, and MSS., and 
of the donations of several valuable volumes. 

Officers for the year were chosen as fol- 
lows : 

President — Hon. John Daggett, of Attleboro. 
Vice-Presidents — Rev. Mortimer Blake, and Hon. 
Samuel L. Crocker, of Taunton. Directors — Abi- 
jah M. Ide, Esq., Hon. Horatio Pratt, of Taunton ; 
John S. Brayton, Esq., and Hon. P. W. Leland, 
of Fall River; Ellis Ames, Esq., of Canton, Col. 
Ebenezer W. Pierce, of Freetown. Correspond- 
ing Secretary — Rev. Charles H. Brigham, of 
Taunton. Recording Secretary — Edgar H. Reed, 
Esq., of Taunton. Treasurer — Hodges Reed, 
Esq., of Taunton. Librarian — Ezra Davol, Esq., 
of Taunton. 

Rev. M. Blake presented a paper on u The 
Ante-Hollandic History of the Pilgrims," in 
which were discussed the recent contributions 
to that history by Rev. Dr. Waddington, of Lon- 
don, H. C. Murphy, the late George Sumner, 
and others. The topic received a lengthy and 
interesting consideration. 

After arrangements for the next meeting, 


Buffalo Historical Society. — Buffalo, No- 
vember. — At the meeting for November, M. Fill- 
more, President in the Chair, and Guy H. Salis- 
bury, Secretary, Mr. Salisbury, as Corresponding 
Secretary, made a written report : 

The deaths that have occurred during the past 
month in the families of old residents, are as fol- 
lows : Oct. 7th, Mrs. Mary Mulford Mills, aged 
74, widow of Rev. James H. Mills. In 1818, 
she accompanied her husband to his field of mis- 
sionary labor, in the infant settlements of West- 
ern New York. Oct. 29th, James G. Hoyt, 
aged 58, a Judge of the Supreme Court. Judge 
H. was a member of this Society, and the third 
that has deceased since its organization. Nov. 
7th, Charles Howland, aged 63. 

There have been 500 copies of the amended 
constitution and by-laws printed, with a list of 
the officers and names of the members of the 
Society, which are ready for delivery to the 
members, who can procure them of Guy H. Sal- 
isbury, Secretary, at its rooms, No. 7 Court 

Dr. Jas. P. White, from the committee to 
whom was referred the subject of resuming the 
weekly Club meetings of the Society, submitted 
a report recommending that such meetings be 
held at the residence of some member, on every 
Monday, except the Monday preceding the 
I second Tuesday of each month. The President, 
I Vice President, or a Chairman pro tern., to pre- 




side at each meeting, and the Secretary to keep 
a brief record of its proceedings, with a list of 
members present, and preserve the papers read 
for the archives of the Society. The regular 
business to commence at 8 o'clock, and consist in 
the reading of papers, by appointment at a pre- 
vious meeting, or voluntary written communica- 
tions, by any member, of which notice shall have 
been given at the last previous meeting, and in 
such discussions as may be elicited by such 
paper or communications. There is also to be, 
at each meeting, some subject, appropriate to the 
objects of the Society, named for consideration 
and discussion by the Club, at its next meeting 
— religious or political topics being expressly 
excluded. Every member is desired and expect- 
ed to attend all the meetings, and any member 
may invite to any of the meetings a non-resi- 
dent friend. The report of the committee was 
adopted, and on motion of 0. G. Steele, the first 
meeting of the Club was appointed to be held at 
the residence of M. Fillmore, on Monday even- 
ing, Nov. 16. 

At the request of Mr. Fillmore, Lewis F. 
Allen consented to prepare a paper to be read 
at the first meeting of the Club, on the Rise and J places it is 
Fall of the Great Lakes. Mr. Fillmore suggest- institutions, 
ed as a subject for discussion incidental thereto 
— " Did those Lakes ever empty their waters 
into the Mississippi ; and what are the evidences 
as to such fact ?" 

The President mentioned that Peter Force, at 
Washington, had a very large and important col- 
lection of papers and documents relative to the 
history of public events and national affairs, 
which, not being in a fire-proof depository, are 
liable at any time to be destroyed, and the de- 
struction of which would be a public loss, wholly 
irreparable. He thought it would be proper for 
the Historical Societies of the country to unite 
in a petition to Congress, that this collection be 
purchased by the Government, if Mr. Force 
could be induced to thus dispose of it. 

On motion of'L. F. Allen, the President of this 
Society was requested to address a letter to Mr. 
Force on the subject, and report his reply, when 

The President made some remarks on the 
importance of obtaining additional subscriptions 
from fifty members, for a term of five years, to 
ensure adequate funds for the objects of the 
Society. Oa a resolution, introduced by Mr. 
Fillmore, the subject was referred to a commit- 
tee of three, to report at the next monthly meet- 
ing. The President named as such committee 
Dr. Jas. P. White, G. G. Steele, and Dennis 

N. K. Hall, from the committee to which was 
referred the subject as to the time when the 

annual dues of members shall commence, report- 
ed that the payment of the initiation fee should 
be deemed sufficient for the calendar year in 
which the member is elected, and his dues should 
therefore not commence until the January next 
succeeding such election ; and when a member 
is elected after the 1st of October, his initiation 
fee shall be in full for the next calendar year. 

On motion of L. F. Allen, Mr. Fillmore, Geo. W. 
Clinton, and Jno. B. Skinner were constituted 
a committee to procure the Annual Address 
to be delivered before the Society on the second 
Tuesday in January next, as required by the 

December, — At the meeting for December, M. 
Fillmore, President, in the Chair, and Guy H. 
Salisbury, Secretary, the following were among 
the proceedings had : 

Mr. Salisbury, as Corresponding Secretary, 
made a written report. 

There have been recent applications made to 

the Secretary for copies of the Constitution and 

By-laws of this Society, from the cities of 

Schenectady, Oswego, and Cleveland, at which 

contemplated to organize similar 

It is a fact now scarcely known, that as early 
as 1844, an Historical Society was initiated in 
this city, by a few spirited young men, who had 
weekly meetings, and kept the Society alive for 
a year and a half. Alexander J. Sheldon, who 
was the first President of the " Red Jacket His- 
torical Society," as it was styled, has deposited 
with the Buffalo Historical Society the record 
book of this earlier institution, containing its 
Constitution and By-laws, the names of its mem- 
bers, the proceedings had at its meetings — pre- 
senting matters of much interest. Among the 
names of its members, who are yet living and 
residing here, are — A. J. Sheldon, Wm. H. Walk- 
er, Edward Bristol, DeWitt C. Weed, Wm. C. 
Sweet, Chas. R. Walker, Geo. Truscott, Jas. G. 
Dudley, Robert Williams, Wm. T. Wardwell, 
Bronson C. Rumsey, Henry Bristol, Dexter P. 
Rumsey, Franklin Williams, Stephen D. Cald- 
well, George B. Webster, Everard Palmer. A 
committee was appointed by the u Red Jackets" 
to write up a history of Buffalo, but no progress 
was reported. 

The first of the weekly meetings of the His- 
torical Club, for the present season, Avas held at 
the residence of the President, Mr. Fillmore, on 
the 17th of November, at which Lewis F. Allen 
read a paper on the " Rise and Fall of the Great 
Lakes." The second meeting was at 0. G. 
Steele's, November 23d, when a paper was read 
by C. F. S. Thomas, entitled "Reminiscences of 
the Press of Buffalo from 1835 to 18G3." The 




third meeting was at Thomas C. Welch's, Novem- 
ber 30th, when Guy H. Salisbury read a paper 
on the "Early History of the Press of Erie 

The President reported that he had addressed 
a letter to Peter Force, Esq., of Washington, in 
reference to a sale of his Historical Collection to 
the Government, but had received no answer. 

The President also reported that Rev. Dr. 
Hosmer had kindly consented to deliver the 
Annual Address before the Society, on the 12th 
of January next. 

N. K. Hall, from the committee to whom it had 
been referred to consider what measures should 
be taken to obtain a Local History of each town 
in the county, submitted a report, recommend- 
ing that suitable efforts be made to procure the 
organization of such Societies. The report was 
accompanied by the draft of a circular, to be 
signed by the President and Corresponding Se- 
cretary, which the committee suggest be sent to a 
number of the prominent citizens of each town 
in the county, with copies of the Constitution 
and By-laws of the Society. The report and 
circular were adopted. 

The President suggested that the map made by 
the late Judge Augustus Porter, of the " Phelps 
and Gorham Purchase," should be procured for 
the Society, and, on motion of L. F. Allen, the 
President was requested to address Hon. A. S. 
Porter, of Niagara Falls, for the purpose of 
obtaining such of the papers, etc., of Judge Por- 
ter as may be properly preserved by this 

On motion of L. F. Allen, Judge Clinton was 
requested to endeavor to procure for this Socie- 
ty the stone intended by Major Noah, in 1825, 
as the corner-stone of his proposed city of 
" Ararat," on Grand Island. 

The President thought that Mr. Allen should 
write a history of the stone, and matters con- 
nected, for the Society; and, on motion of 
Judge Clinton, Mr. A. was requested to prepare 
such a paper. 

On motion of L. F. Allen, the Treasurer and 
Corresponding Secretary were appointed a com- 
mittee to make arrangements for the delivery of 
the Annual Address, and the election of officers, 
on the 12th of January next. 

Long Island Historical Society. — Brooklyn, 
January 7, 1864. — At a regular meeting of the 
Society held at its rooms, the Rev. Dr. West 
presided. The Librarian, Dr. H. R. Stiles, 
announced the receipt of 79 works, and a por- 
trait of Gen. Meade. The paper of the evening 
was an interesting one on " President Monroe, 
his Administration and Doctrine," by Rev. 

I Joshua Leavitt, D.D. The officers of the Socie- 
ty are, President — James Carson Brevoort. First 
Vice-President — John Greenwood. Second Vice- 
President — Charles E. West. Foreign Corre- 
sponding Secretary — Henry C. Murphy. Home 
Corresponding Secretary — John Winslow. Re- 
cording Secretary — A. Cook Hull. Treasurer — 
Charles Congdon. Librarian — Henry R. Stiles. 

New York Historical Society. — New York, 
January 5. — The annual business meeting of the 
Society was held in its building on Second Ave- 
nue. As usual, the reports were made by the 
different officers and by the Executive Commit- 
tee. The treasurer's report showed receipts dur- 
ing the year to the amount of $13,600. The 
Society is thus seen to be in a highly flourishing 
condition, the number of resident members, who 
pay the annual fee of five dollars, and life mem- 
bers, being 1800 ; of correspondent and hono- 
rary members there are 3803 more. 

During the year 1400 books and pamphlets 
were added to the library. 

The annual election then took place, and the 
following officers were chosen : 

President — Frederic De Peyster. First Vice- 
President — Thomas De Witt, D.D. Second Vice- 
President — Benjamin R. Winthrop. Foreign Cor- 
responding Secretary — George Bancroft, LL.D. 
Domestic Corresponding Secretary — Samuel Os- 
good, D.D. Recording Secretary — Andrew War- 
ner. Treasurer — Benj. H. Field. Librarian — 
George H. Moore. 


Rhode Island Historical Society. — The an- 
nual meeting of the Rhode Island Historical 
Society was held at the Cabinet, the President 
in the chair. 

The reports of the Cabinet Keepers of the 
Northern and Southern Districts were presented, 
read, and placed on file. 

A letter relative to the exhumation of Indian 
bones on the line of the Newport Railroad was 
read and ordered to be placed on file. 

The annual report of the Treasurer was pre- 
sented and ordered to be placed on file. 

Upon motion of the Rev. Mr. Stone, the 
thanks of the Society were presented to J. 
Wingate Thornton, of Boston, for a donation 
of original manuscripts relative to the priva- 
teer Yankee ; also, to the Second Employment 
Society, for a manuscript history of that institu- 
tion from its commencement, and to Miss Eva 
Owen for the beautiful manner in which the 
manuscript is presented. 



[Feb. 1864. 

The following named gentlemen were elected 
officers for the ensuing year : 

President — Albert G. Green. First Vice-Pre- 
sident — Samuel Gr. Arnold. Second Vice-Presi- 
dent — George A. Brayton. Secretary — Sidney S. 
Rider. Treasurer — Welcome A. Greene. Cabi- 
net Keeper and Librarian for the Northern Dis- 
trict — Edwin M. Stone. Cabinet Keeper and 
Librarian for the Southern District — Benj. B. 
Howland. Committee on the Nomination of Mem- 
bers — E. M. Stone, Wm. Gammell, J. A. How- 
land. Audit Committee — Amherst Everett, 
Wm. H. Helme. Committee on Buildings and 
Grounds — Albert G. Green, S. W. Lothrop, 
John A. Howland. Committee on Lectures — Sid- 
ney S. Rider, Thos. A. Doyle, R. P.Everett. 

States 0n $Mhs. 

Sketch of Education in Upper and Lower Ca- 
nada, 1864. By J. George Hodgins, LL.B., 

A vert valuable sketch ; comprises much in a 
small space. Of recent matters it furnishes 
many valuable tables and statements well worthy 
the examination of those interested in the his- 
tory of education here. In Canada religious 
schools have been maintained, and have answered 
well. Late revelations in New York, and more 
extensive suppressions, seem to show that 
we have excluded Christianity to introduce 

On page 12 we find the following : " The 
Franciscans had a good many elementary schools 
for boys before the conquest." What is the 
authority for this ? 

Island down to the period when the letters 

The whole work is most creditable, written 
with grace and spirit, and, to all appearances, as 
impartial as it is dignified. It is one of the most 
interesting personal narratives of the war, and 
reflects great credit on Mr. Stone. 

The value of the work is enhanced by an 

The appendix contains an abridged history of 
all the R. I. regiments, prepared with great care. 

Rhode Island in the Rebellion. By Edwin W 
Stone, of the First Regiment Rhode Island 
Light Artillery. Providence : G. H. Whitney, 
1864. 120, 398. 

Were we to be critical, we should object to 
this title for the sake of the State, for we believe 
that Rhode Island had no part or lot in the 
Rebellion, and has, as Mr. Stone shows, given 
the said Rebellion pretty hard knocks for so 
small a state. 

The work is mainly a series of letters, from 
December, 1861, to the summer of 1863, com- 
prising a full account of the operations of the 
Army of the Potomac, and especially of the 
Rhode Island regiments. The introduction, 
which is extremely well written, embraces a 
succinct history of the services of Rhode 

The Annals of Iowa ; a Quarterly Publication, 
by the State Historical Society at Iowa City. 
~No. V. January, 1864. Davenport. 
This periodical opens its second year, still con- 
tinuing, however, the first volume. It contains a 
sketch of Colonel D. J. Wilson, 6th Iowa 
Cavalry, and of Brig.-Gen. B. S. Roberts, a hero 
of two wars ; a continuation of the history of 
Scott County ; a portrait and sketch of Hon. 
Hiram Price; and many other interesting 
articles. We are happy to see that Iowa is 
sustaining this creditable record of its history. 

The house of Dr. J. S. M. Ramsey, at Meck- 
lenbutg, near Knoxville, Tenn., was destroyed 
by fire recently, and with it the only collection 
of materials from which a complete history of 
Tennessee, from its earliest settlement, could be 
written. Dr. Ramsey made the collection with 
great care. 

Mr. Charles S. Fellows, of Bangor, Maine, 
is preparing a Genealogy and Biography of the 
Fellows family, and invites correspondence from 
all who bear the names of Fellows, Fellowes, or 
Felloe, and especially copies of family records, 
monumental inscriptions, etc. 

A Historical Society has been formed at 
Yankton, in Dakota Territory, under the name 
of the Dakota Historical Society. We hope to 
receive its charter and issues to announce to our 

We were recently surprised to find an article 
from our columns translated into a periodical 
printed at Rome, TJie Chronicles of the Francis- 
can Missions. 

We are indebted to the new and superior 
literary paper, The Round Table, for the article 
on the Hessians, and to The British American 
Magazine for an article on Earthquakes. 



Vol. VIII.] 

MARCH, 1864. 

[No. 3. 

©mral §Mprtnunt. 


Librarian of Columbia College. 

Read before the Long Island Historical Society, November 5, 

It may seem almost an act of presumption 
to attempt an historical sketch, much less 
a detailed account, of Long Island, topo- 
graphical and statistical, within the ordinary 
limits of a lecture, — as a full consideration 
of any one of the numerous topics of this 
paper would exhaust the time and patience 
of the most complaisant audience. Any- 
thing like copiousness of detail or thorough- 
ness of treatment is, consequently, quite 
out of the question. Our utmost endeavor 
w r ill be to aim at presenting a very brief, 
very rapid, and yet tolerably comprehen- 
sive, sketch of the notabilia, men and 
things, of Long Island, — a portion of the 
Empire State far too little known, except 
to native Long-Islanders, residents of long 
standing, or those who, from business con- 
nections, social ties, or pleasure excursions, 
have become somewhat acquainted with her 
varied resources and manifold attractions. 

It is, moreover, with no affectation of 
modesty, that we undertake this task (a 
labor of love though it be), when we reflect 
on our avowed incompetence, compared 
with certain gentlemen here present, who, 
from birth, ampler information, and the 
nature of their researches, are far better 
litted to treat this subject, and yet wmose 
Vavorable suffrages we should be most anx- 
ious to gain. Since no one has, however, 
thought it expedient to present such a mere 
summary as we propose to give — unwilling, 


perhaps, to be at the pains to condense 
within a sketch, what might be so much 
more attractively amplified into a volume— 
we beg the forbearance, and deprecate in 
advance the criticism, of any student, his- 
torical or antiquarian, who might complain 
of the very superficial and discursive nature 
of this essay. 

Though a native New-Yorker, yet, as 
the descendant of Long-Islanders, we take 
a special pride and interest in the Island, 
and all that relates to it. On this ground, 
too, we seem to feel a certain claim on 
your kindness, and confess a desire to con- 
nect our name, again, with the home of 
our fathers. 

The historical importance of Long Island 
has never been overrated. Next to the 
city of New York, it is the oldest portion 
of the State that had been visited and 
settled by Dutch and English. Previous to 
the Revolution, Long Island constituted 
the oldest and most important part of the 
colony. A century ago the population of 
Long Island (says Prime) was more than 
that of the city of New York, and more 
than one-third that of the province. At 
the commencement of this century, Long 
Island was still a most important part of 
the State. 

To the student of political history, the 
antiquary, the humorist, the sportsman, 
the invalid, and the traveller for pleasure, 
Long Island holds out many and various 

Pier history, colonial and revolutionary ; 
the Indian tribes (her original proprietors) ; 
the settlement of her towns; their quaint 
nomenclature ; her old churches and houses ; 
the manorial grants of the Suffolk and 
Queens County patentees ; the quaint Eng- 
lish reminiscences of the east end, and the 




picturesque relics of the Dutch, in the 
western ; the romantic hardships of the 
whale fishery, and the bold race of men it 
nurtures— are all topics of interest. 

The celebrated men, too, who first drew 
breath in this favored region, and those 
who in later life retired here to enjoy a 
calm and happy old age, are worthy of 
being recorded. 

We shall attempt, concisely enough, to 
touch upon all these points,^for we can 
do little more, — and we must again declare 
that the present paper is but introductory 
to the historical course that will follow, and 
is intended to bear the same relation to 
it as a preface to the volume of history. 

On the arrival of the European colonists, 
thirteen tribes of native Indians were 
found in possession of the Island. At pre- 
sent a mere handful of half-breeds remain 
(more negro than Indian) of the once 
powerful and predominant Montauks, and 
but a meagre remnant of the Shinnecock 
tribe, settled on a Government reservation 
at Shinnecock. The only skirmish of any 
consequence between the Indians and the 
white inhabitants occurred in 1653, at Fort 
Neck (the seat of the Floyd Jones family), 
the famous Captain John Underhill being 
the victor. 

The colonial history of Long Island to 
the period of the Revolution is occupied 
(in its earlier records) with Indian difficul- 
ties; afterwards with civil protests of the 
Dutch against the Duke of York's govern- 
ment ; with party politics and local dis- 
putes. On the establishment of the English 
colonial dominion on Long Island, the 
Duke's laws (which tradition declares to 
have been drawn up by no less a personage 
than Lord Chancellor Clarendon, the great 
historian) were promulgated for the go- 
vernment of the province, and became the 
established code. The Dutch bad pre- 
viously governed the western end for near- 
ly half a century. 

During the era of the Revolution — 
throughout almost the entire war — the 
Island was held by the British. It contained 
many patriotic citizens, however, who se- 
cretly gave " material aid " to their fellow- 
countrymen, in nearly its whole extent; 

and on its soil at least one important action 
was fought — the Battle of Long Island, at 
Govvanus — from which the masterly retreat 
to New York was conducted with such 
signal success. 

The principal towns on Long Island 
Were settled almost contemporaneously by 
the Dutch and English, at either end of the 
Island, about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. South old was the first town 
settled on Long Island — 1640. Memorials 
of the original colonists are to be found in 
the very few old houses and churches still 
remaining — antiquarian relics of that early 

The principal of these (so far as we can 
learn) are the Cortelyou house atGowanus 
— the headquarters of Lord Stirling at the 
Battle of Long Island; the old stone house 
at New Utrecht, in which General Wood- 
hull died ; the Bowne house at Flushing ; 
the Young's place at Southold; the old 
stone cottage at Ravenswood ; and the 
Fort Neck mansion, built by Judge Thomas 
Jones, the loyalist, just previous to the 

In Flatbush and in Brooklyn were stand- 
ing, at the commencement of the present 
century, and even later, houses of equal or 
greater antiquity, not to omit the old brick 
house built by Major Thomas Jones, at 
Massapequa, 1696, and removed 1835, — 
the property, at that time, of Hon. David 
S. Jones. At South Hampton and at East 
Hampton several very old houses are yet 

A few quite ancient houses of worship 
are still to be found. The Presbyterian 
meeting-house at East Hampton ; the Caro- 
line Church at Setauket (the oldest Epis- 
copal church on Long Island) ; and the 
Quaker meeting-house at Flushing — the 
oldest house of worship on Long Island, 
built 1690 — are the principal. 

The Long Island Historical Library is 
still limited. Its history and antiquities 
have, to be sure, been explored and dis- 
cussed, compiled and commented upon, 
but not as they should be. A brief yet 
comprehensive, a classical but yet familiar, 
narrative remains to be written. Thomp- 
son's volumes contain the material for a 




history, and disclose the sources for further I Cobbett's Year on Long Island, as might 

be expected, is fresh and racy in point of 
style and sarcasm ; most readable for agri- 
cultural remarks and general observations 
on character and manners. He saw com- 
paratively little of the Island; chiefly the 
neighborhood of North Hempstead, where, 
at Hyde Park, the seat of the Ludlows, 
this book was written, 1817, as well as his 
English Grammar, the most popular work 
of its class ever published. 

The late Wni. P. Hawes, a lively writer 
and a genuine humorist, has left capital 
Long Island sketches — local, sporting, and 
familiar. His biographer, the late Wm. 
Henry Herbert, the accomplished scholar, 
litterateur, and sportsman, has left, in Notes 
on Fishing to the American reprint of the 
Complete Angler, some pleasant references 
to Long Island, as well as in his larger 
works on fishing, shooting, and the horse. 

The Rev. Mr. Prime's compilation is 
chiefly important as an outline of the ec- 
clesiastical history of Long Island, though 
it also presents the fruit of antiquarian 
research. This work is replete with im- 
portant facts, and is drawn up with accu- 
racy in a compact form. 

Mr. Onderdonk's valuable book of cut 
tings, the "Incidents of the Revolution on 
Long Island," may be regarded as interest- 
ing MSS. for the future historian, if indeed 
that classical scholar and loving chronicler 
of the past does not himself perform a 
duty to which he is fully competent — that 
of condensing his vivid facts and historical 
illustrations, running through three or 
four compact historical chapters, into a 
succinct narrative. 

Mrs. Sigourney has essayed a poetical 
flight, we believe, off Montauk — a species 
of spirit-of-the-cape episode — and with her 
we conclude the list of literary and 
historical illustrations of Long Island. 
From time to time, newspaper correspon- 
dents send a letter up to town from their 
summer retreats, but into this extensive 
class of literature we want both time and 

research ; but they do not present history 

in the high and strict sense. They include 

an ample store of facts, not philosophically 

digested, nor yet skilfully arranged. The 

compiler, as the historian always modestly 

calls himself, transferred too many docu- 
ments and records, valuable as evidence, 

or illustrative of the text, but burdensome 

to the reader. He is, perhaps, too, in his 

biographical sketches, which form a sort 

of Long Island family history (by far the 

most interesting portion of his work to all 

interested in the details), too much of a 

genealogist, and not enough of a biogra- 
pher. With these obvious defects (and 

notwithstanding other defects of style and 

manner), full of matter as it undoubtedly 

is, and the work of an honorable man and 

zealous inquirer, it is thus far the best — 

the accredited history of Long Island. 

Wood's History of the Settlement of the 
Towns of Long Island, and Furman's Notes 
on Brooklyn, both of which tracts preceded 
it, are truly valuable sketches, careful in 
research and clear in style. Dr. Strong's 
History of Flatbush, Mr. Riker's History 
of Newtown, Judge Benson's Memoranda, 
and occasional historical sermons, afford 
useful material for local history. 

The earliest printed account of Long 
Island is to be found in Denton's Descrip- 
tion of New York, of which Long Island 
was then the part best known and most 
compactly peopled, after the Island of 
Manhattan itself. It has been reprinted 
by Gowans, the well known bibliopole of 
New York City, with interesting notes by 
Judge Furman. It is a quaint and curious 
description of the city and the Island, very 
literal and very bald as to style, written in 
a vein of remarkable naivete. The author 
of this pamphlet of twenty pages, published 
in 1670, was the son of the first clergyman 
of Hempstead, who came to this country 
in 1644. It is a literary and historical 

Dr. Dwight, in his journal (a little pro- 
lix, yet generally sensible, and valuable as i inclination to enter 

a faithful picture of manners at the begin 
ning of this century — 1804), gives some 
pleasant descriptions of places and customs. 

A topographical sketch of the Island 
will present a general picture — a bird's-eye 
view of a most interesting country. 




Suffolk County occupies nearly two- 
thirds of Long Island, the county of so- 
called "pine barrens" (1) and sand, yet 
abounding in rich "necks" on both sides 
of the Island, and teeming trout streams. 
It is the county of the great patents of the 
Nicolls, the Smiths, the Gardiners, the 
Floyds, the Lawrences, the Thompsons, the 
Lloyds, and other leading families — estates 
equal in extent almost to some of the 
great old North River manorial grants; 
as, for instance, the Nicoll patent of origi- 
nally nearly a hundred square miles ; 
Richard Smith's patent of 30,000 acres; 
Fisher's Island ; Gardiner's Island; Shelter 
Island ; Lloyd's Neck — the county contain- 
ing the two greatest natural curiosities of 
Long Island — Ronkonkoma Pond and Mon- 
tauk Point. Ronkonkoma is a lake three 
miles in circumference, with the peculiarity 
of a sand beach, although an inland lake — 
itself the very Omphale of Long Island. 
For a long while it was supposed to be 
unfathomable, because no plummet had 
sounded its depths — (in this respect similar 
to Success Pond and other sheets of water) 
— claimed in part by four towns, Smith- 
town, Setauket, Islip, and Patchogue. Ac- 
cording to Judge Furman, the Indians 
refused to eat the fish of Ronkonkoma, 
regarding them as superior beings, placed 
there by the Great Spirit, like the enchant- 
ed lake of the Arabian Nights. 

Montauk, a vast common, as well as a 
bold promontory, with its shining light, 
has its 9000 acres, owned by a company, 
who hold its pasturing privileges as stock, 
and buy and sell it in shares. 

Suffolk has the healthiest air (2) on Long 
Island, especially in its extreme eastern 
portion. We speak from experience of 
frequent visits, of from weeks' to months' 
duration, some years since. More old per- 
sons, we believe, are to be found there than 
in any county in the State — even if a fatal 
case of tetanus (3) and of chorea does oc- 
casionally occur. According to Prime, 
Suffolk, in 1846, could show one in forty 
of her population over seventy years of 
age. The father, we believe, of General 
Halleck, died lately, a centenarian. 

It was an old slander against Suffolk, 

that her people were a benighted race, 
because they preserved much of the primi- 
tive habits of the original settlers ; yet if 
statistics are to be credited, more of her 
population can read and write than that of 
any other county in the State. The very 
first academy in the State — Clinton Acade- 
my — was established at East Hampton 
1784-7, and since the commencement of 
the century she has had her fair proportion 
of schools and academies. 

She has another just boast — that of 
producing the handsomest women of the 
State. On this point it would be invidious 
to discriminate ; but, from personal obser- 
vation, I can honestly declare that, if the 
wives and daughters of Kings and Queens 
are equally beautiful, they cannot be more 
amiable or intelligent. 

We cannot leave Suffolk without a few 
remarks on the whale fishery, forming its 
most characteristic feature. Whaling, from 
the earliest period of her annals, has been 
one of the chief sources of wealth to the 
hardy islanders ; and a bold, manly occupa- 
tion for the inhabitants of the eastern end 
of the Island in particular. From some of 
the towns on the north side, and early 
settlements on the shore of the South Bay 
(on a smaller scale), vessels have been from 
time to time dispatched ; but Sag Harbor 
may be properly recognised as the head- 
quarters of the whaling enterprise of Long 
Island, — a port, too, ranking (after New 
Bedford and one or two other places), in 
former days, as one of the most important 
whaling stations in the country. Fur this 
hazardous business the Hamptons furnished 
both officers and men. Of late years, since 
the use of gas as a means of illumination, 
the whale fishery and oil trade have 
materially decreased. 

In contemplating the venturous toils in- 
curred by the vigorous race of men nur- 
tured in this manly pursuit, we are forcibly 
reminded of Burke's vivid description of 
the hardy pioneers of the New England 
whale fishery as literally applicable to that 
of Long Island, with which in spirit, and, 
in a less degree, in extent, it is identical. 
After many, and dangerous, and profitable 
voyages, the daring navigator, and no less 




daring fisher, returns to his native place 
with a moderate independence, revives in 
middle lite the youthful occupations of the 
farmer, and settles down into the domestic 
character of a pater-familias. Originally a 
farmer's boy, a third of his life perhaps 
spent at sea, he never loses a certain am- 
phibious character readily noticed in his 
dress and demeanor, his walk and talk, 
habits and feelings. A more kindly, intel- 
ligent, frank race of men cannot be found 
anywhere than the better portion (and 
that a prominent majority) of the sea-faring 
men of Suffolk County. Simple-hearted 
but clear-headed, ingenious, industrious, 
and upright, they make excellent neigh- 
bors, true friends, and valuable citizens. 
Their mode of life is eminently republican, 
almost universal social equality existing in 
their towns, based upon a pretty uniform 
equality of pecuniary condition and intel- 
lectual acquirement The whale fishery is 
the most democratic of employments ; 
every man has his proportional share of 
profits, and a few voyages raise the com- 
petent sailor and skilful hunter of the seas 
from the condition of an ordinary seaman 
to the post of captain. It is a pleasing 
sight of a Sunday to remark, at meeting, 
the number of truly respectable, sometimes 
patriarchal, men, whose venerable locks 
are whitened by the frosts of many win- 
ters, as their honest faces are embrowned 
by the salt air and a tropical sun. As we 
have said, they make good farmers, but 
never lose their nautical ideas. Thus, in 
ordinary speech, they never throw, but al- 
ways heave ; a pail is always a bucket; the 
reins are lines / they go east or west, 
instead of up or down a street; they head 
or steer north or south, whether on foot or 
in a vehicle, as if on water; they love to 
live near the sea, to have plenty of sea- 
room and space about them — to go a-fish- 
ing and breathe their native air. 

The Hamptons are the towns where you 
find most of this race. J. Howard Payne, 
the dramatist, whose immortal song is as 
cosmopolitan as the English tongue, wrote, 
many years ago, an admirable description 
of East Hampton in one of the magazines. 
South Hampton is in much the same style, 

with its quaint old houses and their dimi- 
nutive windows, their immense chimneys 
and massive timbers, its wide street, and 
wind-mill, and meeting-house. These are 
towns more than two centuries old, with 
something of Old England, and a great 
deal more of New England, in them. 

The names of places are often queer and 
outlandish, sometimes significant, but often 
selected without any apparent good reason ; 
e. g. Hardscrabble (now Farmingdale), 
Hoppogues, Greenland, Mount Misery, 
Old Man's, Rum Point (Greenwich) — the 
scene of Dr. Valentine's richly farcical 
description of a fete — Commock, Buckram, 
Wolver Hollow, Canoe Place, Good 
Ground, Bedlam, Drowned Meadow, Fire 
Place, and Fire Island ; Scuttle-hole, Wam- 
stead, North Sea, Speonk, Moriches, Mas- 
tic, Crab Meadow, Cow Neck, Cow Bay, 
Musquito (Glen) Cove, Plandome, Dosoris, 
Bating Hollow, Quoque, Wading River, 
Hashmommock, Flanders, Upper Aque- 
bogue or High Hockabock.' Most of these 
are in Suffolk. A few scripture names 
occur in Queens and Suffolk ; e. g. Jerusa- 
lem, Jericho, Babylon, Bethpage, Mount 

The English settlements were chiefly in 
Suffolk and Queens during the civil war 
and the Protectorate, as the names of 
places show — Hampton, Huntington, 
Hempstead, Islip, Gravesend, for example. 
The Dutch settlements were almost 
wholly in Kings, adjacent to the city of 
New Amsterdam, as names of places there 
evince — Breuklyn, Mid wont (Flatbush), 
Amersfort (Flatlands), New Utrecht, 
Gowanus. The English settled but one 
town in Kings — Gravesend. In Queens, 
the Dutch also settled Ylisscngen (Flush- 
ing), in 1645, and Rusdorp (Jamaica), but 
went no further east than Oyster Bay. 

The national characteristics are still 
preserved, in some respects, and to this 
I day the towns of Kings retain something 
I of the aspect of Holland, and a great deal 
'of her thrift and quiet industry; while East 
[Hampton, in particular, has a good deal of 
the air of an old English village. In fact, 
i except in New England, there are few or 
i no places in our country resembling the 




old-fashioned English villages of a past 
date (of which we read in the English 
classics of the eighteenth century — neat 
and comfortable, pretty and picturesque), 
save, in a comparatively slight degree, 
some of the oldest villages on Long Island, 
where time and cultivation, the presence 
of gentry and the possession of wealth, 
have done a good deal to refine the face of 
the country as well as the manners of the 

The distinguishing features of Queens 
County are the strait at Hell Gate, immor- 
talized by the classic description of Irving ; 
Hempstead Plains ; and the Great South 
Bay, — the last entrenched behind a great 
bar or beach, nearly 100 miles long, a 
natural breakwater and sure barrier against 
the fury of the Ocean, forming a bay five 
miles wide ; while the second, a species of 
prairie and heath combined, includes some 
25,000 acres of uncultivated ground, with- 
out a tree growing naturally upon it, 
forming a common for the town. It is 
twelve miles long, by five or six in width. 
Long previous to the Revolution, in early 
colonial times, a race-course, called after 
the celebrated (English) Newmarket, was 
established here, by Gov. Nicolls, 1665 — 
nearly two centuries ago. It is thus de- 
scribed by Denton: "Towards the middle 
of Long Island lyeth a plain sixteen miles 
long by four broad, upon which plain 
grows very fine grass, that makes exceed- 
ing good hay, and is very good pasture for 
sheep and other cattel ; where you shall 
find neither stick nor stone to hinder the 
horses nor to endanger them or their races ; 
and once a year the best horses on the 
Island are brought hither, and the swiftest 
rewarded with a silver cup — two being 
annually procured for that purpose." 
Hence the origin of racing on Long Island 
— a favorite sport, especially at the Union 
Course, within the memory of most of us 
rendered classic by the historical contests 
between Eclipse and Henry; and, still 
later, between Boston and Fashion, — the 
North always victorious. The last great 
race was between Fashion and Blue Dick, ! 
— a most exciting scene, which we had i 
the pleasure of witnessing. Trotting and ! 

trotters now appear to have superseded, 
in a great measure, racing and racers. 

The shore of the East River, from 
Ravenswood to Flushing, famous for its 
gardens and schools (the nurseries of 
education), especially at and in the neigh- 
borhood of Astoria, and also at Newtown 
(celebrated for its orchards), and Jamaica, 
in the interior, is thickly set with delight- 
ful country places and rural retreats, in 
some instances of retired merchants and 
professional men, but, in most cases, of 
active business men engaged during the 
day in town. 

The north side of the Island, especially 
at Oyster Bay and Cold Spring, and 
indeed throughout its whole length, is 
certainly superior in natural beauty and 
picturesque scenery ; but the south side 
has the advantage of fine roads, being 
remarkably level, and is far richer in all 
kinds of game, fish, and fowl. Dr. DeKay's 
List of the Birds of Long Island shows that 
she is uncommonly rich in this particular. 

The highest ground on Long Island is 
Harbor Hill, 319 feet above the sea, at 
Hempstead Harbor, now Roslyn — a roman- 
tic spot, the Summer abode of Bryant, P. 
Godwin, and Mrs. Kirkland. At the same 
place was the first paper-mill in the State, 
erected and managed by a member of the 
Onderdonk family, which has given two 
bishops to the church and many worthy 
members to society. On both sides, 
the sound (her Mediterranean) and the 
Ocean, the Island is rich in watering 
places ; and after Newport, and superior to 
all of the New Jersey resorts for salt 
bathing, comes Rockaway, which is 
followed in an inferior degree by Coney 
Island, Bath, and a number of other p aces, 
to the very land's-end of the Island, 
at Montauk. As a fashionable resort, 
Rockaway, of course, stands at the head of 
the list, and is very accessible to the 
denizens of the city ; but old Ocean is to 
be seen in his more primitive aspects, with 
none of the artificial accompaniments of 
great hotels or brilliant society, with a 
ruder beach and a rougher surf, at the 
Hamptons and Montauk, and along the 
less visited shores of Suffolk County. 




Kings County, in its rural portion* 
retains a good deal of the old Dutch 
character of the early settlers (Gravesend 
being the only English settlement). Flat- 
bush is the chief village — a quiet, clean, 
most comfortable-looking place, with its 
pleasant houses, and gardens, and farms. 
Erasmus Hall, established contemporane- 
ously with East Hampton Academy, bears 
witness to its Belgic origin, immortalized 
by President Duer in his interesting St. 
Nicholas Address, 1848. 

Coney Island is supposed to have been 
the first landing-place of Hudson and his 
men, 1609. 

Forts Hamilton and La Fayette are 
most respectable fortifications, and import- 
ant to the safety of New York City. 

Brooklyn deserves a lecture, or a volume, 
rather, to herself, in place of a paragraph 
— the rival or rather the suburb of New 
York. This is said with no idea of disre- 
spect to her ; as, though a dependency on 
New York, much of the city of Brooklyn 
is very far superior to very much of the 
city of New York; — with her numerous 
places of religious worship, some of them 
of very considerable architectural preten- 
sions ; with her many fine streets of elegant, 
and, in very many instances, magnificent, 
private residences ; her noble City Hall 
and Navy Yard, with its admirable dry- 
dock, and, crowning feature of all, with 
her beautiful Greenwood Cemetery, a peer- 
less place of public sepulture. 

We believe all of the antiquities of 
Brooklyn are gone. Duflon's Military 
Garden and Parmentier's Botanical Garden 
were great places of resort in my boyhood, 
but have made way for the city improve- 

Long Island may justly boast of the 
eminent jurists and statesmen she has 
produced, and equally of the distinguished 
advocates who have, by residence, natural- 
ized themselves, as it were — become 
adopted citizens of her insular republic. 

Samuel Clowes, an Englishman, is 
commonly reported the first lawyer settled 
upon Long Island, at Jamaica, 1702. His 
grave is to be seen in the burial-ground of 
the Episcopal church. His descendants 

are among the most respectable of the 
many respectable old Long Island families. 
Jamaica appears to have been either the 
birthplace or favorite retreat of gentlemen 
of the first rank, either in the legal profes- 
sion or in the political world, among whom 
may be mentioned Benjamin Kissam, 
Egbert Benson, Rufus King, Melancthon 
Smith ; Genet, the French minister sent 
from the Republic by the Directory, 1793. 
Newtown claims the well known legal 
Riker family; Flushing, the able Cadwalla- 
der D. Colden (whose father, Governor 
Cadwallader Colden, had an elegant coun- 
try seat at Spring Hill, near Flushing ; as 
had Francis Lewis, the Signer, at White- 
stone). DeWitt Clinton, too, enjoyed his 
rural leisure, at one period of his life, at 
his pleasant place at Maspeth, in the town 
of Newtown. South Oyster Bay has 
given birth to perhaps the oldest and most 
distinguished legal family of the State, — 
including, in four generations of able 
lawyers, two judges of the Supreme Court 
of the colony ; and, since the Revolution, 
the two Samuel Joneses, father and son, at 
different epochs the patriarchs of the New 
York bar; and a younger brother of the 
latter, a worthy and generous compeer of 
the best, well known to many of you as 
such, and whose name and fame are grate- 
fully cherished in the history of his native 
county. The celebrated Judge Radcliff 
was a resident of Brooklyn ; and the emi- 
nent advocate, Elisha W. King, neither a 
native nor a resident, yet a descendant, of 
a Long Island family, should not be for- 
gotten. Perhaps no part of the State can 
pride herself with more justice on her able 
lawyers, of whom we have mentioned only 
those of the first class. To this brief cata- 
logue should, in justice, be added the 
names of two of the worthiest of the sons 
of Long Island, the admirable brothers 
Sackett, than whom we have never known 
purer or more honorable characters. They 
were able and intelligent lawyers, high- 
principled and kindly men, liberal and 
accomplished gentlemen, filled with all the 
virtues of the manly character; devoted to 
duty and to each other in life, and not 
separated in death — a rare example of 



brotherly love and of genuine goodness. 
As connected, too, with the old and 
respectable families of Onderdonk, Titus, 
Kissam, and Tredwell ; and united, by the 
ties of birth, and long residence, and 
partial affection ; by political bias and pro- 
fessional pursuits, their names should never 
be omitted in a list of those of whom this 
community ought to be proud. 

Suffolk, too, has produced her liberal 
proportion of able lawyers and statesmen. 
Is it necessary to do more than recapitu- 
late the names of Wm. Floyd, the Signer; 
Mr. Stephen Sayre, a native of Southamp- 
ton — in 1773, Sheriff of London — an 
elegant gentleman and sincere patriot ; 
Judge Conckling ; Chancellor Sandford ; 
Silvanus Miller ; Tappan Reeve, of whom 
Dr. Beecher remarked, in his funeral 
sermon, " I have never known a man who 
loved so many, and was by so many 
beloved ;" and John Wickham ? We 
must pause, in this rapid enumeration, at 
this last name, better known at the South, 
perhaps, than in his own county. Mr. 
Wickham, of Southold, went, early in life, 
to Virginia, where he became endenizened, 
and made for himself a most enviable legal 
and social reputation. He is best known 
in legal, or rather political history, for his 
defence of Aaron Buir in the celebrated 
trial for treason, and in which he had the 
elegant, classic Wirt opposed to him. 
John Randolph, that acute judge of men, 
has left his weighty testimony to the worth 
and merits of our great Long-Islander. In 
his will, dated January 1, 1832, he be- 
queaths " to John Wickham, Esq., my best 
friend, without making any professions of 
friendship to me, and the best and wisest 
man I ever knew, except Mr. Macon, my 
mare Flora and my stallion Gascoine, to- 
gether with two old-fashioned silver tank- 
ards, unengraved ; and I desire that he 
will have his arms engraved upon them, 
'and at the bottom these words: 'From 
John Randolph, of Roanoke, to John 
Wickham, Esq., a token of the respect and 
gratitude which he never ceased to feel 
for his unparalleled kindness, courtesy, 
and services.' " One of Mr. Wickham's 
daughters married Mr. Benj. Watkins 

Leigh, one of the political worthies of the 
Old Dominion. Mr. Wickham took a Vir- 
ginian's and a Long-Islander's pride in the 
horse, and he had a heavy stake in the 
Eclipse and Henry race. Boston, the 
greatest Southern racer since Henry, was 
bred by Mr. Wickham. 

Well known and popular names of an 
inferior professional grade might be added ; 
we have enumerated only the foremost, 
and of these none now living. If we have 
omitted any name or names at all equal to 
the foregoing, it is wholly through inad- 
vertence, and by no means from design. 

The faculty is as well, if not as nume- 
rously, represented. There was the cele- 
brated Dr. Mitchill, immortalized by Hal- 
leck, whom the late Dr. Francis, and equally 
competent judges among his contempo- 
raries, were never tired of praising for his 
learning, his simplicity of character, his 
benevolence, and his eccentricities; of 
whom Cobbett wrote, " A man more full 
of knowledge and less conscious of it, I 
never saw in my life;' 5 the able Wright 
Post ; Valentine jSeaman, father of the 
great doctors of the past generation, of 
whom we find mention in a foot-note of 
Ferriar's Illustrations of Sterne, to the 
effect that "the practice of whipping in 
medicine was revived by Dr. Seaman in 
North America, who applied a horse-whip 
to a patient who had taken an overdose of 
opium. The method succeeded." Valen- 
tine Mott — one of his pupils — the peer of 
Liston, and Cooper, and Dupuytren, and 
confessedly the first surgeon of his age 
and country ; Dr. Moore, of Newtown ; 
John Jones, one of the founders of the 
New York Hospital, and of the medical 
faculty of Columbia (King's) College, 
"ever to be remembered," to quote the 
language of Dr. Francis, "as the physician 
of Franklin and the surgeon of Washing- 
ton," the ablest operator and professional 
writer of his day. These were all natives 
of Long Island. Dr. Kissum, and Dr. 
Ogden, who is said to have been the first 
practitioner of his day, who introduced 
the use of mercury as a specific, became 
residents of Jamaica. Dr. DeKay, more 
particularly eminent as a man of science 




and traveller, located himself near the de- 
lightful village of Oyster Bay. 

The Episcopal church has at different 
times stationed some of her ablest sons on 
Long Island. Four, among the very fore- 
most of our bishops, had parochial charges 
here at different times — Seabury, Benj. 
Moore, Hobart, and B. T. Onderdonk. 
Bishop Moore and Bishop Onderdonk (of 
New York) were natives. 

Four successive generations of the first 
honored name have had charges on Long 
Island. Samuel Seabury, father of the 
bishop, was rector of St. George's, Hemp- 
stead, and after him succeeded in the same 
parish Rev. Lambert Moore, then Mr. 
(afterwards Bishop) Hobart. At Jamaica, 
Bishop (then, too, Mr.) Seabury was settled 
for twenty years. His son, the Rev. 
Charles Seabury, a clergyman of the Vicar 
of Wakefield and Parson Adams stamp, 
was missionary at Setauket (the Caroline 
Church) for many years ; and his son 
again, the Rev. Dr. Seabury, of New York, 
certainly the ablest polemic, and one of 
the most eminent divines of the Episcopal 
church, was rector, for a year, of St. 
George's Church, Astoria. Four gene- 
rations of clergymen, all able, and two 
pre-eminently so, are not readily to be 

Celebrated preachers of various denomi- 
nations have made Long Island the favorite 
scene of their religious labors. 

Elias Hicks, a native of Jericho, the 
Unitarian Quaker (if the phrase be not 
tautological), in his peregrinations, is said 
to have travelled 10,000 miles and to have 
delivered 1,000 discourses. In 1672, 
George Fox, the rural patriarch of Quaker- 
ism (Penn was the courtier of the society), 
visited Long Island and preached under 
the noble old trees at Flushing, near the 
Bowne House, where he lodged. Whit- 
field, one of the two great Methodist 
leaders, also made an ecclesiastical tour, 
1764, at the east end of the Island. Tradi- 
tions abound in Suffolk, especially in the 
most eastern towns, of the quaint peculiar- 
ities of the early Presbyterian clergy, a 
vigorous race of intellectual, humorous, 
and most devoted pastors. The old Dutch 


Church in Kings, too, has her peculiar 

In the naval and military glories of the 
country Long Island may claim to partici- 
pate : in Commodore Truxton (of Jamaica), 
the gallant sailor and true man ; in the 
lamented Gen. Woodhull (of Mastic) ; and 
the spirited Col. Benj. Birdsall (of Hemp- 
stead) ; Col. Tallmadge (of Setauket) ; 
General Ebenezer Stevens (of Astoria), 
Capt. Norton (of Brookhaven), and Capt. 
Brewster, revolutionary heroes, are not to 
be forgotten. 

Art, too, can point to her votaries, some 
of them natives, others residents, of Long 
Island. Mount, the first comic painter of 
the United States, and his brother Shep- 
herd, the portrait painter, natives of Se- 
tauket ; and a new name, Davis, of Port 
Jefferson, rapidly becoming the peer of 
Mount ; Rogers, the celebrated miniature 
painter, of Bridge-Hampton. Hackett, the 
excellent comedian, is, we believe, a native 
of Jamaica; and Dr. Valentine, the ad- 
mirable comic lecturer and mimic. By ram, 
the self-taught mechanical genius, was a 
native of Southampton; and Symmes (of 
Riverhead), author of the well known 
theory of the earth. We recollect the 
name of but one brilliant instance of native 
authorship among the dead — Robert C. 
Sands, the scholar and wit. Brooklyn has 
always had her fair share of litterateurs 
and a highly cultivated society, most of 
which belongs properly to New York City, 
or to New England, or to the native and 
resident members of the legal profession. 

The population of Long Island is equal 
to that of some of our largest cities, or 
some of the smaller States of the Union. 
On this score alone she might claim to be- 
come an independent State and a distinct 
diocese, to have her own governor and her 
own bishop. But would it be wise to 
separate herself from the parent State (if, 
indeed, such a course could be allowed), 
to forego the glory of remaining a most 
important portion of the Empire State, 
and, instead, to set up a political indepen- 
dency of her own ? As the son, the grandson, 
and the great grandson of Long-Islanders, 
whose first American' ancestor was among 



the early English patentees of Queens 
County, I say, for myself, distinctly, it 
would not. 

The future of Long Island appears to us 
(so far as we may cast its horoscope) to 
resolve itself into becoming the garden, 
the orchard, and the farm of New York 
City. Assuming Brooklyn (though the 
third city of the United States for popu- 
lation), with her dependencies, to be con- 
sidered as a part of the metropolis ; the 
rural portion of Kings might fitly be formed 
into gardens, kitchen and floral ; while 
Queens might be in part devoted to both 
gardens and orchards (as is even at present, 
with both counties, much the case), and 
leaving the rest of her soil, with much that 
is excellent in the soil of Suffolk, for purely 
agricultural purposes, and farming on a 
large scale. Or, admitting secession (which 
we are as unwilling to countenance in this 
instance as in the disruption of our glo- 
rious Union) Long Island may virtually 
become an insular State with far better 
reason than some of the Southern States, 
— Delaware, for instance. From geographi- 
cal position, her internal resources, her 
varied products, the possession of a capital 
city worthy of the name, she might derive 
a strong ground for separation. Interest 
and good feeling would still ally her 
strongly to New York, and the divorce 
might be but partial. This, however, we 
merely glance at as a speculation ; fervently 
trusting that no such consummation* may 
ever happen, but that Long Island will 
hereafter be known as the richest jewel in 
the crown of the Empire State, and that 
her sons and daughters may, while indulg- 
ing in a most laudable local pride, not 
only never forget, but boast with proud 
satisfaction, that they are loyal citizens of 
the Empire State of New York. 

Note. — The writer of the present paper is indebted 
to Mr. J. W. Carrington, who kindly read it, in his 
absence, to the Long Island Historical Society; and 
from whose admirable elocution much of its immediate 
success was derived, for the following judicious 
remarks : 

(1) These so-called "barrens," by the way, are 
being rapidly developed, year by year, into thrifty, 
promising farms 


In the year 1853, the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania published its first and only 
volume of "Collections." In it were a 
letter from Miss H Morris, the daughter 
of the distinguished financier of the 
Revolution, to Mr. John F. Watson in rela- 
tion to General Washington, the informa- 
tion being derived from her mother, and 
some notes by Mr. Watson of conversa- 
tions with Mrs. Morris, upon the same 
subject. As a very small edition of this 
volume was printed, the following extracts 
from these papers will be new to most of 
the readers of the Historical Magazine : 

" In his temper he was usually mild and 
slow to anger, but when he was roused, 
which was seldom, those who had been the 
cause of it would take good care never to 
give like cause again. He was amiable 
and easy of access, though rather reserved, 
not very conversible, sometimes playful, 
but never jocular; his deportment was 
always dignified, but not austere ; always 
friendly, gentlemanly, and respectful to 
his intimates and family ; and was a kind 
master and a consistent one to his servants. 
He did not pay much attention to children, 
yet he was fond of ladies' society. He was 
not fond of music, nor did he play or sing, 
although he occasionally, but seldom, 
danced; he never played cards or any 
games. With regard to his reading, we 

The "Bushy Oak Plains (not Scrub Oak, as they 
are generally called) in a pamphlet by Winslow C. 
Watson, among the State Agricultural Transactions 
for 1859 — are shown to be anything but "barrens." 
They would tit out many a baron with a most noble 

(2) It might be added, too, that Suffolk County 
lies wholly within that very small portion of the 
earth's surface described by Baron Humboldt (in his 
" Cosmos," I think) as being emphatically the health- 
iest region in the world. 

(3) it is but just to Suffolk County to say, here, 
that one of her own physicians has robbed her of this 
terror. Under the treatment discovered and introduced 
by Dr. Benjamin D. Carpenter, of Cutchogue, tetanus 
is of scarcely more consequence than a severe attack 
of toothache. Practising in a circuit of twenty-five 
miles in diameter, he assures me that in sixteen years' 
residence he has only averaged one case a year; and 
of cases that were his own, he has not lost one. 




cannot say, only that he passed a great 
part of his time in his study. Of his reli- 
gious character we know nothing, except 
that he was regular in his attendance on 
divine worship on the Sabbath, and we 
never knew him to express any opinion 
regarding the different sects. He belonged 
to the Episcopal Church. 

" He was very fond of riding on horse- 
back, also of fine horses, of which he had 
a favourite. He never engaged in athletic 
exercises. No man was more attentive to 
his professional duties, and no man more 
prompt to determine and pursue the 
proper course. Whatever time or leisure 
he had was principally spent in his study.'' 
" He was particular and remarkably 
neat in his dress, which during his presi- 
dentship usually consisted of black velvet, 
with silk stockings, and shoes. His form 
was very commanding and remarkably 
dignified, particularly on horseback ; he 
was indeed a complete horseman, and on 
his entrance into Philadelphia after the 
surrender of Yorktown was acknowledged 
by the British officers present on that occa- 
sion, to be the finest and most heroic 
looking man they had ever beheld. His 
teeth were bad, but he had a fine complex- 
ion. He laughed but seldom ; he never 
made use of any exclamations or oaths ; he 
did not indulge in anecdote and never 
spoke of himself. 

" He was extremely fond of a farmer's 
life, and when on his farm dressed very 
plain but neat. 

" He was a moderate liver both in eating 
and drinking ; he was an early riser, and 
consequently went early to bed. He at 
one time resided in my father's family 
more than two months, and there never 
was a person who gave less trouble. 

" He never felt or indulged any bitter- 
ness against the English, and bore the 
reproaches of our own prints with the most 
perfect equanimity. He was very graceful 
in his address and courteous to his guests. 

" He always spoke of his mother with 
marked respect and affection. Mrs. 
Washington, though not possessing much 
sense, was a perfect lady and remarkably 
well educated for her situation. 

" Mrs. Morris told J. F. Watson of the 
deep impression made upon her mind by 
seeing General Washington make a public 
entry into Philadelphia, after the surrender 
of Yorktown. As the procession entered 
High Street, the General stopped before 
the door and saluted. His manner on 
that occasion was remarkably elegant and 
dignified. His manner of sitting on horse 
was peculiarly elegant; his horse was 
entirely white and very superior ; he paid 
great attention to his horse and always 
had his hoofs blacked before riding 

" Some British officers of high rank had 
previously solicited a place at Mrs. Morris's 
house to get a view of the General, and 
they all expressed high admiration of his 
dignity and demeanor. As they expressed 
a great desire to be in his company and 
hear him converse, they were invited that 
evening to take supper with him. On that 
occasion he was remarkably polite and 
affable to them. They one and all said 
they should never forget the satisfaction 
the}' felt and the honor they deemed done 
to themselves, thereby. 

" One of the officers was remarkably 
like the General and had often been told 
so. On said occasions he used to affect to 
deem it a disparagement, but to Mrs. 
Morris he had said ' to be indeed like such a 
man was indeed a distinguished honor.' 
General Washington was very polite to 
this officer. 

"They all particularly spoke of his 
marked elegance as a graceful horseman, 
saying that he and his horse moved as 
but one. 

" Mrs. Morris died soon after relating 
the above, namely in January, 1807. 

" When he was a young man, he was 
seen at the Philadelphia Coffee House by 
old Rees Meredith, a considerable merchant, 
who, being pleased with his appearance, 
asked him home with him (without any 
introduction or knowledge of his character). 
There he gave him a venison dinner. 
Washington remembered and told this in 
later life, and when in Philadelphia in- 
quired for the family, and in consequence 
of that incident, sought out his son whom 




he made the Treasurer of the United 
States. (Told me by Dr. Griffith.) 

" Mrs. Deborah Logan has seen General 
"Washington's mother at Fredericksburg 
when she was eighty-five ; she had the 
stateliness and dignity of her son, and was 
familiar too. She told Mrs. Logan that 
she had formed the minds of her children 
with great care, and expressed her great 
trouble to find adequate schools, and said 
she sent her son George forty miles to the 
best she could get. She lived in a one 
story cottage and declined to live at 
Mount Vernon. 

" General Washington was extremely 
punctual. His cabinet councils were 
appointed to meet him precisely at eleven 
o'clock on set days. On such occasions 
General Hamilton was usually the latest 
and after the time ; then he would bustle, 
and drawing out his watch exclaim it had 
deceived him. This occurred a number of 
times when the General effectually pre- 
vented it, by rising and looking firmly on 
General Hamilton and saying : 'Sir, you 
must provide yourself a new watch, or I a 
new secretary.' I had this from Col. Picker- 
ing, who was present. 

" On an occasion of one of these meet- 
ings, the General was likely to be detained 
by the shoeblack beyond the exact time. 
The secretaries, in proceeding to the 
appointed room, had to pass a small cham- 
ber where the General's boots were to 
have been placed. When Col. Pickering 
entered he found the General holding the 
servant and belaboring him with his 
boots. Col. Pickering hurried on, and no 
remarks were made. 

" He was accustomed to rise at daylight, 
and always went into the stable to see his 
horses, of which he was very careful. On 
one such occasion he found that the coach- 
horses, which had come home late, had not 
had their legs rubbed down, the mud being 
still on them. The General was seen by 
one who told me, to seize his German 
coachman and to fisty-cuff him in the yard 
with a good drubbing ! I have understood 
he was passionate. 

" Houdon's bust of Washington at the 
close of the war, when his face was full 

and without a wrinkle, was the best like- 
ness that ever was exhibited, and no artist 
will ever err that will copy it, especially as 
a military character. (W.Rush.) Houdon's 
bust is invaluable for the truth of its pro- 
portions. He was an artist celebrated for 
the fidelity and natural character of his 
busts. (Rembrandt Peale.) 

" Stuart's portrait is heavily exaggerated 
(Peale), although it is the one from which 
most of the portraits are since made. It 
was done in 1775. Stuart executed two, 
and called his first a complete failure. His 
second one is unfinished. Stuart used to 
say that Washington was the broadest 
between the eyes of any man. His nose 
then is very thick. Gen. Washington 
weighed at West Point, in IV 82, two 
hundred and nine pounds. In later life he 
grew, I believe, still heavier and more cor- 

" Mrs. Washington, in the time of the 
war, boarded in the present ordinary-look- 
ing small three-story house at the north- 
west corner of Arch and Front street. The 
wives of many tradesmen would now dis- 
dain to live in the same. It is now a gro- 
cery store.* 

" Gen. Washington was the first person 
of distinction among us who left, off hand 
ruffles. Then Gen. Dickinson and others 
spoke of it and followed the example. 

" The Secretary of State told, in the 
hearing of Mrs. Logan, how very deeply 
Gen. Washington was wounded in his 
feelings when he first saw the severe stric- 
tures on his administration in Freneau's 

" Col. McLane told me that when Wash- 
ington and his army lay at Valley Forge, 
in 1778, some of the Pennsylvania Germans 
made a Paddy, and displayed it on St. 
Patrick's day to the great indignation of 
the Irish in camp. They assembled in 
large bodies under arms, swearing for ven- 
geance against the New England troops 
there, saying they had got up the insult. 
The affair threatened a very serious issue ; 
none of the officers could appease them. At 

* This house has been pulled down within the last 
few years. (Note, iu 1864.) 




this time Washington, having ascertained 
the entire innocence of the New England 
troops, rode up to the Irish and kindly and 
feelingly argued with them ; and then, as 
if highly incensed against the perpetrators, 
requested the Irish to show the offenders 
and he would see them punished. They 
could not designate any one. Well, said 
Washington, with great promptness, I too 
am a lover of St. Patrick's-day, and must 
settle the affair by making the army keep 
the day. He therefore ordered extra 
drink to every man of his command, and 
thus all made merry and were good 

"After the surrender ofYork Town, while 
the Continental troops were preparing to re- 
ceive the British, who were to march forth 
from the garrison and deliver up their 
arms, the Commander-in-Chief was heard 
to say, addressing himself to the division 
of the army to which he was attached, 
4 My brave fellows, let no sensation of satis- 
faction for the triumphs you have gained 
induce you to insult your fallen enemy ; 
let no shouting, no clamourous huzzaing 
increase their mortification. It is suffi- 
cient satisfaction for us that we witness 
their humiliation. Posterity will huzza for 

" Washington possessed great muscular 
strength of arm, and it was of unusual 
length. When young, he threw a stone 
across the Rappahannock, and at the 
Natural Bridge he threw a stone higher 
than any person has since. An instance of 
his strength in this way occurred at the 
Palisades up the North River, in 1789.* 
General Washington being at that post on 
a temporary call with his staff, saw the 
officers attempting to throw stones from 
the high bluff (which, to the eye, seemed 
almost perpendicular) into the river below, 
but none were able to effect it. Washing- 
ton alighted from his charger and, seeking 
for a stone to his liking, took two or three 
quick steps, and giving it a jerk (called the 
4 Douglass cast' among the Virginians), 
he lodged it in the sounding water at 

least one rod from the shore. All the 
troops were so astonished and rejoiced that 
they gave three cheers.' , 

* So in Mr. Watson's MS. 
meant ? 

"Was not 1179 


A Copy of the Original in my possession. 

H. W. B. 

Portland, Feb. 64. 

Dear Sie, 

My son W m - informs me that he has a 
large number of Letters from the hon ble - 
John Adams. Should these letters be 
made public he thinks it would blast his, 
Adams' character and be advantageous to 
the public. W In . sayeth he has had a 
conference with your Honour The Honble 
Messrs Cabot & Lowell &c and that the 
project is approved. That you write him 
that you have a packett directed to him of 
so much consequence that you dare not 
trust it by the mail. Are you sure they 
would be safe in his hands ? I understand 
Mr. Adams' letters were confidential. The 
public good is dear to me. I cannot ap- 
prove treachery, that your steps may be 
directed by unerring wisdom is my sincere 
wish If you have not sent on this packett 
for the want of a safe conveyance Mr Has- 
kell the bearer of this will take charge of 
what you may think proper to commit to 
his care. I will be answerable for his 
fidelity. My Mrs Cunningham and her 
daughter Lois are not very well all the 
rest of our respective famileys are in good 
health hope that you and your connections 
enjoy the same blessing. If your good. 
Daughter is a florist and will be so obliging 
as to send me a few of her curious flower 
seeds it will be esteemed a favor. Expect 
to go to Boston early in the Summer with 
the dear partner of my Joyes and sor- 
rows when we intend to do ourselves the 
pleasure of making you a visit. In the 
mean time I am with much esteem your 
friend and humble serv 1 - 

William Cunningham 

Lunenburg March 19th 1810 





Richaed Butler was a native of Ireland, 
but came with his father to Pennsylvania 
prior to 1760. 

We have not ascertained when he first 
joined the American army, hut Lee, in his 
memoirs of the war, etc., in his biographical 
sketch of General Morgan, says : " In the 
spring of 1111, a select rifle corps was 
formed, out of others in the army, com- 
manded by Colonel Morgan, seconded by 
Lieut. Col. Richard Butler of Pennsylvania, 
and Major Morris of New Jersey, two 
officers of high talents and specially quali- 
fied for the enterprising service to which 
they were assigned." 

From this it appears that Butler had 
been in the army prior to " the spring of 
1777," and he must have displayed con- 
siderable enterprise and ability to have 
entitled himself to the distinction thus 
conferred upon him. 

In this rifle corps he served during the 
campaign which was closed by the sur- 
render of Burgoyne. 

Col. Lee, in his account of a gallant 
action in which Col. Butler was engaged 
on the 26th June, 1781, used the following 
language: "The American General (La 
Fayette) detached Lieutenant-Colonel But- 
ler, of the Pennsylvania line, the renowned 
second and rival of Morgan, at Saratoga." 
At that time (1781) Butler was a full 
Colonel, having been promoted to the 
command of the 9th Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment, in Dec. 1777, soon after the surren- 
der of Burgoyne. 

In 1791, General Butler was second in 
command under General St. Clair in his 
ill-fated expedition against the Indians, 
and fell in the unfortunate action of the 
4th November, 1791. 

We give this brief notice of his services 
as an introduction to the extract from his 

The extract which we give will be found 
highly interesting, giving as it does an 
account of the first landing of the French 
troops in Virginia, of which Col. Butler and 
Col. Stewart happened to be the witnesses. 

The account of the arrival of Washing- 
ton, of the cordial reception given to him 
by both the American troops in Virginia 
and the French army, the delightful com- 
pliment paid to him by the French band 
of music, all form pleasant passages in the 

The passage, however, in which Colonel 
Butler expresses his warm and ardent 
affection for Washington, and his honest 
indignation against the base conspirators 
who endeavored to destroy him, always 
excites in our bosom a thrilling sensation 
of pleasure. 

Those expressions of feeling were writ- 
ten in his private Journal, kept for his 
own satisfaction, never intended for publi- 
cation. — They therefore afford the best 
evidence of the honest and ardent affection 
of Butler for his commander, and the deep 
and sincere reverence which the virtues of 
that commander had inspired. 

Colonel Butler was in Wayne's Bri- 
gade, and Steuben's division, and had 
encamped the evening previous to the date 
of the beginning of our extract at Cabin 

"September 1st. — This morning an express, 
from Col. Gammel to the Marquis, passed 
us at sunrise, with certain accounts of the 
arrival of Count de Grasse, with Maj. Gen. 
Marquis de St. Simon, and a fleet of 28 
sail of the line and 4 frigates, being in the 
bay of Chesapeake, with 7000 troops, 
ready to act in conjunction with the Ame- 
rican army. Marched at 9 o'clock for 
Surry Court House, 12 miles, arrived at 
3 o'clock, P. M. — Encamped on good 
ground, and had very good springs on our 
right, left, and front. Met a number of 
the militia collecting. Went from Surry 
Court House to reconnoitre Cobham Point, 
and to see if any of the French ships had 
got up, having heard of five appearing 
below Surry church. — Found very good 
ground and fine water. This is directly 
opposite to Jamestown and Island — the 
river a league wide from this — is a very 
good prospect up and down the river. 
About 5 o'clock, P. M., myself and Col. 
Stewart went down to the Isle of Wight 




to Col. Burril's, where we were overjoyed 
to see the Experiment, a French 40 gun 
ship, and 4 frigates at anchor; — also, 3 
prize vessels, taken on their way to this 
coast. We had, also, the additional plea- 
sure of seeing 40 large boats, with near 
4000 troops, coming up the bay; these 
were from on board the grand fleet Avhich 
they left in Hampton Roads. Col. Stewart 
and myself were fortunate in being the 
two lirst American officers that received 
them, and took the Marquis de St. Simon 
and all his officers by the hand as they 
landed at Col. Burril's on the beach. The 
General and some of the officers went to 
Mr. Burril's house to rest, but returned to 
their troops about 8 o'clock, P. M., having 
expressed much pleasure at seeing us. We 
then set off for camp, and arrived at Gen. 
Wayne's quarters at 12 o'clock with these 
pleasing accounts, all of which was im- 
mediately communicated to the officers, 
whose joy was great and their happiness ex- 
pressed by every mark of joy and pleasure. 
Sept. 2d. — The troops marched for Cob- 
ham Point, 6 miles, where we encamped ; 
and about 1 o'clock saw, with pleasure, the 
boats come up and land on James Island, 
covered by the three prize vessels above 
mentioned ; all was done in the most per- 
fect order and regularity. This was a 
mortifying and surprising sight to two 
British flag- ships that lay at this place ; 
who never heard the least whisper of this 
great event until the troops and vessels 
were among them. Gen. Wayne, Cols. 
Butler and Stewart, with a few other offi- 
cers went across, and were very politely 
received by Maj. Gen. de St. Simon and 
his officers. We requested boats for the 
crossing of our troops, which were given 
with the greatest cheerfulness, and after 
mutual compliments passed, we re-crossed, 
all but Gen. Wayne, who went by appoint- 
ment to meet the Marquis de Lafayette, 
and was very unfortunately shot in the 
thigh by a sentry just as he arrived there : 
the wound is not dangerous, but is very 
mortifying to this good officer and the 
troops he commands, who love him, and 
wish his presence on the field on all oc- 

Sept. 3d. — The boats attended very 
punctually, both for us and the militia, 
who crossed from Swan's Point, at the 
same time, the Pennsylvania troops cross- 
ed from Cobham Point. The troops crossed 
with great ease in the boats, but the want 
of proper crafts, and some neglect in the 
few there was, not being brought down in 
time, Col. Gaskins, of Virginia, and his 
troops were left to cross and guard the 
baggage. The troops moved to Green 
Spring for shelter, it being very wet, 
stormy weather. 

Sept. 4th. — Marched at 3 o'clock, A.M., 
for the City of Williamsburgh, where we 
halted to cover the general officers while 
they looked for a post ; but a good dinner 
being got by Colonel Finney and other in- 
habitants, the Generals and part of the 
field officers dined together at Col. Finney's, 
and other squads went into other houses ; 
the afternoon was spent in so much hap- 
piness that it was too late to examine the 
ground much, therefore the French Gen- 
eral said from what he had seen he would 
take the position on my recommendation, 
and that General Du Portail and one of his 
engineers would attend me to-morrow, in 
order that they might be informed of the 
advantages and disadvantages of the posi- 
tion, and then he rode off with the Mar- 
quis for the Green Spring. It being likely 
to rain, had the Pennsylvania troops posted 
in the College, which shelters them very 
well. The Marquis ordered me to call up 
the light infantry from the lines, in order 
to refresh and join their battalions ; these 
arrived about 11 o'clock, P.M., under Maj. 

Sept. 5th. — I went out to examine the 
ground ; began at Mr. Powell's on the left ; 
found the creek on which is the capitol 
landing impassable, except in one place just 
below the birdge, and this place very diffi- 
cult ; another branch secures the left and 
rear, leaving only one pass for many miles, 
this pass is at a mill two miles from the 
mouth, the other branch leads near the 
college, and secures the whole front, by a 
ravine which forms a creek at Mr. Powell's. 
The right flank and front is secured by the 
College creek, which heads at that build- 




ing also, and runs into the James river ; on 
this creek is the College landing, and on 
the other which runs into the York river is 
the capitol landing ; this is a very remark- 
able and strong pass, there being not more 
than half a mile of hard ground between 
the two creeks, which may be guarded by 
a few good works against an attack in front, 
either from or to the city. About 1 1 o'clock 
the two Engineers of the French army and 
Gen. Du Portail arrived, went down below 
the city about two miles, found good camp- 
ing ground but no water, went then to Mr. 
Powell's and examined all the ground which 
I had fixed on for an encampment, which 
the Engineers liked well, and approved of 
as military and well chosen. Dined at Mrs. 
Vobes', where a number of militia gentle- 
men and others dined also. Col. Steward 
and self paid for the French officers, after 
dinner examined the ground about the 
mill on the Jamestown road and parted. 

Sept. 6th. — I went to visit Gen. Wayne 
and to see if the baggage was over, found 
the French had taken the company's team 
horses which I recovered and sent on with 
provisions, the Pennsylvanian troops were 
ordered to Burrirs mill, three miles below 
"Williamsburgh, this is a remarkable strong 
pass, took post here and served the troops 
with provisions and liquor. 

Sept. 1th. — A party of dragoons were 
sent down towards the halfway house to re- 
connoitre, Capt. Herd, who commands the 
party was informed of a body of horse and 
loot, supposed to be 1500 in number, hav- 
ing passed up the road toward Harrod's 
mill, he sent a small party across the 
country to ascertain this fact, pushed for the 
forks of the road at the church near Mr. Bur- 
ril's mill, lest the enemy should push a party 
in his front, which they really attempted 
and which he and his party narrowly 
escaped, having met them at the very spot, 
he pushed and gained the pass, and retired 
before the horse to the sentrys of the ad- 
vanced picket, which allowed him and his 
party to pass by and fired on the enemy 
who had previously ordered them to sur- 
render, the enemy then pushed on to the 
pickets, who had lain perdue and gave 
them a full platoon, which made them re- 

tire very precipitately, aud leave behind 
some bloody cloaks and other furniture 
which they dropped in the flight. 

I had the troops formed, and artillery 
placed in such a manner as to make an 
opposition that would have convinced 
them of their folly had they attempted 
crossing the pass, or even to take posses- 
sion of the side they were on, but they 
presently withdrew. I then went to reco- 
noitre the country; I found one of the most 
advantageous posts, the head of Burril's 
mill-creek, and some draughts that fall into 
the James river, which are impossible to 
pass but near the road ; at this spot I 
placed the militia battalion, commanded 
by Col. Randolph, and some rifle men of 
Col. Lewis' at a breach of the James river, 
where a road from Harrod's mill to Burril's 
ferry comes in ; having thus secured all 
these posts, I went with Major Hamilton 
and one Mr. Burril to Burril's point, where 
I had a good view of the shipping at York ; 
this spot is on a point of land formed by 
the York river and Burril's mill-creek, 
which is impassable (except at one place) 
all the way to the mill. Several sailors 
having deserted from the ships, I obtained 
an account of their naval force which I 
sent to the Marquis de la Fayette, viz : — 

IName of ship. No.ofGuna. Pounder %. 

Charon, .... 44 .... 18 and 12 

G-uadaloupe, ... 32 .... 12 . 9 

Old Foway, ... 24 .... 9 . 6 

Bonne tta, sloop of war, 16 6 

Brig Defiance, with . 16 carronades 18 . 

" Spitfire, ... 12 " 12 . 

Sloop Formidable, . . 10 " 12 . 

" Rambler, . . 10 " 4 . 


. 14 
. 10 

Four of the above named small vessels 
were ordered two miles up the river to 
cover a working party who were building 
a redoubt ; they have four other redoubts 
on the land side, and two on the water 
side, one of which has twenty-four eighteen 
pounders and four twelve pounders on it 
complete at the old flag staff. Had two or 
three fifty gun ships been passed up, on the 
arrival of the French fleet, it would have 
so far accelerated our approaches and 




secured the river carriage of provisions, 
<fcc, that matters would have been rendered 
very easy and all their shipping would 
have fallen, also, these very heavy guns 
with which they have covered the river, 
and will thereby impede the passage. 
There are several small vessels in the 
Pamunkey or York river, which I advised 
the General to have fitted out and manned 
in order to protect the provision boats ; 
which could then come within seven miles 
of us very safely, but whether the torpidi- 
ty of this sleepy state, or whether he 
thought it difficult to get it done, was the 
cause of this advice not being adopted, I 
don't know ; however, it was neglected and 
the carriage of the river lost, and the whole 
being in a manner starving, and there still 
appears no more industry or endeavor to 
supply the troops, and collect a magazine 
of provisions than if the enemy was in 
Europe, and no army of our own in the 

Sept. 8th. — Received orders to march 
for Williamsburgh to join the allied army ; 
arrived at our ground at 11 o'clock, had 
some difficulty in getting our baggage as 
we had to let the allied army have our 
wagons to bring on their whole train and 
camp, therefore had to lay in bough huts, 
on very dusty ground, for this day and 
night ; the French army, the Pennsylvania 
and light-troops made a very elegant 
appearance in passing through the city. 

Sept. 9th.— Obtained our baggage, 
pitched our camp. Lay by without any 
accounts of the enemy stirring on the 
eighth, the British fleet passed Cape 
Henry and came into the bay, and were 
gallantly engaged by the French, who 
drove them to sea, and pursued them, but 
leaving six ships of the line for the security 
of the bay. The Baron de Steuben arrived 
in camp with his suite. 

Aug. Wth. — Accounts by a Frigate 
that the French were left in full pursuit of 
the British, who were flying before them, 
and that in about six hours sailing they 
must come up with eighteen sail of victu- 
allers which the British intend for Lord 
Cornwallis' relief and support, which they 
had abandoned in their flight. Still no 


flour or meal, and the beef supplied is 
very bad, in short there is yet no exertions 
made to supply the troops who have been 
supplied with only three days' bread out 
of seven, and not the least likelihood of 
being better supplied. 

Sept. 12th. — Several cannon heard down 
the river ; no account from the fleet. This 
day Governor Nelson sent Mr. Nichols to 
give me an order to retain a mill, and to 
impress corn carriages, boats, or any thing 
to facilitate the collecting of provisions ; 
sent off Lieutenant Collier with a party 
for this purpose. 

Sept. 13th. — An account of the Comman- 
der-in-Chief having arrived at his own seat 
at last. He has not been within his own 
door for seven years, indeed not since he 
was first a member of Congress in the year 
1775, all which time he has been a most 
faithful patriot and servant of his country, 
from the citizen he was a counsellor, then 
a General, and in reality the Father of the 
people, he has nobly shared in all their 
misfortunes, shewing the utmost fortitude 
and regularity of conduct; indeed the able 
statesman has appeared in all his actions. 
Some malign shafts have been shot at him 
by a small insignificant tribe whose falsely 
and ill directed arrows always reverted to 
their own bow and wounded themselves. 

Sept. 14th.— The Marquis Lafayette still 
continues ill of the ague. Yesterday the 
Marquis de St. Simon, and a number of 
his officers, paid a visit to our line, and the 
Baron Steuben and our good friend Gen. 
Wayne, whose wound and gout still con- 
tinue ill. About 3 o'clock an express ar- 
rived, announcing the approach of our 
great and good Commander-in-Chief, Gen. 
Washington, and the Count de Rocham- 
beau, the commander of the allied armies 
of France, now joining. At 4, P. M., the 
guns fired a royal salute as the General 
approached the camp, on which the two 
armies turned out on their battalion pa- 
rades ; — his Excellency and the Count De 
Rochambeau, with their suites, attended 
by the Marquis do Lafayette, Maj. Gen. 
and commander of the American, and 
Maj. Gen. Marquis de St. Simon, com- 
mander of the allied army (lately arrived), 




and all their suites., visited the allied army 
first, and then the American army, and 
were saluted according to custom ; these 
ceremonies finished, the whole of the of- 
ficers of the French army attended at the 
Marquis de St. Simon's quarters and were 
introduced to the Illustrious Hero, The 
field officers of the American army all 
attended to bid him and the other Generals 
welcome. These ceremonies over, an 
elegant supper was served up, and the fol- 
lowing great personages and officers supped 
together in the utmost harmony and hap- 
piness, viz: His Excellency, the Count de 
Rochambeau, commander of allied army; 
Maj. Gen. Marquis de Lafayette, com- 
mander of the army in Virginia ; Maj. 
Gen. Marquis de St. Simon, commander of 
the allied army in Virginia ; Maj. Gen. 
Baron de Steuben, Inspector General of 
the American army ; Count Dumas (an 
officer of distinction in the French Guards, 
and one of the aids of Rochambeau) ; 
Count de Damas, another of his aids ; 

Count— , aid to Marquis de St. Simon ; 

Brig. Gen. Hand, Adj't Gen. of the Ame- 
rican army; Cols. Butler and Stewart, of 
Pennsylvania ; Col. Trumbull, His Excel- 
lency's secretary ; Col. Cobb, one of his 
aids; Lt, Col. Smith, another of his aids, 
with a number of other officers ; also Col. 
, commanding the Regiment Gati- 
nais, and many other Cols, and Lt. Cols., 
and other officers of the allied army. To 
add to the happiness of the event and 
evening, an elegant band of music played 
an introductive part of a French Opera, 
signifying the happiness of the family, 
when blessed with the presence of their 
father, and their great dependance upon 
him. About 10 o'clock the company rose 
up, and after mutual congratulations and 
the greatest expression of joy, they sepa- 

Sept. 15th. — An officer arrived from 
Count de Grasse's fleet, with certain ac- 
count of the arrival of his and Count de 
Barras' fleet, from Rhode Island, with the 
French troops en board, and heavy artil- 
lery and large mortars, also of the capture 
of the famous Iris Frigate, and the Rich- 
mond frigate, which with the Romulus of 

44 guns, are sent to Baltimore, and head 
of Eik, to bring down all our troops and 
apparatus for a siege ; the storm seems to 
thicken fast about Lord Cornwallis, whose 
people desert fast, which is a certain symp- 
tom of despondency in all armies. This 
day, his Excellency, the Commander-in- 
Chief, dined with the Marquis de Lafayette, 
also Marquis de St. Simon, Baron de 
Steuben, Count de Rochambeau, Dumas, 
and Desandroins, a number of American 
and French officers of distinction, and 
passed the afternoon in the greatest hap- 
piness and harmony. Several officers of 
the Navy, among whom is the captain of 
the Experiment of 40 guns. 

Sept. 16th, — His Excellency Gen. Wash- 
ington, Counts de Rochambeau, de Chas- 
tellux, and a great number of Generals and 
other officers dined with Baron de Steu- 
ben ; we spent the afternoon in great 
harmony and retired. 

Sept. 11 to 27. — Has been spent in de- 
barking the troops and trains from the 
shipping the whole being arrived, the 
troops having taken their proper stations 
and every thing arranged, and the Com- 
mander-in-chief and principal officers re- 
turned from on board the Ville de Paris 
where the Generals have been fixing a plan 
of co-operation with the Admiral, orders 
issued for the whole army to move at 5 

Se2?t. 28th. — The Army marched accord- 
ing to orders, and took post three quarters 
of a mile from the town of York, and in 
open view of the enemy, on our approach 
Lord Cornwallis at the head of his Dragoons 
turned out to reconnoitre us, some riflemen 
and two pieces of artillery moved towards 
them, and with a few shots made them 
scatter and move off into their works. 
The General reconnoitred them and ordered 
the heavy artillery which landed at Har- 
rod's landing below Burril's ferry to be 
moved up as fast as possible. The French 
army have the left fronting the British 
right — the Americans the right faceing 
the British left. The British General seems 
determined to stand a siege having pre- 
pared in the best manner possible. 

29th. — Small scattering fire both from 




the artillery and small arms, the principal 
officers reconnoitering and fixing a position. 
This night, the enemy abandoned their 
camp and out-works with precipitation, 
the advanced redoubts entire, which shows 
the want of a fixed resolution. 

30th. — The American and Allied army 
took possession of the abandoned redoubts 
in proper military form. The engineer 
began to lay out work for the artillery, 
<fec, and every thing goes on with spirit ; 
1,200 men for fatigue, forming fascines, 
&c. The enemy very busy all day at 
the works around the town. This morn- 
ing Cob Scammel was unfortunately 
wounded and taken prisoner when recon- 
noitering too close to the enemy. 

Oct. 1st. — Last night a good deal of 
firing between the patrols and pickets ; two 
works were traced out and carried on with 
great vigor. The enemy began to cannon- 
ade at daybreak, and also a few shells, 
which did no damage till evening, when 
two men were killed on the works ; these 
happened not to be men on business, but 
idle spectators. General Wayne's brigade 
were ordered as the covering party ; this 
evening marched to our ground at sunset, 
the Maryland 4th Regiment as picket in 
advance. They kept up a fire of three 
pieces of cannon at half hour periods all 

Oct. 2d?.— The fire of the enemy more 
severe this morning about 10 o'clock, A.M. ; 
they brought up two 18 pounders in addi- 
tion to what they brought yesterday. They 
fired severely all day, the shot expended 
amounted to 351 between sun-rise and sun- 
set. Wayne's brigade ordered to camp 
for convenience, but still the covering party 
till sun-set. The fire of the enemy con- 
tinued all night. About 10 o'clock, P.M., 
a heavy firing of the ships in the bay. 1 
reconnoitered the post at Gloster and the 
shipping, which I compute at 10 sail, the 
Gloster post not strong, I think by the 
size of the camp, 1,000 men; their works 
not regular, they have one good water bat- 
tery, on the York side ; I observed a good 
work close by the bank with four embra- 1 
sures, the ground very good for approaches ; j 
in general our works go on slow, the heavy | 

artillery hard to get up; not one piece of 
cannon as yet fired at them ; indeed, I dis- 
cover very plainly that we are young 
soldiers in a siege ; however, we are de- 
termined to benefit ourselves by experience ; 
one virtue we possess, that is perseverance. 

Oct. 3d.— -The enemy ceased firing at 
sun-rise ; four men of the picket belonging to 
Capt. Ray's company were killed by a cannon 
shot of the enemy in the night. About 10 
o'clock began to fire single shot. The ruf- 
fian Tarleton, with a body of troops, went 
to Gloster yesterday; after killing all his 
poor horses and mounting men on the offi- 
cers' horses, (who Lord Cornwallis order- 
ed to part with them) pushed out to forage, 
but fell in with the Duke de Lauzun and 
his legion, who treated them very roughly, 
and obliged them to retire to their lurking 
places with the loss of above fifty killed, 
wounded and taken. Tarleton himself was 
rode down by his own men, whose hurry 
caused them to be very impolite to their 

The loss of the Duke was few, not more 
than six men killed and wounded, with 3 
officers wounded. Tarleton had one Captain 
killed, and several officers wounded. Two 
of the Reg't Deux Fonts deserted to the 
enemy, also one Jersey and one Maryland 
soldier! The Pennsylvania troops for 
fatigue who finished the redoubts. 

October 4th.~^Vevy little firing all day. 
Wayne and Colonel Butler went to recon^ 
noiter on the York river side, the enemy 
very busy forming new works. Two de- 
serters from the enemy, who report that 
Cornwallis' army is very sickly to the 
amount of 2000 men in the hospital, and 
that the troops had scarce ground to liver 
upon, their shipping in a very naked state 
and their cavalry very scarce of forage. 
2000 French marines landed on Gloster" 
side from Count de Grasse at 9 o'clock 
P.M., a smart firing of small arms, which* 
brought a very heavy cannonade all night. 

October 5th. — Cannonading all morning, 
our part increases fast, and things go on well, 
to-day about 4 o'clock P.M., Corporal Or- 
gan, a brave and honest soldier, was unfor- 
tunately killed by a cannon shot ; a great 
deal of firing through the night, Pennsyl* 




vania and Maryland Militia for gabion 
making to-morrow. Confirmation of Gen- 
eral Green's success came to the Com- 

October 6th. — Pennsylvania and some 
other troops went to gabion making ; 
finished a great number and carried them 
to the right near the York river, 400 
paces from the enemy. The first parallel 
and other works being laid out by the En- 
gineer ; a body of troops ordered under 
Generals Lincoln, Wayne and Clinton, to 
break ground and form works, the materials 
being got ready and brought previously to 
the spot. The enemy kept up a severe 
cannonade all night, it began on the left of 
the allied army, who lost some men killed 
and one officer and several men wounded ; 
their intention was to possess the enemy's 
advanced redoubt on the York river, but 
one of the dragoons having deserted the 
enemy discovered the intention, which 
caused the enemy to keep up an (almost) 
incessant fire that way through the night ; 
the allied army finding the enemy too well 
apprized, contented themselves with going 
on with their work. The American part 
of the army on duty made great progress 
in forming lines and batteries without the 
loss of a man. 

October 1th. — The whole continued at 
work, notwithstanding the enemies fire 
through the whole day and night. About 
day light, a very sharp fire of small arms 
commenced, succeeded by artillery, they 
go on well, and our loss as yet very trifling, 
indeed the siege appears to be no more 
than an experimental movement. 

Oct. 8th, 1781. — The division of Steuben 
for the trenches to-day. This is composed 
of the Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsyl- 
vania troops. The enemy continued to 
cannonade, mounted at 12 o'clock. The 
enemy kept hard at work, and fired inces- 
santly on our fatigue parties, who really 
wrought hard, and completed one large 
battery on our extreme right, on the bank 
of the river, on which three 29 pounders, 
three 18 pounders, two 10 inch mortars, 
and two 8 inch howitzers were mounted. 
The Marquis de St. Simon had a battery 
completed on the extreme left, of eight 18 

and 12 pounders, two 10 inch mortars, 
and two 8 inch howitzers, both which bat- 
teries were made ready to open at the 
same instant. — A very fine battery of 
twelve 32, 24, and 18 pounders, six 10 
inch mortars, and six 8 inch howitzers, was 
forwarded, with small batteries on the 
right and left of this grand centre battery. 
The enemy seem embarrassed, confused, 
and indeterminate ; their fire seems feeble 
to what might be expected, their works, 
too, are not formed on any regular plan, 
but thrown up in a hurry occasionally, and 
although we have not as yet fired one shot 
from a piece of artillery, they are as cau- 
tious as if the heaviest fire was kept up. 

9th. — Relieved by Major General Lin- 
coln's division. This day, at 3 o'clock, 
P. M., the batteries of Lamb and the Mar- 
quis de St. Simon opened with great 
elegance, and were quickly followed. The 
Commander-in-chief paid the allies the 
compliment of firing first. The shot and 
shells flew incessantly through the night, 
dismounted the guns of the enemy, and 
destroyed many of their embrasures. 

10th. — Another grand battery in centre 
of the line of contravallation, consist- 
ing of four 32 pounders, four 24 poun- 
ders, and four 18 pounders, six 8 and 10 
inch mortars, with two 8 inch howitzers. 
Opened at dawn of day, and played inces- 
santly, and destroyed houses, works, and 
everything before it. About 12 o'clock, 
Secretary Nelson came out with a flag, 
and informed the Commander-in-chief that 
Lord Cornwallis and the chief officers 
were burrowed in the ground, and that 
our shot and shells did great execution ; 
he also says Majors Cochran and Gordon, 
of the British army, arrived from New 
York in a whale-boat, who brought ac- 
counts that Admiral Digby had actually 
30 sail of line of battle ships, and was 
resolved to relieve the garrison by an 
attack on the French fleet, and sending in 
a reinforcement which Sir Plenry Clinton 
had embarked. He adds that Tarleton 
and Simcoe have killed above 1000 horses, 
and that they were both unwell and in- 
active ; that Duke de Lauzun kept them 
entirely in, and very frequently alarmed 




them ; that the town was quite cut to 
pieces with works of different kinds. About 
12 o'clock some of our shot took effect 
among, and sunk several of their shipping, 
which set them to work to scuttle and 
sink several more. Our fire was kept up 
with unremitting fury all day: — after dark 
the shell made a very beautiful, though at 
the same time dreadful appearance. About 
9 o'clock, P. M., a fire broke out among 
the shipping — three were burned, among 
which was the Charon, of 40 guns. The 
sailors got them towed towards the Gloster 
shore, in doing which two others took fire, 
so that the total loss is five burnt. 

11th. — The chief part of their ships 
taken over towards Gloster, out of the 
range of our shot and shells which annoyed 
them much — the chief of the remainder 
sunk, or hauled close in shore, the garrison 
kept up and much fatigued. This night 
Colonel Richard Butler had the command 
of 600 men, and opened about 700 paces 
of the second parallel within about 250 
yards of their works ; in many places this 
was done so secretly that the enemy did 
not know of it till day ; when they com- 
menced a very heavy fire, though they did 
but little harm. 

12th. — A constant fire of shot and shells 
from both parties, many men killed and 
wounded on our side, and deserters say 
we made great havoc in town with our 

13th. — Several deserters out of town, 
who say the enemy are in confusion the 
whole of the army on duty or fatigue, 
making saucissons, fascines, stakes, gabions, 
and palisades, to make good the daily 
consumption, several men killed and woun- 

14th. — Steuben's division for the trench- 
es, mounted early, in order to relieve 
the light-infantry. At sunset the infantry, 
under the Marquis de Lafayette, and a 
part of the Regiment Deux Ponts and the 
French Grenadiers, under de Viomesnil, 
moved out at 1 o'clock, P. M., made an 
attack on two of the enemy's redoubts 
that had prevented us running our second 
parallel. The Marquis de Lafayette, with 
his detachment, attacked the small redoubt 

on the river side, and the enemy's extreme 
left, and the Baron de Viomesnil the re- 
doubt on a line with this, more to the 
enemy's right, 300 paces. The two attacks 
commenced almost at the instant, and 
were conducted with spirit and bravery, 
the dispositions military, the redoubts 
were both carried in ten minutes, with 
trifling loss on all sides. The British offi- 
cers taken are Major and Capt. Campbell, 
and — * 

The prisoners were secured, and imme- 
diately the second parallel was completed 
from these redoubts to the place where Col. 
Richard Butler left off on account of these 
redoubts, which if left in their possession, 
would have impeded the progress of the 
siege, which rendered them of more import- 
ance to both parties. The British defence 
was very faint to what might have been 
expected, from the consequence they were 
of to them, in keeping us at a distance. 
After these were carried, an alarm was 
spread around the British line in order 
to ascertain what weight of fire they 
could produce, which proved very faint, — 
this is a measure highly proper, as it puts 
the besiegers power to proportion their 
attack in case of storm, and should be 
guarded against by the besieged, and the 
greatest care taken never to expose their 
strength unnecessarily. Again daylight 
the second parallel was closed and the lines 
of communication formed, which, from the 
immensity of the work, must have surprised 
the enemy, as it advanced us V00 yards in 
some places, and put us within 250 yards 
of their works generally. The allies are a 
fine, steady, persevering people, and our 
confidence in each other seems mutual. 
Batteries are laying out — and the materials 
collecting so fast, that the enemy must be 
surprised at our facility and execution. 

loth. — Col. Butler and part of the two 
Pennsylvania Battalions relieved part of 
the fatigue. The batteries were laid out 
early, and the materials brought to the 
spots assigned. The enemy sent out an 
improper flag, which was detained till the 
Marquis de la Fayette sent one in to Lord 
Cornwallis, to inform him of the impro- 
priety of his conduct in sending a flag and 




firing at the same time ; his Lordship sent 
an aid to our flag to assure us he was sorry 
he had given an unintended offence, and 
requested he would point out the place for 
the reception of flags in future. On the 
return of the respective flags hostilities 
commenced very warmly. General Wash- 
ington, Count de Rocbambeau, Gen. Chas- 
telux and many other general officers, 
visited the lines. Capt. de La Touche, of 
the Hermione frigate, and several officers 
of the Navy, came up to visit the lines, and 
seemed highly pleased at our approaches, 
which really appear very judicious. 

The Commander-in-Chief returned thanks 
in general orders to the Marquis De Vio- 
mesnil, the Marquis De La Fayette, and all 
the officers and troops concerned in the 
late attack ; it is observed that very little 
blood of the enemy Avas spilt, although the 
national prejudice is so great. The enemy 
have an amazing number of sick in town, 
and are obliged to send their wounded to 
Gloster, where Col. Dundas commands. 
All the enemy's cavalry and about 1,000 

foot compose this 


division were relieved by General Lin- 
coln's about 1 o'clock, P.M. The ene- 
my's shells have wounded several of the 

The batteries were opened and fired with 
great success, which silenced the chief of 
the enemy's batteries ; many of their men 
were killed, and the whole of the garrison 
thrown into confusion. About 12 o'clock 
at night, Maj. Abercrombie, of the British, 
with a party of the Light Infantry and 
Guards, made a sally, and passing between 
two small redoubts that were unfinished, 
and where (by the parties being moved in 
another post to work,) the line was weak, 
got possession of the trench ; thence they 
pushed rapidly to a French battery, and 
spiked the guns and drove out the people, 
having killed four or five : Thence to the 
covert way or communication leading from 
the first to the second parallel, where they 
halted. They then discovered a battery 
commanded by Capt. Savage, of the Ame- 
ricans and challenged, What troops ? The 
answer was French — on which the order of 
the British Commandant was "Push on, 

my brave boys, and skin the b rs." 

This was heard by Count De Noailles, 
who had the command of a covering party, 
which he ordered to advance, and was 
guided by the Huzza of the British. He 
ordered grenadiers to " charge bayonet and 
rush on," which they did with great spirit 
crying " Vive Le -ifoy," and to use the 
British phrase skivered eight of the Guards 
and Infantry, and took twelve prisoners, 
and drove them quite off. The British 
spiked Savage's three guns with the points 
of bayonets, but our smiths and artillery 
men soon cleared all the guns, and in six 
hours chastised the enemy for their teme- 
rity with the same pieces. Our loss was 
very trifling, though the British really 
executed the sortie with secrecy and spirit. 

\§th. — This day employed in cleaning 
the trenches, filling up the banquettes, and 
completing our batteries with the different 
kinds of artillery, and using those briskly 
that had been placed yesterday. We lost 
a few men by small shells and shot, as our 
lines are close. 

17th. — Major General de Steuben's divi- 
sion mounted the trenches at 12 o'clock; 
at 10 o'clock, A. M., Lord Cornwallis sent 
out a flag, requesting a suspension of hos- 
tilities for 24 hours, and that two Commis- 
sioners shall be appointed, to agree on a 
capitulation for the ports of York and 
Gloster, with the troops and shipping. 
Gen. Washington sent no answer to the 
first request. About 4 o'clock, P. M., 
another flag, requesting a cessation for 
four hours. The General agreed that a 
cessation should take place for two hours. 
Reasonable proposals were made, and only 
some small alterations, necessary for the 
satisfaction and accommodation of parties, 
therefore no more work or firing. 

18th. — The troops in the trenches being 
entitled to the honor of closing the siege, 
we therefore remained unrelieved in the 
trenches. This day the whole army were 
ordered to hold themselves in readiness 
for any service requisite. Two Commis- 
sioners from the American and two from 
the British army, to draw up the capitu- 
lation in form, these were His Excellency 
Lieutenant General the Chevalier de Chas- 




tellux and Col. Laurens for America, and 
* for the British. 

Col. Butler, with 200 of the American 
troops, were ordered to take possession of 
one of the enemy's works, and the Mar- 
quis Laval, with 100 Grenadiers of France, 
to take possession of another. This being 
a day of negotiation, every thing appeared 
to be in suspense. After the troops were 
ready to march, they were ordered to 
remain on their arms. 

19^A. — About 11 o'clock last night, the 
British commissioners returned to York, 
they not having completed the capitulation, 
and the truce continued till 9 o'clock this 
morning. About 1 1 o'clock, A. M., all 
settled, the capitulation was signed, and 
the two parties under the Marquis Laval 
and Col. Butler reduced to 100 each, to be 
commanded by a Major, who marched im- 
mediately, and took possession of the 
works at 12 o'clock; then the two armies 
were drawn up opposite to each other, on 
the road leading from York to the country, 
and at 2 P. M., the British army marched 
out, to the great satisfaction of the whole 
American army and all spectators. Their 
number as follows : — 1 Lt. Gen., 1 Br. Gen., 
2 Cols., 8 Lt. Cols., 11 Majors, 52 Capts., 
89 Lts., 36 Ens., 2 Chaplains, 12 Adjs., 
10 Qr. Masters, 10 Surgeons, 22 Mates, 
295 Sergeants, 121 Drummers and Fifers ; 
Rank and File fit for duty 3293, Sick pre- 
sent, 90 Sergeants, 44 Drummers and Fifers ; 
Rank and File 1741 — total 582 1 — 70 pieces 
brass Ordnance, (this is the post of York 

20th. — Two divisions of the British army 
were ordered to march under the care of 
the militia, for Staunton and Winchester. 
All this day spent in collecting public 

21st. — Gen. Choiseul went to the post 
of Gloster, and disarmed and dismounted 
the garrison, both horse and foot, agree- 
ably to the capitulation. This day the 
British and German troops marched for 
their destination. The Commissaries still 
busy collecting the stores of all kinds. 

22d. — The French Frigates and Com- 

* A blank in the original. 

j missaries were up to take account of the 
[Marine Department ; the stores still col- 
lecting. I observe the greatest villainy 
practised by the British ; they don't appear 
to have an idea of honor in any of their 
actions. They have completely plundered 
every thing in their power, and do not pay 
the least regard to any treaty. I also find 
the greatest of abuses committed by per- 
sons who pass into the town, and instead 
of the army being benefitted by any sale 
of goods or privilege to purchase, the 
stores are kept shut, which answers an 
excellent purpose for all speculations by 
the rascals who take advantage of such 

We have been particularly happy in 
good weather during the whole siege. We 
had but one wet night, that of the 15th. 
The army in good spirits, and seem ready 
for any other service. 

23d. — Fine weather. This day a Council 
of war w r as held at Head Quarters. The 
sloop of war Bonnetta fell down the river, 
with her iniquitous cargo of deserters, 
stolen negroes, and public stores that the 
British officers had secreted, in violation 
of treaty and in breach of honor. Lord 
Cornwallis visited the General officers in 
return for their visits. Col. Tarlton was 
dismounted by a man from the country, 
whose horse he had stolen some time ago. 
The American Commissioners are still col- 
lecting and taking account of stores of 
all kinds. 

24th. — Still fine weather. This day went 
into town with General Wayne. Observed 
great irregularity in collecting public 
stores. The French artillery conductors 
very busy in embarking their stores. Eight 
fine frigates, and one 40 gun ship in the 
harbor. Their intention is to weigh the 
vessels sunk during the siege. 

The following noblemen are this after- 
noon embarked for France, viz : — Count 
Laval, Viscount Win. Deux Pouts (brother 
to Count Bernard Deux Pouts, who com- 
mands the elegant regiment Deux Ponts), 
and Captain Montesquieu, with their at- 
tendants, on board the Hermione frigate, 
with duplicates of the surrender of the 
army under Lord Cornwallis. 




25th. — The Count de Rochambeau visit- 
ed Gloster. The stores still collecting by 
the Commissioners, and the British and 
country people stealing. The merchants 
and suttlers of the British army are this 
day met with the Quarter Masters, to de- 
vise some plan to dispose of the property 
to the officers of the army. 

ni (Bmx'm. 


Singular Advertisement. — (From the 
Royal Gazette and the New Brunswick 
Advertiser (St. John's, N.B.), January 20, 

Pro Bono Publico or Charles Loosley is no 
dead, (Laus Deo) is not dead, as report- 
ed, but lives at Grinross Neck, in the royal 
county of Queen's, in a good stately look- 
ing house, rather unfinished but comfort- 
able. By him the hungry can get the best 
food, the athirst, good drink, and the 
weary, beds ; and for their horses, warm 
stables, oats and English hay, at moderate 
prices, as usual. 

Pro Bono Publico also informs all those 
gentlemen who are indebted to him (for the 
fourth and last time) that unless they dis- 
charge their arrears in fourteen days from 
the date hereof, he will be under the dis- 
agreeable necessity of putting them with- 
out discrimination in a common cage or go 
"in one himself. 

which continued in force until a constitu- 
tion was formed, September 15, 1818." 

Now, considering that Connecticut was 
not first settled at Windsor ; that it was 
not settled before 1635, though the Dutch 
had built a fort at Hardford, and Ply- 
mouth a trading-house at Windsor, two 
years earlier, but no u puritans from Massa- 
chusetts" were at either place ; that Con- 
necticut did not continue more than one 
year under the jurisdiction of Massachu- 
setts ; that Massachusetts was not a ''pro- 
vince ;" and that the Connecticut charter 
of 1662 gave way to the present constitu- 
tion when the latter was adopted by the 
electors in October, and not when it was 
framed by a convention in September, 
1818; — considering all this, it may be 
doubted whether other six lines can be 
found, even in a " book of reference," em- 
bodying so many new facts as do these. 

It is true that the Almanac is not en- 
titled to the exclusive credit of the com- 
pilation. Its editor was largely indebted 
to Colonel Hickey's Constitution of the 
United States, — a standard authority, — 
for two most important items ; to wit, that 
Connecticut w T as " embraced under the 
charters of Massachusetts ; and continued 
under the same jurisdiction until April 23, 
1662, when a separate charter was grant- 
ed" (p. 399 ; 3d edition). 

Where an author gives two or three 
octavos to the history of a State, an oc- 
casional error of fact or date is excusable ; 
but when such a history is condensed, for 
ready reference, into a half a dozen Imes, 
it seems unnecessary that these should con- 
tain, year after year, half a dozen misstate- 
ments. T. 

Facts which are not Facts. — The 
Evening Journal Almanac for 1864, a 
very useful and convenient manual of poli- 
tical information, has the following com- 
pend of State history, which seems worth 
transferring to the pages of the Hist. 
Magazine : — 

" Connecticut was settled at Windsor, 
in 1633, by English Puritans from Massa- 
chusetts, and continued under the jurisdic- 
tion of that province until April 23, 1662, 
when a separate charter was granted, 

" The Celebrated Latin Line on 
Franklin" (vii. 354).— The H. M. for 
Nov., 1863, has a note that Mr. Sumner 
has settled the authorship of the celebrated 
Latin verse, written under the picture of 
Franklin : — 

" Eripuit coelo fulmen seeptrutnque tyrannis." 
That Lord Brougham had erred in ascrib- 
ing the verse to Claudian, and that Mr. 
Sumner, in a scholarly review, shows 
that the verse was written by Mons. Tur- 




got, and he finds its model in a verse of 
the Anti-Lucretius of Cardinal Melchior de 

The authorship of that line was settled 
more than ten years ago. The whole matter 
may be found in the English Notes and 
Queries, 7th Feb., 1852 (v. 140), just as 
Mr. Sumner gives, and the detail there 
given had been copied into American news- 

Urbano, Ohio, Jan. 25, '64. 

J. H. J. 

The Price of Substitutes in the 
Olden Time. — The copy of a document in 
my possession. 

H. W. B. 

Portland, Feb., '64. 

Waltiiam June the 10th 174S 

Then Received of Josiah Brown the sum 
of Forty Pound old tenor as his sum for 
going in to his Majesties service to the 
Eastward frontiers to be improved in hiring 
a man to go in his room. 

Received Pr me 
j Samuel Livermore Cap 1 - 

Reminiscences of Burr's Later Days. 
— Among the recollections of the wife of 
a navy officer we find the following : — 

Aaron Burr came to Staten Island an 
invalid, which he had been for some years 
previous, and as near as one who knows 
little of his pecuniary resources but all the 
surroundings of his situation at that time 
can judge, this spot was selected as being 
healthful, contiguous to the city of New 
York, near his then acting guardian, and 
at the same time within the limits of his 
apparently small means. The hotel where 
Aaron Burr spent his last summer, and in 
which he died, still stands, beautifully 
situated on the borders of the " Kill van 
Kull," about eight miles from the city of 
New York. It is a frame building, two 
and a-half stories high, with large upper 
and lower piazzas and spacious rooms, and 
though since degenerated, it was at that 
time accommodating summer boarders 
from the city. It was plainly but com- 
fortably furnished ; and during the sum- 
mer of 1836 accommodated several fa- 

hist. mag. vol. VIII. 14 

milies of Government officers who were 
employed on surveying duty around the 
island. I am thus particular, because by 
those less faithful or less familiar, it has been 
described as not more than a shanty. The 
Port Richmond Hotel at that time had as its 
proprietors the son-in-law and daughter of 
the former representative in Congress from 
Richmond County. During the summer of 
which I write, Matthew L. Davis (and his 
chere amie) was also a boarder at the 
hotel, and as afterwards developed, was 
employed to write the Biography of Aaron 
Burr, which was doubtless a faithful politi- 
cal history, without detailing his domestic 
life. His age was eighty years, and he was 
a petulant old man, who had outlived the 
sunshine and buoyancy of his nature, and 
was jealously sensitive to a slight or ne- 
glect, and evidently unhappy from remorse 
or present discomforts of mind. This he 
constantly evidenced to his only attendant, 
a female nurse, to such a degree that again 
and again she protested that she could en- 
dure such impatience and profanity no 

I well remember Burr especially coveted 
society, which, as he had become exceed- 
ingly egotistical, was not always willingly 
granted him ; he would lie on his bed, 
with his door open, and call those who 
might be passing to or from their opposite 
rooms and implore them to come and sit 
and converse with him. He indignantly 
reproached many of his friends for their 
neglect of him, often naming them, and 
would become impatient beyond control 
when his usual ride was omitted. 

Just previous to his death, and when in- 
formed that the event could not be very 
distant, he requested of his attendants that 
M'hen the time for his dissolution drew 
so near that none could mistake it, a 
courier should be sent to a certain street 
and number in New York city, and there 
summon a little girl to his bedside. But 
the messenger sent was too late; the child, 
a girl of twelve years, arrived just after his 
spirit had taken its departure for another 
world, and the child returned as she came, 
without a revelation or why or for what pur- 
pose she had been summoned. And thus end- 




ed the life of this brilliant but unprincipled 
personage who, for thirty years, has served 
as a melancholy illustration of talents and 
education uninfluenced by moral or re- 
ligious considerations. 

Plymouth Anniveesary Discourses. 
— A list of the Anniversary Discourses, 
delivered at Plymouth, and designating 
such as have been printed (before 1820), 
may be found in the Appendix to Daniel 
Webster's Discourse, delivered Dec. 22nd, 

Fort Stevens, — In the summer of 1851 
(perhaps 1852), in grading a lot of land in 
Astoria, Long Island, a slight elevation 
was dug down. The lot is the one next 
west of the late residence of Albert C. 
Whittemore, now of Havana in this state, 
and belonged to Josiah Blackwell. While 
digging, a number of human bones were 
found. It was at first supposed that the 
place might have been the family burial 
ground of some previous owner of the land. 
Upon subsequent inquiry, I ascertained 
from Henry Blackwell, a native of the 
village and always a resident there, that 
the few soldiers who died at Fort Stevens 
(the ruins of which still remain at the point 
of land close to Hurl Gate) during its occu- 
pancy, were buried w T here these bones 
were discovered, The workmen collected 
the remains and buried them at the foot of 
a small tree about sixty feet west of Mr, 
Whittemore's west line, and about forty 
feet from the shore of what is called Pot 
Cove (East River). The spot is about 
twenty-five feet N. E. from the original 
place of interment. 

John M. Eager, 

New York City. 

Strange Superstition. — In 1656 a 
breach of promise case occurred in New 
Amsterdam, in which the man, being 
defendant, excused his refusal on the 
ground that the plaintiff was able " to kill 
any man who happens to know her, as she 
hath a white lung" (vermits un witte longh 
heeft). The parties were, as Dr. O'Calla- 
ghan states, both French. 

An Early Canal. — The County of 
Orange, in this State, probably contained 
the first canal made in America. Lieut. 
Governor Colden, of Coldenham, in that 
county, had the honor of constructing it 
and putting it into practical operation. 
At what precise time it was built I have 
been unable, as yet, to discover, but Colden 
located his patent to Coldenham Manor 
in or about 1728, and continued to reside 
upon it until 1*760, at which time he was 
appointed Lieut. Governor, and removed 
to New York City. The canal was built 
in the interval between his location and 
removal. He could not, in all probability, 
have taken a hint for its construction from 
the similar work of the Duke of Bridge- 
water, who built the canal of ten miles 
(about) from his coal measures in Worsley 
to Manchester, for the Act of Parliament 
in his favor was not passed until 1759, 
which was only a year before Colden 
removed to New York. 

The reason and circumstances of the 
construction of this early and rude work 
were these : Before Colden's Patent and 
near his residence (a large stone house still 
standing and in good repair, on the north 
side of the Newburgh and Cochecton 
turnpike, and about five miles east of 
Mongomery) there was a streak of bog- 
meadow, stretching for about a mile and 
a half, and running south from the house. 
It contained (and yet does) valuable 
deposits of peat fully ripe to be used as 
fuel. The peat was discovered upon the 
drainage of the meadow, and Colden 
(always practical) converted the main ditch 
into a canal by widening and deepening it 
beyond the necessities of mere drainage, 
and placed upon it boats, and with horse 
power transported the peat to that point 
of the canal nearest to his residence, whence 
it was taken for his own family use and 
that of his tenants. Portions of this work 
are still visible upon the meadow, now one 
of the best and most valuable portions of 
grazing land in that county. Why Colden 
should have incurred the expense and 
trouble of such a work for the procure- 
ment of an inferior species of fuel, when his 
large patent was amply wooded with 




timber, can only be conjectured. He evi- 
dently had his reason for this, as he had 
for all his other prominent acts. Plis 
public services, at least, show him to have 
been an eminently practical man. 

John M. Eager. 

New York Cirr. 

Proclamation of Gen. Lee's Father 
against Rebels. — Enclosed herewith I 
send you an exact copy of a Proclamation 
issued by Gen. H. Lee at Elizabethtown 
in this (Allegheny) county, in 1794, towards 
the close of the "Whiskey Insurrection." 
It is not uninteresting to contrast the men 
and events of that day with those of the 
present. Then f as now, a Virginian Lee 
Commander-in-Chief of an army; then 
for the purpose of upholding the Govern- 
ment and its laws, although but a particu- 
lar law was resisted, jtfbw, a Lee heads 
the chief army of the rebels, seeking to 
destroy the Government itself. Again, we 
have an excise on whiskey, but it is cheer- 
fully submitted to ; and none the less, that 
the money so raised will aid in suppressing 
the present gigantic insurrection. 
Yours &c. 

Wm. N. Darlington. 

Pittsburg, Feb. 15, 1S44. 

By Henry Lee, Esq., Governor of the 
Commonwealth of Virginia, Maj. General 
therein and Commander in Chief of the 
Militia Army in the service of the United 


By virtue of the powers and. authority 
in me vested, by the President of the 
United States, and in obedience to his 
benign intentions, therewith communicated 
I do, by this my Proclamation, declare and 
make known to all concerned, that a full, 
free, and entire pardon (excepting and 
providing as hereafter mentioned) is here- 
by granted to all persons resident within 
the counties of Washington, Allegheny, 
Westmoreland, and Fayette, in the state 
of Pennsylvania, and in the county of Ohio, 
in the state of Virginia, guilty of Treason, 
or misprision of Treason against the United 

States, or otherwise directly or indirectly 
engaged in the wicked and unhappy 
tumults and disturbances lately existing in 
those counties ; excepting nevertheless 
from the benefit and effect of this pardon 
all persons charged with the commission 
of offences against the United States, and 
now actually m custody or held by recogni- 
zance to appear and answer for such 
offences at any judicial court or courts ; 
excepting also all persons avoiding fair 
trial by abandonment of their homes ; and 
excepting moreover the following persons, 
the atrocity of whose conduct renders it 
proper to mark by name for the purpose 
of subjecting them with all possible cer- 
tainty, to the regular course of judicial 
proceedings, and whom all officers, civil 
and military, are required to endeavor to 
apprehend, or cause to be apprehended 
and brought to justice, to wit : Benjamin 
Parkinson, Arthur Gardner, John Holcroft, 
Daniel Hamilton, Tho. Lapsley, William 
Miller, Edward Cook, Edward Wright, 
Richard Holcroft, David Bradford, John 
Mitchell, Alexander Fulton, Thomas Spiers, 
William Bradford, Geo. Parker, William 
Hanna, Edward Magner Jr., Thomas 
Hughes, David Lock, Ebenezer Gallagher, 
Peter Lyle, John Shields, William Hay, 
William M'Elhenny, Tho. Patton, Stephen- 
son Jack, Patrick Jack, and Andrew 
Hilands, of the state of Pennsylvania, and 
William Sutherland, Robert Stephensou, 
Wil^m M'Kinley, John Moore, and John 
M c Cormick, of Ohio county in the State of 

Provided, that no person who shall 
hereafter wilfully obstruct or attempt to 
obstruct the execution of any of the laws 
of the United States, or be in any wise 
aiding or abett ng therein, shall be entitled 
to any benefit « r advantage of the pardon 
herein before granted: and provided also, 
that nothing heiein contained shall extend 
or be construed to extend to the remission 
or mitigation of any forfeiture of any 
penalty, iriourred by reason of infractions 
of, or obstructions \o, the laws of the United 
States for collecting a revenue upon 
distilled spirits anc. stills. 

Given under my hand,at Head Quarters * 




in Elizabethtown, this twenty-ninth day of 
November, 1794. 

Henry Lee. 
By order of the Commander in Chief, 
G. K. Taylor, Aid-de-Camp. 


Woollen Snow. — Cotton Mather, in his 
Christian Philosopher, published in Lon- 
don, 1721, says, in the course of his Essay 
on Snow : 

We read of Heaven giving Snow like 
Wool. I have known it give a Snow of 
Wool. In a Town of New-England, called 
Fairfield, in a bitter snowy night, there 
fell a quantity of Snow, which covered a 
large frozen Pond, but of such a woollen 
consistence, that it can be called nothing 
but Wool. I have a quantity of it, that 
has been these many years lying by me. 

What explanation shall we give of the 
above ? b. p. d. 

The Duke's Laws. — When and where 
did the idea originate that Clarendon drew 
up these laws ? Was not " scissors " more 
properly the author ? q. 

A Confederacy. — In a discourse de 
livered by the late Rev. Dudley A. Tyng 
at the " Church of the Covenant," Phila- 
delphia, July 5, 1857, the Southern States 
are spoken of as a "Confederacy."^ 

— Is this the first instance of the Slave 
holding States being called " A Confeder 
acy ? » — 

Philadelphia, Feb., 1864. 


Elizabeth Hooghland was married in the 
Dutch Church/New York, Sept. 16, 1730, 
to Dr. Joris (or George) Cosart, perhaps 
the same person who was made a freeman 
of the city in 1745. Tradition states, how- 
ever, that he left an only child, Jane, and 
was lost at sea about 1733 while proceed- 
ing to Europe in order to settle some 
estate. What is known of this Cosart or 
Cazourt family ? 

Sarah Hooghland's marriage bond with 
Jacob Janeway, of New York, bears date 

June 26, 1738 ; she was mother of George 
and William Janeway. 

Mrs. Janeway and Mrs. Cosart (whose 
second husband was probably a Fisher or 
Vischer) were sisters; were they daugh- 
ters of Joris and Caterin Hoglandt of 
Staten Island ? I. j. g. 

The Father of English Lexicogra- 
phy. — Richard Fraunces, a preaching or 
black friar, was the author of the first 
English and Latin Dictionary, according to 
William Herbert, published in 1499, in 
which are many old English words, no- 
where else explained. It is very desirable 
to have some information of this author 
and of his great folio volume. 


Authenticity of Autographs. — A 
writer in the London Notes and Queries 
sneeringly called upon Canon Dalton to 
prove the authenticity of an autograph 
letter of S. Teresa which the Canon men- 
tioned as belonging to him. It opens a 
new field of discussion, and it will be well 
for some of our collectors to draw up rules 
for testing autographs. 

Indian Burial Places. — The readers 
of the Historical Magazine will confer a 
favor by transmitting to me any information 
they may have — either traditional or other- 
wise — as to the location of Indian Burial 
Places in the States of New York and 
New Jersey. A large amount of informa- 
tion not yet preserved in a permanent 
form may then be gathered, which, in a few 
years, may not be attainable, or if so, but 

John M. Eager, New York City. 

Kewley on Methodism. — The Rev. E. 
Allen, in his list of Episcopal clergymen in 
Maryland, says that the Rev. John Kewley, 
prior to his ordination by Bishop Claggett 
in ] 803, had been a Methodist preacher. 
Can any reader of the H. M. tell when he 
became a Methodist clergyman, and where 
he preached ? What was the title of his 
work on Methodism ? Mr. Kewley was, 




though Mr, Allen omits the fact, for a time 
pastor of St. George's Church, New York. 


John Quincy Adams. — What foundation 
is there for the statement that Mr. John 
Quincy Adams was the author of the 
doggerel verses respecting Mr. Jefferson 
which appeared during Mr. Jefferson's 
presidency. Some of them are too broad 
for quotation here, but whoever has read 
them will remember the two lines : 

" And let the mountain all of salt, 
Be christened Monticello." 

and these also : 

" And if we cannot alter things, 
By we'll change their names, sir." 

They appeared before Mr. Adams left 
the Federal for the Republican party. 


J. H. C. 

The Right of New York to the 
Hampshire Grants. — Some twelve or more 
pamphlets were published upon this con- 
troversy between the years 1760 and 1784- 
They were by John Henry Lydius of Al- 
bany, James Duane, Jonas Fay, Ethan 
Allen, Stephen Bradley, and others. 

Six of these are referred to as in the N. 
Y. State Library. (Doc. H. N. Y., vol. 
iv. ; p. 1026.) Where can the others be 
found ? 

New England Society. — Has a list been 
compiled and printed of the Sermons and 
Orations delivered before the New Eng- 
land Society of New York ? 


The Wonderful History of the 
Morristown Ghost. (Vol. viii. ; p. 79.) — 
An aged gentleman recently presented the 
New Jersey Historical Society a 12mo. 
pamphlet of 24 pages, entitled "The Mor- 
ristown Ghost ; or Yankee Trick. Being 
a True, Interesting and Strange Narrative. 
This circumstance has excited considerable 

laughter, and no small degree of surprise* 
Printed for purchasers, 1814." 

The Librarian of the Society has in his 
private collection the same work, doubt- 
less of the first edition. He met this, u Thc 
Morristown Ghost," in 1807. It vanished 
until 1S26, when it again appeared to him, 
unexpectedly, in the garret of a deserted 
building in the centre of Newark. It 
was secured, and has remained in his 
custody ever since, except when for a short 
time it was permitted to visit Morris 
County. There, in its old garb, it seemed a 
great stranger. It is imperfect ; the two last 
leaves, or four of its 28 pages, are missing. 
The title is " An Account of the Beginning, 
Transactions and Discovery of Ransford 
Rogers, who seduced many by pretended 
Hobgoblins and Apparitions, and thereby 
extorted Money from their Pockets. In 
the County of Morris, and State of New 
Jersey, in the year 1788. Printed for 
every Purchaser — 1792." 

David Young's revision, published in 
1826, was given to the world because, as 
he says, "the very inaccurate and appa- 
rently headlong manner in which it was 
executed, rendered a revision highly neces- 
sary.'' He, " however, very scrupulously 
followed the sense of the original." That 
the style of the anonymous writer of the 
" Account" may be seen, a clause or two 
from the first paragraph of his " Preface" 
is presented the curious. 

"I am convinced that it is impossible for 
one person to please all mankind, for there 
is such a variety of opinions predominant, 
that no one system or pamphlet will meet 
with universal approbation ; but it appears 
to me requisite, that something of this kind 
should appear in public — and, as I have 
been solicited by numbers to attempt a 
brief narration, with particulars relating 
facts concerning many occurrences that 
happened in the county of Morris, and 
State of New Jersey, in the year 1788. — 
As I am convinced that many erroneous 
ideas have been propagated, therefore the 
generality of people are destitute of real 
facts. — I am sensible that it is natural for 
men to censure each other with burlesque, 
and say they had not sagacity," &c. ,W I 




shall therefore be as brief as possible, as 
it is my intention to eradicate many capri- 
cious notions from the minds of many, who 
have imbibed witchcraft and the phenomina 
of hobgoblins." 

In concluding his work the writer ex- 
presses himself thus : — " It is not from 
malevolence or any antipathy against any 
person or place, that induced me to write 
the above mentioned transactions, but pure- 
ly to enlighten the minds of the simple, 
and free them from the imaginary fear 01 
witches, apparitions and hobgoblins which 
do not exist. And as this relation pro- 
ceeds from one that wishes happiness to 
all mankind, and the author, although un- 
known, hopes that no one person or per- 
sons will be offended at the relation of facts, 
when there are no names mentioned, pro- 
viding they had an active part with the 
anticipating fire-club. 

This Pamphlet is chiefly 
intended for the perusal of 
the good Economists in 
Morris County. 
Gentlemen, yours in amity, 


The aged gentleman first mentioned, 
gives us, as related by his father, a native 
of Morristown, these facts concerning Ro- 
gers. He had got up an evening exhibition 
of his school in the old red court-house, 
which stood formerly on the north side of 
the Green in Morristown, with a pillory 
near its front. A temporary stage, with 
a curtain, was erected in the court- 
room for the exhibitions. During the per- 
formance the audience, from some cause, 
became noisy, which displeased Rogers, 
who appeared before the curtain and told 
the company that he had read in the Book 
of Revelations that on one occasion there 
was silence in heaven for the space of half an 
hour ; and he thought the audience there 
assembled might be quiet for at least as long 
a time. In a written invitation, sent to the 
Rev. John Joline, of Mendham, to attend 
the above-mentioned, or some other exhibi- 
tion of his school, he several times intro- 
duced the Latin phrase, " Ego scribo" and 
in such way as to render the whole ludicrous. 

Mr. Young, in his preface to the " Won- 
derful History," says : " Very probably it 
was written by one who had some concern 
in the transactions; perhaps by Rogers 
himself, who must have been better ac- 
quainted with particular circumstances 
than any other person could pretend to 
be." Again, he says : " Being pursued he 
was a second time apprehended ; when he 
acknowledged his faults, and confessed 
that for his conduct and the declarations he 
had made in the prosecution of his schemes, 
he deserved punishment." Ego scribo, I 
think Rogers did not write it. c. 

Geeenbacks (xii. 122). — The United 
States Treasury notes are so called, and 
the name is thus derived. When the State 
Bank of Ohio was created (1845), their 
new circulation had an ornamental device 
printed on the back in red, a mark so dis- 
tinctive from all other circulation in the 
West, that they got the name of Redbacks. 
When the Treasury notes appeared with 
the ornamental back in green, they readily 
took the name of Greenbacks. 

J. H. J. 

Coppeeheads (vii. 122, 166).— The origin 
of this name will perhaps remain in doubt. 
The Copperhead Snake is reputed the most 
venomous of our serpents. And before 
this war commenced the name of Copper- 
head was sometimes applied to persons to 
denote their bitterness and virulence. In 
the same way it applied to Secessionists of 
the most determined cast. Next it was 
applied by the Government party to their 
party opponents, and it is now coming into 
common use by them as equivalent to 
Democrat. Of course, it will grow into 
use, and be adopted by the party to which 
it is applied, as the names Democrat and 
Locofoco have been previously, and at first 
they were both meant to be offensive. 




Samtws mrtr ljeir IJrflmMngs. 

Maine Historical Society. — Augusta, Jan. 
27, 1864.— This Society held a meeting at the 
time and place thus indicated, for the purpose 
of receiving and reading communications. In 
the regretted absence of the President, the Hon. 
William Willis of Portland, the chair was taken 
by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Burgess of Gardiner, 
who made an address, alluding to the members 
deceased during the past year, namely, Messrs. 
Goodenow, Vose, and Tappan, the last of 
whom, in his clerical relations, had long been 
identified with the religious history of the State, 
and a constant attendant on the meetings of 
the Society. 

The Secretary presented a collection of do- 
cuments, copied from the archives of Massa- 
chusetts, relative to the history of the eastern 
part of Maine in the war of the Revolution, in 
connexion with Col. Jonathan Eddy, Col. J. 
Allan, and the Indians of New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia. Several of these papers were 
read. He also presented a letter from Frederic 
Kidder, Esq., of Boston, presenting copies of 
three Indian Treaties, one of which was read 
offering 600 Indians as soldiers to be under 
Gen. Washington. The Hon. Jos. Williamson, 
of Belfast, presented a neatly executed copy of 
the Journal of Rev. Joseph Baxter, of Medfield, 
Mass., who accompanied Gov. Shute in his 
voyage to Georgetown to make a treaty with 
the Eastern Indians in 1717. He also read a 
paper on " Slavery in Maine," which was fol- 
lowed by remarks from the Hon. Mr. Bourne, of 
Kennebunk, on its prevalence and cessation in 
the county of York. 

The Rev. Mr. Cushman of Warren read a pa- 
per on " The Clam-Shell Deposits " on the 
coast of Maine, in illustration of the marvellous 
deposit of Oyster-Shells at Damariscotta. This 
was followed by a discussion, in which several 
of the members took part. Judge Williamson 
also presented a paper on "The Northmen on 
the Kennebec," founded on certain ante- Angli- 
can appearances of occupation, and dwellings 
with bricks, near Gardiner, whose origin was 
unknown to the first English settlers. The 
Vice-President read a paper on "Vital Statis- 
tics," communicated by the President, containing 
much important matter, and urging legislative 
action to secure a full and accurate registry of 
births, deaths, and diseases terminating in death. 
A letter was read from the Hon. W. P. Haines, 
of Biddeford, giving to the Society the Powder 
Horn of Michael B. Goldthwait, which was used 

at Fort William Henry, on Lake George, in 
1756. It is well preserved, and bears on it an 
engraved sketch of the Fort, and a part of the 
Lake, made at the time ; perhaps the only 
sketch of the Fort now in existence. 

The Hon. E. E. Bourne read a paper in " Vin- 
dication of the Commemoration of the Colony 
at the mouth of the Kennebec, under George 
Popham." This paper was prepared with spe- 
cial reference to a speech, with notes, by J. 
Wingate Thornton, Esq., of Boston ; after which, 
on motion by the Hon. J. W. Bradbury, of 
Augusta, it was 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Society be 
tendered to the Hon. E. E. Bourne, for his suc- 
cessful vindication of t^ie commemoration of the 
Popham Colony from the unwarrantable attacks 
of Wm. Thornton. On motion of the same, the 
thanks of the Society were presented to the 
other gentlemen who had presented papers. 
The members of the Society and other invited 
guests shared, between the afternoon and even- 
ing sessions, the plentiful and elegant hospitality 
of the Recording Secretary, the Hon. Wm. 


Massachusetts Historical Society. — Boston, 
Feb. 11. — A stated monthly meeting of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society was held yesterday 
at their rooms, the President, Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop, in the chair. After the transaction 
of the usual business, the President paid a tri- 
bute to the memory of the late Frederick Tudor. 
We copy the closing portion of the eulogy : 

As a cultivator of fruits and flowers, and trees 
too, at Nahant, he not only placed himself in 
the front rank of horticulturists, but he gave a 
signal instance of how much could be done by 
ingenuity, perseverance, and skill, in overcoming 
the most formidable obstacles of soil and climate, 
and obtaining a victory over nature herself. 

It has been said that New England is a region 
of rocks and ice. Mr. Tudor seemed willing to 
accept it as such, and to be resolved that rocks 
and ice should be the main ministers to his own 
fortune, and through him to the health and hap- 
piness of others. 

I may not omit to add that while New Eng- 
land was his chosen and constant home, he was 
a man of enlarged and earnest patriotism. Taking 
pride in his father's Revolutionary services, and 
inheriting his place in the Society of the Cincin- 
nati, he stood fast to the Stars and Stripes and 
to •the Union cause, of which they are the honor- 
ed emblem, in adversity as well as in prosperity ; 




and nowhere has our National banner been more 
frequently or more eagerly displayed, on every 
fit occasion during the past three years, than 
from the windows of his beautiful residence in 
Bacon street. He was of a spirit to have borne 
it bravely to the battle-field, had an occasion oc- 
curred before age had impaired the vigor of his arm. 

Nor did he fail to observe and to honor true 
heroism in other parts of the world as well as in 
our own. It is an interesting fact that when 
the tidings came to us from the far East of the 
noble endurance and brilliant achievements of 
the lamented Havelock, Mr. Tudor, without 
calling any one to his counsel, or allowing any 
one to share the cost, caused a magnificent sword 
to be made at Springfield, and prepared it with 
a suitable inscription, to be presented to that 
great Christian hero. It was unhappily too 
late to reach him before his death. 

It only remains for me to offer in behalf of 
the Standing Committee the customary resolu- 
tion : 

Resolved, That the Massachusetts Historical 
Society have learned with deep regret, the death 
of their valued associate, Frederick Tudor, Esq., 
i and that the President be directed to name one 
of our members to prepare a memoir of him for 
our proceedings. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 
Hon. Emory Washburne read an elaborate 
paper on villanage and slavery in England, 
which was followed by an interesting discussion 
on this subject, in which Horace Gray, Jr., Esq., 
Hon. James Savage, and Hon. G. T. Davis took 
part. The Society then adjourned. 

New England Historic Genealogical So- 
ciety. — Boston, Feb. 3. — A stated meeting was 
held this afternoon, the President, Dr. Lewis, in 
the chair. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter 
from James B. Richardson, of Boston, accepting 
resident membership. 

A letter from the widow of Hon. Henry Cush- 
man, of Bernardston, to the Recording Secre- 
tary, was read, and was referred to a committee 
of three, with full power, to act in relation to the 
donation under the will of Mr. Cushman, and 
Wm. B. Towne, John W. Dean, and Frederic 
Kidder were appointed on that committee. 

The Librarian reported the following dona- 
tions: number of volumes, 25; pamphlets, 40; 
of manuscripts, 100. He also called the atten- 
tion of the Society to the following donations of 
William Appleton : an old Hebrew manuscript 
of the Book of Esther, written on a parchment 
roll and inclosed in a gilt case ; it contains £0 
pages without points, chapter, or verse, and is 

executed in a very neat hand, the letters like those 
in Halm's Hebrew Bible ; the next is an elegant 
Arabic Koran in beautiful handwriting, with an 
introduction in illuminated letters; and the last 
is a handsome copy of the Prayers of St. Nerses, 
the Patriarch of the Armenians, ed. 1837, a poly- 
glot volume in 24 languages. The two first 
were purchased at Damascus in Syria, the last at 
the Island of St. Lazare, by Mr. Appleton in his 
travels in 1854-5. 

On motion of Frederick Kidder, it was voted 
that the thanks of the Society be tendered to 
our members Thomas Waterman and William 
Appleton, for their donations, viz. : about fifty 
volumes of the Boston Transcript and Daily 
Advertiser from the former, and from the latter 
the treasures already described. 

The Historiographer read an interesting ac- 
count of Charles Moses Endicott, a correspond- 
ing member of the Society, who deceased at 
Northampton, Dec. 15, 1863, aged 70 years and 
9 days. 

Rev. Dr. Hoppin, of Cambridge, read a care- 
fully prepared paper on the Court of the Star 
Chamber, touching upon the following topics : 
1. Its name. 2, The persons who composed it. 
3. Its functions. 4. Its high antiquity. 5. Lord 
Bacon's and Lord Coke's encomiums upon it. 6. 
Its late abuses and abolishment. 7. The modern 
mythical conceptions of the Star Chamber. 

Rev. Martin Moore, of Boston, read a bio- 
graphical account of Rev. William Cogswell, 
D.D., the editor of the first volume of the 
Society's publication, who died at Gilmanton, 
N. H., April 18, 1850, aged 62. Copies of both 
papers were requested for the use of the Society. 

A new by-law, creating a standing commit- 
tee on heraldry, was adopted, and the following 
gentlemen were appointed as the committee : 
William Henry Whitmore, of Boston, Abner C. 
Goodell, jr., of Salem, Rev. William S. Bartlet, 
of Chelsea, and Augustus Thorn dike Perkins, 
and William Sumner Appleton, of Boston. 

New Jersey Historical Society. — Trenton, 
January 21, 1864. — The New Jersey Historical 
Society, in accordance with its By-Laws, held its 
annual meeting to-day in this city, the Rev. 
John Hall, D.D., of Trenton — one of the Exe- 
cutive Committee — and subsequently the Hon. 
Richard S. Field, one of the Vice-Presidents, 
presiding. After the reading of the minutes, 
Mr. Whitehead, the Corresponding Secretary, 
submitted the correspondence since the last 




Mr. Congar, the Librarian, reported a long list circular appeal had been issued to the members 
of donations received. Many of these donations i on the subject with little success. The Com- 

mittee said: " It is not to be supposed that the 
members of the Society, or the public generally, 
are willing that its library and other historical 
treasures should become useless, and their pre- 
servation endangered through their neglect to 
provide proper accommodations for them. As an 
institution established for the public good, and, 
so far, eminently successful in perfecting the 
purposes of its organization, it can rightly claim 
from the patriotic citizens of the State, whether 
actually connected with it by membership or 
not, such countenance and support as will ensure 
the perpetuity of its usefulness." Particular 
reference was made to the continued generosity 
of Mr. S. Alofsen, of Jersey City, the Treasurer, 
in supplying the library with a copy of every 
valuable publication referring to the Rebellion, 
350 different publications having been already 

Several new members were elected and other 
nominations received. 

The Chair announced the following Standing 
Committees for 1864 : 

On Publications — Richard S. Field, William 
A. Whitehead, Henry W. Green, Samuel EL 
Pennington, M.D., and Rev. John Hall, DD. 
On Statistics — Joseph P. Bradley, F. Wolcott 
Jackson, Rev. Samuel M. Hammill, Lyndon A. 
Smith, M.D., and C. C. Haven. On Nominations 
— David A. Hayes, Peter S. Duryee, and Rev.. 
R. K. Rodgers, D.D. On the Library — Walter 
Rutherfurd, Peter S. Duryee, John P. Jackson, 
Isaac P. Trimble, M.D., with the Treasurer and 
officers residing in Newark. 

A Committee appointed to nominate officers 
for the ensuing year reported the following, 
who were duly elected: 

President — Joseph C. Hornblower, LL.D., 
Vice Presidents — Hon. James Parker, Hon,, 
Richard S. Field, Hon. Henry W. Green. Cor^ 
responding Secretary — Wm. A. Whitehead, New- 
ark. Recording Secretary — David A. Hayes, 
Newark. Librarian — Samuel H. Conzar, New- 
ark. Treasurer — Solomon Alofsen, Jersey City. 
Executive Committee — Samuel H. Pennington,, 
M.D.. Rev. Henry B. Sherman, Hon. Charles S. 
Olden, Rev. R. K. Rodgers, D.D., N Norris 
Halsted, Esq., Rev. John Hall, D.D., C. C. Ha- 
ven, Esq., Rev, Samuel M.. Hammell,. aad Lyn- 
don A. Smith, M.D. 

Mr, Walter Rutherfurd, referring to the sug- 
gestion contained in the letter from John R. 
Committee on the Library, stating the progress I Brodhead, Esq., of New York, which had been 
made in binding and arranging, and urging! read, offered the following resolution, which was 
additional subscriptions to the Librnry fund. In ' adopted: 
accordance with the directions of the Society a | Resolved, That the Historical Society of New 


were of great historical value and interest, 

The Treasurer, Mr. Alofsen, reported the re- 
ceipts and expenditures of the past year, showing 
a balance in the Treasury of $463.44, of which 
$27.62 belonged to the Library Fund. The 
value of the Society's publications on hand was 
estimated at $969.11, and its real estate at 
$3,500, making its total property, independent 
of cash, to amount to $4,469.11. 

Rev. Mr. Hammell presented the report of the 
Executive Committee of the progress of the 
Society during the past year. It had prose- 
cuted its mission, like most useful instrumentali- 
ties, quietly, not intruding itself upon public 
notice nor claiming any undue consideration 
from those for whom it is laboring, and as is 
too frequently the case with unobtrusive merit, 
had failed to secure its fair meed of reward. 
The results attained, however, were sufficiently 
valuable to testify to its onward progress, en- 
couraging its friends and giving assurance of 
continued and increasing service to the State. 
The only publication during the year had been 
one number of the Society's "Proceedings." No 
additions had been made to the Library ex- 
cepting by donations, which had amounted to 
110 bound volumes and 262 pamphlets. The 
Library now contains 3,098 bound volumes and 
5,276 pamphlets, but there was a large amount 
of unarranged matter. Attention was drawn 
to the small number of members who had con- 
tributed to the funds in the course of the year, 
and the propriety of revising the roll suggested. 
No action had yet been taken in accordance 
with the request of the Society at the last 
meeting relating to measures for the construc- 
tion of a fire-proof building, and the Committee 
closed their report with an appropriate allusion 
to the death of Miss Rutherfurd of Eastridge, 
near Newark, who had always proved so warm 
and liberal a friend to the Society. 

The Committee on Publications reported the 
readiness for publication of another number of 
the Society's " Proceedings," and also of " The 
Town Records of Newark," which would form 
the sixth volume of the Society's u Collections." 
As the proceedings of the Society constitute its 
chief means for the dissemination of a correct 
knowledge of New Jersey History, the members 
were urged to interest themselves in increasing 
their sale. 

Mr. Rutherfurd submitted the report of the 




Jersey, believing that the name and fame of the 
first discoverer of the shores of the State could 
not be more appropriately perpetuated, would 
express its earnest desire that the Fort, now 
being constructed at Sandy Hook by the 
United States, be named Fort Hudson. 

Resolved, That the Corresponding Secretary 
communicate the above resolution to the Hon. 
Secretary of War, and to the Senators and Re 
presentatives of New Jersey in Congress. 

Mr. Peter S. Duryee, in view of the derelie- 
tion of so many, nominally members of the So- 
ciety, which had been referred to by the Execu- 
tive Committee, offered the following resolution, 
which was adopted : 

Resolved, That the Secretaries and Treasurer be 
a committee to revise the roll of members, and 
adopt such means as they may think proper to 
ascertain who are now connected with the 

The Society then listened with much interest 
to sundry " Passages in the History of Ocean 
County," by Edwin Salter, Esq., which in the 
absence of Mr. Salter was read by the Corre- 
sponding Secretary, who stated that the passages 
read were but a small part of the materials col- 
lected and transmitted to the Society by Mr. 
Salter, evincing an interest in our history and 
an extent of laborious research eminently 
worthy of imitation. On motion of Mr. Hayes 
the thanks of the Society were directed to be 
conveyed to Mr. Salter for his valuable contri- 
bution to the history of the State. 

The Society then adjourned to meet in New- 
ark on the third Thursday of May next. 


Albany Institute. — Albany, January 26, 18G4. 
— At a regular meeting of the Albany Institute, 
held Tuesday evening: 

In the absence of the President, George W. 
Carpenter, Esq., in the chair. 

The following officers were unanimously elect- 
ed for the ensuing year : 

John V. L. Pruyn, President. Andrew E. 
Brown, Treasurer. 

First Department. — Richard V. DeWitt, Pre- 
sident. John Paterson, Cor. Sec. Jacob S. 
Mosher, Rec. Sec. George VV. Hough, Librarian. 
Second Department. — Stephen Van Rensselaer, 
President. Peter Gansevoort, Vice-President. 
S. Oakley Vanderpoel, Rec. Sec. Joel Munsell, 
Cor. Sec. Charles B. Redfield, Treasurer. Third 
Department. — Alexander S. Johnson, President. 
John N. Campbell, Vice-President. Jacob I. 
Werner, Cor. Sec. 

Curators.— James Hall, Howard Townsend, 

Chas. H. Anthony, Amos Dean, Andrew E. 

A very able and interesting paper was read 
by Dr. Franklin B. Hough, on the '• Battle of 
Cedar Mountain," being an extract from his 
forthcoming work, " The History of Duryee's 
Brigade," now in preparation. 

Buffalo Historical Society. — Buffalo, Jan- 
uary. — At the meeting for January, M. Fillmore, 
President, in the Chair, and Guy H. Salisbury, 
Secretary, the following were among the pro- 
ceedings had : 

Being the Annual Meeting of the Society, an 
election of officers was held for the ensuing year, 
as has been previously published. 

The Annual Report of 0. G. Steele, Treasurer, 
was submitted, showing a total of receipts 
$797.17, and of expenditures, $681.08. The 
Secretary not having completed the Annual 
Report of the Board of Managers to the Society, 
was allowed further time to prepare it. 

0. G. Steele, from the Committee for pro- 
curing from fifty members, a subscription of 
$100 each, payable in five yearly instalments, 
for the purpose of securing additional means for 
carrying out the objects of the Society, reported 
that the list was lull — having been signed by 
fifty-one gentlemen. 

The Treasurer also reported that he had re- 
ceived cash donations, for the same object, of 
$50 from F. H. Root, and $20 from Sidney 

A resolution was offered by Mr. Fillmore, and 
adopted, that such of the above subscribers who 
elect to pay $50 of their subscription in ad- 
vance, so as to comply with the requirements of 
the Constitution, be constituted Life Members — 
subject to the payment of the balance of their 
subscriptions. The terms of the resolution have 
been published. 

The President submitted a draft for Certificate 
of Membership in the Society, and was author- 
ized to procure the same to be engraved and 

Guy H. Salisbury submitted his monthly re- 
port as Corresponding Secretary and Librarian, 
in which were mentioned the following matters : 

Judge Hall, from the Committee on procuring 
Local Histories of the several towns in the 
County, has furnished a list of about sixty names 
of persons, in most of the towns, to whom the 
printed circular of the Committee, and also the 
general circular of the Society, with a copy of 
its Constitution and By-laws, will be sent by 

But few deaths in the families of old residents 
were noted for the preceding nv>nth. They 




were— Dec. 24, Walter Joy, aged 53 ; Dec. 30, ! 
at Lancaster, Erie Co., Truman Luce, aged 76; 
Jan. 8, Sarah Brooks, aged 25, daughter of the 
late Wells Brooks. 

The weekly meetings of the Historical Society 
Club have been held as follows. Dec. 14th, C. 
F. S. Thomas', when a paper was read by Chas. 
D. Norton, on "The Old Ferry, at the Black 
Rock;" Dec. 21st, at 0. H. Marshall's, a paper 
being read by Geo. V. Brown, late U. S. Consul 
at Tangier, Morocco, entitled, "Diplomatic Con- 
troversy, occasioned by the visit of an American 
Vessel from Lake Erie to the Shores of Spain and 
Morocco;" Dec. 28th, at N. K. Hall's, where a 
paper was read by E. S. Prosser, relative to the 
enlargement of the locks in the Erie Canal ; 
Jan. 4th, at Charles D. Norton's, at which the 
paper of the evening was read by E. P. Dorr, 
being a history of our Lake Commerce. 

The list of donations reported by the Secretary, 
will appear on Monday. 

The President stated that he had written to 
Hon. Augustus S. Porter, of Niagara Falls, as 
directed at the last meeting, with the view of 
procuring a map made by the late Judge Augustus 
Porter, of the " Phelps and Gorham Purchase," 
and also such of his pipers, etc., as could be ob- 
tained. A reply had been received from Mr. 
Porter, which was read, and in which he says, 
that he had not yet been able to find such a 
map among his father's papers, but should he 
succeed, on further research, would transmit it 
to the Society. He adds, that the principal his- 
torical incidents in the life of Judge Porter 
were embodied in a manuscript communication 
furnished by him in 1848, to the Young Men's 
Association of this city — a portion of which was 
published by 0. Turner, in his History of the 
Holland Purchase, prefaced by a brief biographi- 
cal sketch. 

0. H. Marshall said he was present at the last 
meeting of the New York Historical Society, at 
which action was taken on a proposition that 
the Government continue the publication of the 
" American Archives," heretofore compiled by 
Peter Force, 9 vols, of which have been pub- 
lished, and the work then suspended when Mr. 
Marcy was Secretary of State. On his motion, 
the Board of Managers were requested to take 
into consideration the propriety of memorializing 
Congress on the subject. 

At a meeting of the Historical Society, held 
Jan. 4th, 0. G. Steele had remarked, that some 
action should be taken in regard to the recent 
death of Walter Joy, one of the members. On 
his motion, a committee of three had been then 
informally appointed to prepare resolutions ex- 
pressive of the sense of the Society, which 
committee were 0. G. Steele, Rev. Dr. Chester, 

and Wm. A. Bird. Mr. Steele had therefore 
written some appropriate resolutions, which he 
submitted, and which were adopted. 

Some remarks were made by L. F. Allen, on 
the previous decease of three other members of 
the Society — Silas Sawin, Edward S. Warren, 
and James G. Hoyt — and Judge Clinton offered 
a resolution in respect to those gentlemen, which 
was adopted. 

On motion of N. K. Hall, a committee of two 
was directed to be appointed, to report as to 
what Standing Committees are needed, and what 
should be their duties. N. K. Hall and Chas. 
D. Norton were named by the president as such 
committee. At a subsequent meeting of the 
Board of Managers, committees on respective 
departments of the Society were constituted, as 
recommended in a report from Messrs. Hall and 
Norton, and the President appointed said com- 
mittees as follows : 

Finance — Millard Fillmore (Chairman ex-offi,- 
cio, as President), Jas. P. White, Chas. D. Norton. 
Library— Guy H. Salisbury, Geo. R. Babcock, 
Geo. W. Hosmer. Papers and Property — G. W. 
Clinton, 0. H. Marshall, H. W. Rogers. Do- 
nations, Subscriptions, and Collections — 0. G. 
Steele, L. F. Allen, Wm. Dorsheimer. Publica- 
tions—Walter Clarke, N. K. Hall, G H. Salis- 
bury. Membership — H. W. Rogers, C. D. Nor- 
ton, Wm. Dorsheimer. 

On motion of N. K. Hall, the matter of rooms 
to be occupied by the Society, with fitting up 
and furnishing the same, was referred to the 
Committee on Papers and Property. 

The Annual Address before the Society was 
delivered at Americau Hall, on the evening of 
Jan. 13th, by Rev. Dr. Hosmer f being entitled 
" The Physiognomy of Buffalo." 

The following gentlemen were elected Corre- 
sponding Members: Hon Horace U. Soper, of 
Batavia; Ex-Lieut. Gov. Simon Brown, of Con- 
cord, Mass. 

New York Historical Society. — New York, 
February 2. — The regular monthly meeting of 
this society was held at the Society's Hall, on 
Second avenue, and notwithstanding the un- 
promising state of the weather a large audience 
was in attendance. Frederick De Peyster, Pre- 
sident, in the chair. On the recommendation of 
the Executive Committee the society determined 
to commemorate by suitable acts and proceed- 
ings the two hundredth anniversary of the Con- 
quest of New Netherland in 1 664. The paper of 
the evening was read by Wm. J. Hoppin on 
" The Existing Portraits of Ancient Historical 
Personages," and was a beautiful production, full 
of learning and eloquence. It was received with 
great enthusiasm by the society. A suggestion 




fjr a suitable memorial to John Howard Payne, 
presented at the last meeting, was renewed by 
Dr. Gardner, whose proposition on the subject 
was referred to the Executive Committee. The 
proceedings throughout were exceedingly inte- 

March 1. — The meeting of the Historical Soci- 
ety was well attended, President De Peyster in 
the chair. The remains of the old statue of Pitt, 
erected in Wall street, in 1770, recently a part of 
Mr. Riley's Museum, in West Broadway, were 
presented to the Society by Mr. Simon F. 
Mackie. Mrs. Spooner, widow 9/ S. Spooner, 
esq., has given to the Society the plates of Mr. 
Spooner's two works, the Dictionary and the 
Anecdotes of Painters and Sculptors. The Com- 
missioners of Charities and Corrections presented 
to the Society, a very neat obelisk about a foot 
high, richly mounted, made of the stone of the 
balcony of the Federal Hall, Wall street, from 
which General Washington delivered his Inaugu- 
ral, April, 30, 1789. President De Peyster made 
some interesting statements concerning the inau- 
guration of Washington. 

Mr. George Folsom moved a vote of thanks to 
the Commissioners, which was seconded by the 
Rev. Dr. Osgood, and by Dr. Wilson, a Chief of 
the Iroquois, who expressed the sentiments of 
veneration the Iroquois entertained for the me- 
mory of Washington. 

Mr. Folsom made a motion that a committee 
be appointed to wait upon the delegates of the 
Six Nations who are daily expected here on their 
way to Washington. The motion was adopted, 
and Mr. Folsom, George Bancroft, and Dr. Os- 
good were appointed the Committee. 

A. B. Hayes, esq., gave to the Society a por- 
trait, by John Wesley Jarvis, of the Rev. John 
Stanford, D.D., a Baptist clergyman of usefulness 
and repute in the city in the early part of the 
century, and Mr. Gulian C. Verplanck gave some 
pleasant reminiscences of both Mr. Jarvis and 
Mr. Stanford. On motion of Mr. Thompson, a 
committee of three was appointed to consider 
and report whether measures can be taken to 
respond to the desire of Mr. Bryan, that the 
Bryan Gallery of Christian Art may be per- 
manently placed in charge of the Society. Rev. 
A. C. Coxe offered resolutions in favor of a Na- 
tional Society of literary men, to maintain the 
purity of the English language, and a high stand- 
ard of scholarship, to represent the common in- 
terest of American scholars, and to communicate 
with scholars abroad. The subject was referred 
to a committee of five, to consider and report. 
Mr. McCurdy moved for a committee to consider 
Mr. Jay's letter to Mr. Dawson, on the new 
edition of The Federalist ; but, after a debate of 
some little warmth, the subject was laid on the ta- 

ble, with much decision, as a too personal con- 
troversy for the official action of the Society. 


Historical Society of Pennsylvania. — 

Philadelphia, Feb. 8, 1864. — The annual meet- 
ing of this Society was held at the Athenaoum 
Building. On motion of Dr. B. H. Coates, Col. 
Jas. Ross Snowden was called to the chair. 

The Trustees of the Publication Fund pre- 
sented their annual report, from which it appears 
that the subscriptions on 31st December, 1863, 
amounted to $15,835. Owing to domestic 
affliction, our fellow-member, Mr. William C. 
Reichel, has been unable to complete the His- 
tory of Bethlehem and the Moravian Settlements 
in north-eastern Penn. ; a reprint of the first 
volume of the Society's collections has therefore 
been commenced. 

Samuel Hazard, Esq., having, on account of 
the infirmities of advanced age, declined a re- 
election as Librarian, resolutions were passed 
expressive of the high appreciation of his ser- 
vices and regard for him on his retirement. 

The monthly report of the Librarian was read. 
Among the valuable donations received, was a 
water-color fac simile of the original tombstone 
over the grave of William Bradford, Printer, 
erected in Trinity church-yard, New York. On 
motion of H. G. Jones, Esq., resolutions of 
thanks to Mr. Abraham Hosier, the donor, were 
then adopted. 

Rev. Dr. Brainerd offered a resolution of 
thanks to Miss R. L. Bodley, of Cincinnati, for 
gift of a photograph and fac simile letter of 
Johanna Maria Heckewelder, of Bethlehem, 
Penn., known in history as the first white 
child born within the limits of the present State 
of Ohio. 

The following officers were then elected for the 
ensuing year : — 

President — Hon. Joseph R. Ingersoll. 
Vice-Presidents — J. Francis Fisher, George 
Chambers, of Chambersburg ; Benjamin H. 
Coates, M.D., J. William Wallace. 
Treasurer — Charles M. Morris. 
Recording Secretary — Samuel L. Smediey. 
Corresponding Secretary — Horatio Gates 

Librarian — Samuel L. Taylor. 
Library Committee — John A. McAllister, Ri- 
chard L. Nicholson. 

Publication Committee — Rev. Daniel Wash- 
Finance Committee — Edward A. Souder. 
After the election, a discussion arose among 




the members relative to the erection of a new 
hall for the use of the Society, when it was 
determined to place the matter in the hands of 
a committee. 

The Society then adjourned. 


Vermont Historical Society. — Brandon, 
January 28. — The ninth special meeting of the 
Vermont Historical Society was held at Bran- 
don, the Hon. Hiland Hall, President, in the 
chair. The Hon. E. N. Briggs, Chairman of the 
Committee of Arrangements, welcomed the 
Society in a brief speech, which was responded 
to by the Hon. Hiland Hall, President of the 

Henry Hall, Esq., of Rutand, then read a 
paper entitled " Indian Foot-Prints." 

George Grenville Benedict, Esq., of Burling- 
ton, read a paper entitled, " The Battle of Gettys- 
burg and the part Vermonters took therein." 

The Rev. Samuel R. Hall, of Brownington, 
then read a memoir of the late Rev. Walter 
Chapin, formerly of Woodstock. 

A paper was read by Albert D. Hager, Esq., 
entitled, " Ancient Mining on the Shore of Lake 

After the reading of a letter of apology from 
Hon. David A. Smaliey assigning severe sick- 
ness as a cause for his not being able to pro- 
nounce an address on the life and services of the 
late Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, 

Edward J. Phelps, Esq., of Burlington, read 
a commemorative sketch of the life and cha- 
racter of the Hon. Charles Linsley, of Middle- 

The Rev. Daniel Tomkins Taylor, of Castle- 
ton, then read an original Poem entitled, " The 
Vermont Volunteer." 

A number of persons were admitted to resi- 
dent membership. 

On motion, a committee, consisting of Messrs. 
Edward J. Phelps, of Burlington, Henry Hall, 
of Rutland, and George F. Houghton, St. Albans, 
was appointed to revise the papers left for the 
Society by the late Hon. Charles Linsley, and 
present them at the next meeting of the Society 
at St. Johnsbury, in June, 1864. 

The Hon. Stephen Royce, of East Berkshire, 
was urgently requested to prepare a paper em- 
bracing his Reminiscences of the Bench and 
Bar of Vermont. 

Hon. Isaac F. Redfield, of Boston, was re- 
quested to prepare and read before the Society, 
his Reminiscences of the Bench and Bar of 

Prof. William H. Parker, of Middlebury, to 

prepare a memoir of the late Hon. James 

Hon. Asa Owen Aldis, of St. Albans, to 
prepare a biography of the Hon. Samuel S. 

Rev. John B. Perry, of Swanton, to prepare a 
biographical sketch of the late ex-Governor 
Horace Eaton. 

On motion, Rev. Pliny H. White, of Coven- 
try, was requested to prepare biographical 
notices of the historians of Vermont. The 
Rev. Pliny H. White was formally invited to 
complete his Bibliography of Vermont, by adding 
thereto a complete list of the newspapers print- 
ed in Vermont. Mr. White, being present, 
accepted the invitation, conditioned that each 
member of the Society render such aid as may 
be in his power, to render the list as complete 
as possible. 

The Rev. John B. Perry, of Swanton, then 
read a paper, " On the Geological Formation of 
Lake Champlain." 

A paper on "June Trainings in Vermont" was 
then read by Luther L. Dutcher, Esq.. of 
St. Albans, after which the Society took a re- 
cess until two o'clock p.m. 

Many valuable donations were made, for 
which the thanks of the Society were, on motion, 

John McKesson, Esq., of New York City, 
through L. L. Dutcher, Esq., presented to the 
Society a parchment deed, dated in 1773, of 
lands owned by the proprietors of Middlesex, 
Washington County, Vt., and described in said 
deed of partition as belonging to Middlesex, Al- 
bany County, in the Province of New York. 

Rev. Francis W. Smith, of St. Albans, pre- 
sented a volume, entitled, " Trinity Church 
(N. Y.) Pamphlets." 

A manuscript, being the original of two law 
lectures, by the Hon. Nathaniel Chipman, Prof, 
of Jurisprudence in Middlebury College from 
1816 to 1843, was presented by Mrs. Charles 
Linsley, of Middlebury. 

A complete set of the "Brandon Monitor" 
Newspaper, and a Pamphlet containing a fac 
simile of the original Declaration of Independence 
in the handwriting of Thomas Jefferson, with 
biographical sketches of all the Signers, were 
presented by D. L. Milliken, Brandon, Editor of 
the u Vermont Record." 

Mr. J. Holcomb, ofBrandon, presented, through 
the editor of the " Vermont Record" five vo- 
lumes of the " Voice of Freedom" newspaper, 
commencing in June, 1843. Through the same 
source, Rev. Bernice D. Ames, of East Green- 
wich, R.I., presented a volume containing a 
memoir of the late Hon. Anderson G. Dana, 
M.D., ofBrandon. 




A biographical notice of the Rev. George B. 
Manser, D.D., one of the corporators named in 
the charter of the Vermont Historical Society, 
and its first Secretary, was then read by Greorge 
F. Houghton, Esq., of St. Albans. 

This was followed by the reading of a bio- 
graphical sketch of the late Hon. Zimri Howe, 
of Castleton, by Henry Clark, Esq., of Poult- 

The exercises concluded by the reading of a 
commemorative notice of the late Rev. Stephen 
Olin, D.D., LL.D ., by the Rev. Andrew Wither- 
spoon, DD., of Brandon. 

The Hon. William M. Pingry, of Perkinsville, 
resolved, that the Hon. Norman Williams, of 
Woodstock, was requested to prepare a bio- 
graphical sketch of the late Hon. Titus Hutchin- 
son ; and that the Hon. Carlos Coolidge be in- 
vited to prepare a biographical sketch of the late 
Hon. Jonathan H. Hubbare, of Windsor. 

Dr. John L. Chandler, of St. Albans, was in- 
vited to prepare a paper comprising his Reminis- 
cences of the most noted of the pioneer Sur- 
geons and Physicians of Vermont. 

The Hon. Jacob Collamer was requested to 
prepare and read before this Society a memoir 
of the Hon. Charles K. Williams, of Rutland. 

The President then announced that the next 
special meeting of the Society would be held at 
St. Johnsbury, in the month of June, 1864. After 
remarks from the President of the Society, in 
which he alluded to the efforts made by the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements and by the people of 
Brandon, to render this special meeting attractive 
aud successful, and to the hospitality of the 
citizens of Brandon, which was bountifully as 
well as gracefully dispensed, the Society adjourn- 
ed, — having, in the character of the exercises 
and in the number of persons in attendance upon 
them from far and near, given renewed proofs 
of increasing activity and usefulness. 

breadth, and judgment which were an earnest of 
the great value of the work so well introduced. 
In the present number there is no departure 
from the high character assumed. The work is 
in every point of view creditable, and far superior 
to any other that we have seen. 

The Manufacture of Iron in Buffalo. A paper 
read by invitation before The Buffalo His- 
torical Society, January 25, 1864. By John 
Wilkeson, Esq. Buffalo, 1864. 

A valuable and readable sketch of the im- 
portant iron manufacture that has grown up in 
Buffalo. It contains much information on iron 
generally that will repay perusal. 

gfofeS 0tt §00fo 

Harper's Pictorial History of the Great Rebellion. 

No. 6. 

This number, illustrated with a fine colored 
map of the States embraced in the original field 
of operations, and several very fine engravings 
on wood, begins properly the history of the war, 
the previous numbers having been devoted to 
an introductory portion, written with a dignity, 

The United States Service Magazine, Vol. I. No. I. 
January, 1864. C. B. Richardson, New York, 

This Magazine, appealing directly to the Army 
and Navy, enters on its career with every pro- 
mise of success. In appearance it is certainly 
the prince of the American Magazines, being 
very well printed on fine paper. On testing the 
contents we cannot certainly be less pleased. 
The editor, Prof. Henry Coppee, formerly an 
officer in the U. S. Army and a graduate of West 
Point, brings to his task not only a thorough 
knowledge of the military profession, but the 
literary skill and ability which have won him 
such a high rank in the world of letters. 

This number has a Word of Greeting, an ar- 
ticle on Chattanooga, with a map ; the Northern 
and Western Lakes ; a few Facts about Artil- 
lery ; a Modern Fable ; a fine poem on the Bu- 
rial at Gettysburg; a paper by Gen. Barnard on 
the Use of Iron in Fortification ; one by Oh. G. 
Leland on War Songs ; an article on Greek Fire, 
which will dispel some illusions ; Modern War ; 
Later Rambles over the Field of Gettysburg, by 
Dr. Jacobs, etc., etc. 

Three Months in the Southern States, April — 
June, 1863. By Lieut. Col. Fremantle, Cold- 
stream Guards. New York, John Bradburn 
(M. Doolady's Successor). 1864. 12mo. 309 pp. 

A neat and readable volume, which the pub- 
lisher has done well to issue. We hope the author 
is not an average specimen of English officers of 
his rank; his hatred of the American govern- 
ment is natural and to be expected; his exul- 
tation at finding Americans filled with similar 
feelings equally so. He entered Texas from 
Mexico and ran across to our lines, which he 
reached in Pennsylvania after the battle of Get- 
tysburg, which he saw. Disposed to see all in 




the South with favor, his account is an admiring 
sketch ; yet much of value is given. 

Notice sur les Plantes de Michaux et sur son voy- 
age au Canada et a la Baie d' Hudson, dapres 
son Journal mannscrit et autres documents 
inedits par VAbbt Ovide Brunet. Quebec. 
8vo. pp. 44. 

This valuable tract will prove a treat to our 
botanists, as the range of plants is not entirely 
confined to Canada, and the life belongs as well 
to American as Canadian biography. 


Parton's Life and Times of Franklin. — Mr. 
Parton, we understand, contrary to his original 
intention, has concluded to publish his work on 
the Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin, with- 
out waiting for the return of peace. It is now in 
press, and will appear about the first of June. It 
is remarkable that the great masses of material 
for a complete biography of Franklin should 
never before have been used for the production of 
such a work. The reason is, probably, that the 
fragments of autobiography left by Franklin 
stood in the way, no recent writer being willing 
either to discard or continue them. Mr. Parton, 
we are informed, overcomes this difficulty by 
using the autobiography as material only, and is 
thus enabled to incorporate into his narrative all 
the interesting information respecting Franklin's 
early life which modern research has brought to 
light. The public career of Franklin, particularly 
his services during the Revolutionary war, both 
as a member of Congress and as envoy to France, 
are related in the new work with a fulness of 
detail never before attempted. Among the im- 
portant acquisitions of the author, is a perfect 
copy of the pamphlet written by Franklin in his 
nineteenth year, when he was a journeyman 
printer in London, which gave him at the time 
considerably celebrity, but which was long sup- 
posed to be lost. This will be given entire in 
an appendix. One of the engravings is a por- 
trait of that infant son of Franklin whose un- 
timely death he mourned for forty years. There 
will be in these volumes a great deal of matter 
of immediate interest, bearing directly on the 
events now occurring ; for it is well known 
that the spirit of Secession began to manitest 
itself as early as 1778, in Paris, where the North- 
ern and Southern servants of Congress were at 

open war, and where their contentions paralysed 
the alliance between France and America. 
| Nothing but the wisdom, the patience, and the in- 
i doniitable good humor of Franklin prevented the 
I Southern hot-heads from giving mortal offence 
| to the French government. The new biography 
i will form two volumes, crown-octavo, of about 
| 650 pages each. It will be published by the 
I Mason Brothers of this city. 

Among the Many Curious Relics brought 
j forward at a recent Sanitary Fair is a chip 
i from the Beech Tree Forks, of Licking, showing 
the tomahawk marks of Daniel Boone, which 
was the corner tree and starting point for 
his claim to lands in Kentucky. The yearly 
growth of wood having covered this tomahawk 
mark, it was necessary, in settling the numerous 
law-suits in Kentucky, to produce the mark made 
by Boone. This was done by carefully scaling 
off the yearly growth, until the mark appeared 
corresponding with the year he made it. and the 
chip being in Court, and the tree proved from 
which it was taken, Boone's claim was established. 

Death of a Reserve Antiquarian. — Mr. Joel 
Blakeslee, of Colebrook, Ashtabula Co., 0., a 
venerable antiquarian and respected citizen, died 
Nov. 27th, aged 76 years. Mr. Blakeslee emi- 
grated from Avon, N. Y., to Ohio, in 1819, and 
was the first settler of Colebrook, his family 
occupying a house which consisted of four wide 
boards for a floor, and five for a shelter from the 
weather. The nearest settlement was three 
miles, to which they went by marked trees. 
Hardships and privations were the lot of the 
Blakeslee pioneers, many of them unusually 
severe. Mr. B. in due time became locally fa- 
mous as an Antiquarian, and gathered up the 
relics of the past, and the incidents connected 
with the early history of every township of Ash- 
tabula county. All the Indian curiosities and 
history of his section of the Lake region were 
carefully collected and preserved, and his contri- 
butions to the press and the Historical Society 
at Jefferson were valuable and interesting. 
They will be more and more prized as genera- 
tion succeeds generation. 

One of the attractions of the late Fair at Cin- 
cinnati, was a selection of letters from the extra- 
ordinary collection of Lewis J. Cost, Esq., of St. 
Louis, whose contributions from his American 
treasures have often enriched our columns. 
Among the most remarkable there exhibited, 
were those of Pope Leo X., Luther, Henry VIII., 
of the period of the Reformation; Cromwell, Marl- 
borough, Wellington, Napoleon, Murat, Ney. 



[March, 1864. 

among the military heroes ; and a host of Ameri- 
can worthies, Gov. Stuyvesant, Roger Williams, 
Gen. Oglethorpe, Washington, Franklin, Boone, 

The Lexington Monument. — The heirs of the 
late Wm. H. Carey, of Brooklyn, N. Y. (for- 
merly of Boston), have purchased Belfrey Hill, 
in Lexington, containing about two acres, and 
having in the centre a rock rising up 40 feet. 
The price paid was $3000. The lot has been 
presented by the said heirs to the Lexington 
Monument Association, as a site for their new 
monument. The rock is but a few rods distant 
from the old monument. The directors recently 
held a meeting and voted unanimously to accept 
the patriotic gift. Resolutions and a vote of 
thanks were unanimously passed, and a copy 
sent to the donors. 

This is a noble beginning. It is hoped that 
other persons will give their aid towards erecting 
a National Monument in commemoration of the 
great event of the 19th of April, 1775. It will 
require two years to execute the work of the 
" Minute Man," — a bronze statue of about six- 
teen feet in height. It is to be hoped that suffi- 
cient aid will be given the Association soon, so 
that work will go on and have the corner stone 
ready to be laid and dedicated to Liberty and 
Union again by the old soldiers, when they 
return from the war. The Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery Company have subscribed $1000, 
to be paid when the corner stone is laid. 

Any person wishing to contribute money for 
the patriotic object of erecting this Naiional Mo- 
nument, can leave it with Mr. C. O. Whitmore, 
the Treasurer, in Liberty square, Boston j also 
those who wish to become members of the Asso- 
ciation can do so by paying $5 to Mr. Whitmore, 
when they will receive a diploma executed on a 
steel plate in the highest style of art, on which is 
the autograph of the President, Hon. Edward 
Everett, also the other officers of the Asso- 
ciation, a design of the new monument and a 
battle scene in Lexington, April 19, 1775, the 
whole making a beautiful parlor picture worth 
the five dollars paid for it. Every American 
should have a copy placed in his house, to be 
handed down to future generations, informing 
them where American liberty had its birth. 

Mr. Robert Wright, 102 Great Russell St., 
W. C, London, solicits copies of autograph let- 
ters of Gen. Wolfe for a new and complete life 
of the great commander. 

Hon. Samuel F. Cary of College Hill, Ohio, | 
is preparing a complete history or record of the I 

descendants of John Cary who landed at Ply- 
mouth in the Mayflower. 

Kosciusko. — Marianna Lugomirska, said to be 
a descendant of the Polish patriot Thaddeus 
Kosciusko, has published in Germany a new 
historical romance, compiled from original let- 
ters and documents preserved amongst the 
family papers of the Polish hero. 

The Veteran Newspaper or the United 
States. — The oldest newspaper in the United 
States is the " New Hampshire Gazette," pub- 
lished at Portsmouth, N. H. This paper com- 
pleted the one hundred and seventh year of its 
publication on the 1st of October. This paper 
commenced its career in 1756, and consequently 
is the oldest newspaper in America. 

Yol. I. Maine Historical Collections, is now 
in the printer's hand for republication. The 
demand has exhausted the first edition, and the 
Publishing Committee are taking advantage of 
this opportunity to enrich the work by the 
addition of about sixty pages, to be furnished 
out of the valuable stores of its Editor, the Hon. 
William Willis, President of the Society. 

History of Portland. — This valuable pro- 
duction, of which the first portion is contained 
in Vol. I. of the Collections of the Maine His- 
torical Society, is soon to be issued in a new and 
attractive form, at the request of the Society. 
The author, the Hon. Wm. Willis, of Portland, 
will make additions to its pages, and intends to 
continue the narrative down to the present time. 
His resources for this purpose are abundant; 
and his ability to draw upon these has been fully 
tested in the many historical and biographical 
sketches in which he has preserved the facts of 
the past. 

History of the Pennsylvania Paper Money 
and of the Continental Emissions. — Mr. Frank 
M. Etting is compiling historical sketches of the 
Paper Money of Pennsylvania and of the Con- 
tinental Emissions. I understand that he has 
been engaged in this subject for several years, 
and has collected many original MSS., especially 
in regard to the Pennsylvania issue. As a per- 
son interested in the subject, and anxious to aid 
Mr. Etting, permit me to suggest to your nu- 
merous readers, many of whom may be possessed 
of valuable information of this subject, that they 
would contribute to accurate history by com- 
municating with Mr. Etting, who, at present, 
resides in this city. u. m. 

Baltimore, Feb. 28, 1864. 



Vol. VIII.] 

APRIL, 1864. 

[No. 4 

(Snuol §*prtnuni. 


I send you for publication a few letters 
from the then Executive of Pennsylvania, 
Gen. Joseph Reed, to Gen. Irvine, apposite 
to the present times, inasmuch as they relate, 
for the most part, to the difficulties expe- 
rienced in recruiting the armies of the Revo- 
lution ; the more creditable to those who did 
enlist, and, amid the discouragements that 
surrounded them, battled through the war, 
without the sordid incentives now so neces- 
sary to the recruitment of our present 
armies. Think of the State of Pennsylva- 
nia with a war on her hands, and only 
$3000 in the Treasury! Respectfully, 
W. A. Irvine. 

Philad., Nov. 16th, 1773. 

Dear Sir 

Tho I am very much engaged in other 
Business I cannot let Gen. Armstrong go 
to Carlisle without acquainting you of the 
Steps I have taken upon your Claim. On 
my Return from Camp I made due Inquiry 
& found that Gen. Hand had been pro- 
moted in the Manner then suggested viz. 
upon the Nomination of North Carolina. 
Being satisfied of this in making Report 
to Congress & recommending General Of- 
ficers in the Name of the Committee I 
stated the several Facts which the Dele- 
gates of North Carolina admitted were 
truly stated, but declared they could not 
consent to receive Gen. Hand as their 
Omcer. — I then stated Col. Magaw & your- 
self as standing next in order of rank. 
That Col. Magaw being a Prisoner, if a 


Brigadier was indispensably necessary at 
present as Gen. Washington intimates you 
stood intitled, but in this case Col. Magaws 
Right should be saved either by Agree- 
ment between yourselves or by express 
Reservation, as it would be a great Injus- 
tice that a good Officer should lose his 
Right by the mere Fortune of War. The 
Generosity of your own Mind I am sure 
will lead you to approve this Rule of my 
Conduct. — Thus the Matter stands — Caro- 
lina says she will not have Gen 1 . Hand — 
Pennsylvania should say & I trust will, 
that having nominated him she must be 
bound by her Nomination or the Rights 
of others will be invaded. Gen. Hand]s 
Merit as an Officer is not questioned, it is 
a Question more aflfecting to the States of 
Carolina & Pennsylvania, than a personal 

I have not now the Honour of a Seat in 
Congress but as far as lays in my Power 
shall convey the Sentim ts I have expressed 
to those who succeed me & hope they will 
have their due Weight. 

I am with much Esteem, Sir 

Your most obed. & very 
Hbble Serv. 

Jos. Reed. 

Philad., Aug. 8, 1779. 

Dear Sir 

I am indebted to you for two Favours 
which I shall now endeavour to discharge 
with one ; An Indisposition of some Days 
& Moving to a new House having kept me 
from Business. I send you inclosed an 
Answer from Col. Nicola on the subject of 
the Invalids in which if he is not mistaken 
in Facts he seems to account for his Pro- 
cedure better than I expected. 

The Reduction of Stony Point has every 




Particular of Time, Manner, & Circum- 
stance to recommend it & reflects such 
Credit on our Arms as I think will have 
lasting Effects. I am rejoiced our Officers 
had so great a Share in it, as it reflects 
Honour upon the State. Had the medi- 
tated Design on the other Point taken 
Effect the Consequences would have been 
decisive for the Campaign — We are well 
satisfied here. You ask me what may be 
depended on as to Cloathing, & I will 
answer you freely, depending that you 
will only disclose it when you know it may 
be done with Propriety — As to getting it 
in this Place it is impracticable, either the 
Merchants have it not, or it is put out of 
Sight. My own Opinion is, that there is 
more in town than appears, but much less 
than what is wanted. We have therefore 
been for some Time preparing Exports to 
a Place not very distant, and mean to take 
every Precaution for Safety, the Returns 
to be intirely in such Articles as are wanted 
for the Army. However in this View we 
have hitherto confined ourselves to the 
Officers, it having been understood that 

now, & 
as Gen. Wilkinson the new Clothier Gen. 
is at Camp you will do well to consult him 
fully upon the Subject. 

The Mode in which half pay was given 
was settled by Congress, and as there are 
comparatively few who may get civil Of- 
fices so lucrative, as to make it unneces- 
sary, I wish it was clear of that Restriction, 
& if a Law is brought in to establish it I 
will recommend to such Members of Ass 1 ^ 
as I have any Influence with to lay aside 
the Restriction ; but this will only affect 
the half Pay given by the State as we can 
only give our Vote in Congress, as one of 
thirteen, for an Alteration of the other. 

Your Mode of recruiting would be an 
effectual one, if no Parties existed in the 
State, & all would concur to enforce the 
duty : But while each seeks to strengthen 
itself by the Malcontents of the other 
Party there will be an Imbecillity in every 
Measure which runs counter to the Feelings 
and Interests of a considerable Number. 
But I should chuse in this Case that the 

the Congress would take care of the 
This should be well understood 

Term of Service should be a compleat 
Year if not more from the Time of joining 
the Regiment. 

I wish I had more Leisure to lay my 
Sentiments before the publick on the Duty 
& propriety of providing for the Officers 
& Soldiers — it is the only Subject on 
which I trouble the News Papers, & the 
same Causes for not answering your Let- 
ter have operated to prevent my prose- 
cuting it — added to this, that the News 
Papers have been very much engross* 1 by 
the Party writers. I shall resume it as 
soon as my Health will admit. I congratu- 
late you upon the favourable Accounts 
from the West Indies — Grenada undoubt- 
edly taken, and Byron defeated are great 
Events, we wait impatiently for the par- 

My best Wishes attend you & am 
Dear Sir, with much Esteem 

Your most obed & very 
Hbble serv 

Jos. Reed. 

Pjiilad., Nov. 18, 1779. 

Dear Sir 

I am indebted to you for several Favours 
which my long Indisposition has prevented 
my answering. I shall write to Major 
Moore in answer to his Letter. 

The very heavy, I may say the enormous, 
Expense which Avarrice & private Ra- 
pacity throws on the States in order to 
procure the Necessaries for the Army will 
require some Attention & Care on their 
Part, & especially in the filling up Vacan- 
cies in the present State of the Privates I 
cannot think there is any Necessity of 
introducing new Officers which must be 
the Case if every Vacancy is filled as soon 
as it happens. I would wish the General 
& Field Officers would rather discourage 
it as otherwise they may feel the Inconve- 
niences themselves — the fewer Officers we 
have the better we can afford to do for 
them provided there is sufficient to do the 
Duty. And I would especially recommend 
Caution in this Respect with Respect to 
any Persons not belonging to the State. 
The Benefits of the Pennsylvania Line 
may draw Persons from other States or 




foreign Parts, but it is not prudent as to 
the State nor politick as to themselves, as 
at a future Day the Difficulty of rew \t ling 
such a Number will be given as a Reason 
against rewarding any. 

The Cloathing goes off next Week, & 
tho not so complete as I intended I believe 
if you can be permitted to retain it you 
will find yourselves in as comfortable a State 
as any other Line, & I imagine more so as 
no Pains has been spared to procure Plenty 
<fc of the best Quality. 

As Officers have a good deal of Leisure 
<fc sometimes want Amusement I have sent 
you a Pamphlet of which I beg your 
Acceptance & am with much Esteem 
Your obed & very 

Hbble serv 

Jos. Reed. 

Piiilad., April 11, 17S0. 


The various Recommendations of Offi- 
cers for Promotion will very naturally call 
for some Answer & Notice. They would 
probably have long before this Time been 
forwarded from this Board to the Conti- 
nental Board of AVar if it had not been 
intimated to us that some Propositions 
would be made this Spring from the Offi- 
cers for an Incorporation of the weak 
Regiments. When compared with other 
States we find our Quota is in a very 
respectable Point of View, & have there- 
fore thought it our Duty to stimulate 
others rather than overstrain ourselves by 
unequal Exertions. For this Reason & 
because the exhausted State of our Trea- 
sury does not admit of the Expence we 
have not attempted Recruiting. For your 
Satisfaction & that of the Officers I also 
enclose you the Resolution of Congress 
which put a Period to our farther Pro- 
ceeding in the Appointments of Officers. 
Whenever this Obstacle is removed or 
Congress direct the Mode we shall chear- 
fully go forward in the Business. 

I have now the Satisfaction of informing 
you that the House of Assembly at their 
last Sessions taking into farther Consider- 
ation the meritorious Services of the 
Troops belonging to this State not only 

confirmed by a Law the half Pay given by 
Congress extending it to the Life of every 
Officer, but also the Cloathing & Stores 
during the Service — providing also for the 
Widow and Children of any Officer dying 
in Service by an Annuity proportioned to 
their Wants & Circumstances — In Addi- 
tion to which they have also voted each 
Officer at the Expiration of Service the 
following Quantities of Land free of Taxes 

A Major General 2000 Acres 

A Brigadier 1500 Do. 

A Colonel 1000 Do. 

A Lieutenant Colonel. 750. Do. 

A Surgeon 600 Do. 

A Major 600 Do. 

A Captain 500 Do. 

A Lieutenant , 400 

An Ensign 300 

A Surgeon's Mate. . . 300 

And as an Eucouracrement to the 

commissioned Officers 
have been voted 

& Soldiers 


A Serjeant 250 Acres 

A Private 200 

These unsollicited & kind Marks of Atten- 
tion & Respect I am sure cannot fail of 
making suitable Impressions on brave & 
generous Minds. As I feel a very sincere 
Pleasure in executing these Plans & Mea- 
sures formed for the Comfort & Satisfaction 
of the Army I am also happy in communi- 
cating them, & request as a Peice of 
Justice to the Assembly you would make 
known to the Officers & Soldiers what has 
been done for them on this Occasion. 

I also enclose you a Resolution of Con- 
gress on the Subject of your Pay, which I 
hope will be a pleasing Information as it 
shews a general Attention to the Interests 
& Comfort of the Army — of which it is in 
every Respect very deserving. 

As soon as the Laws are printed I will 

forward you the Act for the Supply & 

honourable Reward of the Pennsylvania 

Troops & am with much Regard & Esteem 


Your most obed 1 & very 
Hbble serv. 

Jos. Reed. 




Phil ad., April 14, 1T80. 


I wrote you on the 11th Inst, giving you 
a short Sketch of the Provision lately 
made for the Army — since which I received 
your Favour of the 8th Inst. I am sorry 
the Surgeons & Mates after receiving 
Cloathing & other Supplies from the State 
should thus in a Body tender their Resig- 
nation, it looks like extorting rather than 
requesting. Happily in this Case their 
Interests were consulted & attended to 
before this Step was taken otherwise it 
might possibly have injured their Claim. 
Generous Minds should be careful how 
they impose Force or what has the Ap- 
pearance of it, as there is a certain Pride 
in human Nature that recoils at Compul- 
sion. — I now inclose you the Act of As- 
sembly confirming the Provision for the 
Army — Besides which as I mentioned in a 
former Letter the House voted 2000 Acres 
of Land to every Major General & so in 
Proportion to inferiour Officers — Surgeons 
& their Mates included. 

I agree with you in wishing some per- 
manent & general Plan could be fallen 
upon that would give Satisfaction & save 
us from adopting the Line of temporary 

If the Surgeons & Mates should still 
persist in their Resignation it will be more 
proper to make it to Congress than to us 
for tho we have the Appointment when 
they receive their Commissions they be- 
come the Officers of the United States. — 
Perhaps from the Changes making in the 
Hospital Department Congress could sup- 
ply their Places, but I confess I am at a 
loss to see why the Gentlemen are dissa- 
tisfied with the State because their Views 
were disappointed by a Vote in Congress. 
I am with much Esteem Sir 

Your obed & very Hbble Serv 
Jos. Rerd. 

Philad., May 10th, 17S0. 

Dear Sir 

Your favour of the twenty fifth of April 
last and the second Instant came duly and 
safely to hand. We are sorry that a point 
of punctilio with respect to the State 
Agentshould be taken up at this time of 

day and in the present state of our affairs 
when frugality is so indispensibly necessary. 
Whatever may be the customs of Euro- 
pean armies it certainly resfs in our own 
opinion whether such an appointment shall 
be derogatory to the Character of an offi- 
cer. One thing I am very sure of, that if 
the person who is to undertake it is not 
supported and respected by the officers, 
his office will be a very difficult if not an 
impracticable one. If the thing is not too 
far gone I should be glad you w r ould confer 
with the Baron Steuben thereon, and en- 
deavour to divert him from a measure 
which appears to us attended with many 
inconveniences without any real advantages 
to ballance it. If I had time I would write 
myself, but I have no objection to your 
using my name and opinion. 

Mr. Swaine's conduct is by no means pleas- 
ing to us but if you have the Resolve of 
Congress of the twenty third day of March 
1V79, you will find that tho nominated by 
us he is an officer of Congress and remov- 
able only by the Commander in Chief. It 
will be therefore quite acceptable to us if 
his conduct could be taken up in its proper 
place and Justice done both him and the 
publick. We have frequently intimated 
to him our desire that he should reside at 
Camp but it has not had the desired effect. 
We had flattered ourselves that deser- 
tions had nearly ceased and thought our- 
selves warranted in our opinion by the 
estimate of stores lately sent us in which 
our Troops computed at 640 Officers and 
3200 non Commissioned Officers and pri- 
vates. The Justices of the Supreme Court 
having gone upon the Circuits we have 
recommended to them in the strongest 
manner the putting a stop to the inter- 
ference of the Justices in the case of dis- 
charging soldiers. I am clearly of opinion 
that the Justices of the Supreme Court 
only upon a habeas corpus, have a right to 
determine the expiration of service and 
would advise that the Officers in such case 
should decently and respectfully decline 
their authority. General Lacey will write 
to you on the subject, and we have taken 
particular notice of Mr. Scott of York 
Town. I do not know how we can check 




You must be sensible what a heavy <fc 
necessary Demand must also attend re- 
cruiting. If the Bounties are not paid we 
can expect no Men. Your Observations 
on the Taxes of Cumberland are very jnst. 
Fair tfc punctual Payment of Taxes must 
not be considered among the good Quali- 
ties of your County — tho in Whiggism & 
Bravery I think it may vie with any 
County in the State or even in America. 
I wish our Friends there were more sen- 
sible of the Importance of this Duty but 
you must remember that it has been an 
old Complaint — Time & Experience will 
we hope improve & amend it. 


the supernumerary officers, but if we can or £3000 State Money in it at any Time- 
stop the Justices their Certificates will ' 
have little comparative effect. 

I must acknowledge my good Sir, that 
in the present state of our publick affairs 
as to money I see no prospect of recruiting 
the number of Men Baron Steuben calls 
for. We must therefore concur in some 
plan for levelling the regiments, I am 
sensible it is an unpleasant business, but 
the all powerful Law of necessity admits 
of no alternative. I am told that at this 
stage of the business the taxes are found 
too burthensome, at least relaxation is 
called for which shows they have been 
improvidently required or very injudiciously 
withheld. I am very glad you are like to 
bring your affair to an issue I think it is 
quite time it should be settled and your 
rank determined and have no doubt Justice 
will be done. Colonel Farmer has orders 
to prepare a quantity of linnen overalls 
and a supply of shirts which will be for- 
warded as soon as they are got ready. 
Pray inform me with respect to hats ; if 
you can do without them till the fall 
cl oat lies it would be best. I am with 
much regard Sir 

Your most obedient and very humble 

Jos. Reed 

writing the above your 
Little is come to hand. 

Wayne laid a Letter from you to 
him before the Council containing some 
Observations on the Neglect & Omission 
of sending the Laws into the Country & 
particularly the late Law for calling Men 
by Classes. As the sending the Laws has 
been for some Time past considered a Duty 
of the Council the Members considered the 
sending the Letter to them as a gentle 
Animadversion on the Board but which in 
this Instance does not happen to be well 
founded. The Law in Question was sent 
by Express to the Commissioners of all the 
Counties above two Months ago — We find 
on Inquiry that he set out on the 3d Jan. 
taking with him also Instructions of the 
most particular Kind so as to establish a 
general Regularity & Uniformity in the 
Execution. The Express is not here to 
ascertain with judicial Precision the actual 
Delivery of the Law it; Papers to the 
Commissioners of Cumberland, but as it 
was seasonably delivered in every other 
Part of the State we presume that County 
was not neglected <fc that you have not 
Assembly. "I am sorry to inform you that j been properly informed on this Occasion, 
it is in our power to give very little Relief, i which I have been the more sorry for as 
The Advances made to the Officers & \ the Letter has been communicated pretty 
Soldiers, the Purchase of Cloathing now : generally Ss is wrote in a Language of 
in Hand — the Supply of this City & the! Complaint rather adapted for confidential 
various Ports in the Country— with the . & private Correspondence than for publick 
Necessities of the Army at West Point, Use. 

P. S. Since 
Favour of Mr. 

Fiiilad., March 20, 1TS1. 


I have duly received your Favour re- 
specting the Affairs at Carlisle, which 
appeared of so much Importance that I 
thought proper to communicate it to the 

Fort Pitt etc. have reduced our Treasury 
to the lowest Ebb — so that I can with 
Truth assure you we have not now noi 

Affairs in Europe have taken a surprizing 
Turn. War declared by England against 
the Dutch — We have no News from Che- 

have we had for 2 Months past above 2 sapeak where the French & British Fleet 




now are, but we are in momentary Expec- 
tation of great Events. 

I am with much Esteem Sir 
Your obed & very Hbble serv 

Jos. Reed. 
P. S. There is at present no Law in 
Force enabling the Council to issue Orders 
to impress — all the Powers of that Nature 
being vested in the Commissioner under 
the Law which creates the Office. 

Philad., June 1, 1780. 

Dear Sir 

I am to acknowledge several of your 
Favours & especially the last informing of 
the unhappy State of the Army. I com- 
municated it in Confidence to the General 
Assembly, who in Addition to the other 
Measures which we had pursued & the 
beneficial Effects of which we hope you have 
by this Time experienced have passed a 
Law authorizing Persons to seize all Cattle 
& Provisions, this Law we shall execute 
with Spirit immediately & I hope in a 
very few Days you will see that a different 
Spirit reigns here than in those States who 
perhaps being more remote are not touched 
equally with a Sense of the Necessity of 
immediate Exertions — We have also passed 
a Law for draughting Recruits for the 
Army which in this City and the 3 ad- 
joining Counties will produce 600 Men. 

Farmer is busily engaged making Shirts 
& Overalls — & Mr. Lyttle in forwarding 
the Stores which are purchased for your 
Refreshment & Comfort. It will do great 
Honour to our State if we can keep our 
Troops uncontaminated on so trying an 
Occasion with the Spirit of Discontent — 
for which after all we must acknowledge 
there is too much Reason. 

The Arrangement of the Officers in 
Consequence of Vacancy & Promotion 
lias been laid before the Board of War & 
no Difficulty arises in making out the 
Commissions but in the 3 d & 4 th Regi- 
ment. It is said Mr. Marshal cannot take 
Capt. Ruly's Place untill the Proceedings 
are had to dismiss the latter agreeable to 
the inclosed Resolution of Congress — the 
other Appointments in Consequence of 
Mr. Marshal's Promotion will of course 

be postponed. — The same Difficulty in 
Case of Ensign Peter Smith or rather 
Lieutenant King. It is also queried how 
Mr. Onial was dismissed from the Sur- 
geoncy of the 10th Reg', you will please 
to have this explained or I fear his 
Appointment will also be delayed. 

As to the 4th Regim* — The Rank of 
Messrs. Beecher & Steddiford must be 
settled before any Commissions can issue, 
and as the Gentlemen who have been Pri- 
soners have some Reason in my Opinion to 
complain I flatter myself due Considera- 
tion will be had to the Justice of their 
Cases on the present Occasion. — We have 
received a Remonstrance from the other 
Officers but as it is a Rule with us not to 
interfere in these Questions we hope the 
matter will be settled at Camp, until which 
nothing can be done here. 

Col. Butler is anxious for the Confirma- 
tion of some Ensigns appointed by Gen 1 . 
Sullivan but as the General had no Autho- 
rity to make such an Appointment we 
cannot violate a Rule of Congress as well 
as our own Determination or the Appoint- 
ment of any new Officers but in the Mode 
which the Resolution of Congress directs 
viz — special Recommendation of the Com- 
mander in Chief to which we shall pay 
proper Attention. You will easily see 
that if done in one Case every other Colonel 
will expect it and as the Right of Appoint- 
ment is in the State we cannot waive it. 
I mention this because it has been observed 
that Colonels admit young Fellows to do 
Duty & then ground a Claim for a Com- 
mission on their having served some Time 
which makes us mere Cyphers & is a De- 
viation from the Letter & Spirit of the 
Rule of Congress. If it was known that 
the Council did not think themselves at all 
bound by this Circumstance it would save 
us the painful Necessity of declining to 
confirm their Appointments. — I am in haste 
dear Sir 

Your obed Hbble Serv 
Jos. Reed. 
If Gen 1 . St. Clare is at Camp please to 
communicate this Letter to him. 




Dear Sir 

I shall be glad to meet the Officers of 
the Pennsylvania Line collectively next 
Monday at 12 o'clock at the City Tavern, 
& shall be much obliged to you to acquaint 
them with my Wishes. 

As I do not know the Quarters of the 
Field Officers now in Town must also 
request you to convey my Compliments to 
them & request the Favour of their Com- 
pany to dine with me on Wednesday next, 
3 o ? clock. I mean the Officers of the Six 
Regiments as I shall have Opportunities to 
see the other Gentlemen — but the Officers 
who continue will probably leave Town in 
a little Time. You will also oblige me 
with your own Company at the same Time. 
I am Sir 

Your obed & very 

Hbble Serv 

Jos. Reed. 

Market Street 
Jan. 27, 1781. 

Philad., July 19, 1780. 

Dear Sir 

I duly received your Favour of the 12th 
Inst. — & of this I cannot say I am disap- 
pointed in the Result of the Board of 
General Officers yet I wish they had seen 
their Way in proceeding to a Determina- 
tion, because that of Congress will be 
tedious & probably intermingled with 
political Sentiments which do not pervade 
the Camp. 

I have shewn your Letter to one of our 
Delegates who seems generally to be of 
Sentiment with you. However I have a 
doubt in one Point and that is, whether 
the Reference does not come more properly 
from the General to Congress than from 
the State. In that Case the matter would 
be taken up more free from Prejudice, than 
I am sure it would be if urged by our Dele- 
gates — & the less the Prejudice the better 
Prospect of your succeeding fully & 
quickly. Your Proposition of putting 
Gen 1 . Hand on the general Scale, seems 
most likely to take if properly managed, 
<fc I am of Opinion it will end there as 
North Carolina has already her full Share 
of Brigadiers. My Advice therefore would 
be to get the General to state the Result 

of the Board of Officers with their Diffi- 
culties & press Congress to a Determina- 
tion, least he should be embarrassed in 
disposing the Commands. 

Mr. Searle has sailed for Europe a Week 
ago partly on private Business & partly to 
procure the necessary Supplies of Cloathing 
&c. which cannot be done here — if he 
arrives safe & succeeds in his errand I 
trust the Pennsylvania Line will make an 
Appearance not only superiour to any in 
America but equal to any Thing in Europe 
— we have carried our Orders down to a 
Sleeve Button with every Thing answerable 
both for Officers & Men. — I wrote to Gen. 
St. Clair a few Days ago requesting that 
Lieut s . Bigham & Benne might be sent 
down to confront a Capt. Gardener whom 
we -have in Custody for insulting them 
while searching for Deserters. We are 
resolved to make an Example of him if the 
Facts appear as we presume they will from 
the Report made formerly by these Gen- 

We are sorry to find some Gentlemen 
express themselves so indiscreetly in Camp 
& write to their Friends here in the same 
Style with Respect to the new Recruits. 
We have gone on Gen. Washington's 
Opinion on draughting preferably to vo- 
luntary Inlistment. Draughts you know 
must be for short Duration & with good 
Management many may be entered for the 
War. But this is not all, we attempted 
voluntary Inlistment for the War last 
Spring without any Success — but not dis- 
couraged <fc willing to please all we have 
now began again — I advanced this Morning 
10 half Johannes & I dare say many others 
will do the like to try what can be done — 
some Gentlemen took it up about 3 Weeks 
ago got a Subscription but went no farther. 
You may depend upon it there are no Men 
in America more anxious to fill up the 
Line — but Pennsylvania you must be sen- 
sible is composed of such a Mixture of 
People & we have so much Opposition 
that a Man might as reasonably expect the 
Fruits of our Climate to grow in another 
as to expect that the same Efforts could 
succeed in one State as another. Indeed 
I must declare it as my Opinion that the 




Strength of an Army does not consist in 
its Numbers — Appointments comfortable 
Cloathing Equipments of various Kinds 
are as necessary as Men^fc a well appointed 
Army is equal to double its Numbers 
destitute of the Necessaries & Conve- 
niences of Military Life. And in this 
Respect Envy & 111 Nature must do us 
Justice & we depend especially on our 
Officers whose Comfort & Honour is 
deservedly dear to us to support ours 
ag l Reproach. I am Dear Sir, with real 

Your most obed. 

Hbble Serv 
Jos. Reed. 
P. S. Gen. Armstrong came to Congress 
some Time ago. 

War Office, March 27, 1T81. 


Col. Forrest has arrived here with an 
account of the 111 Temper of the Artifi- 
cers at Carlisle for Want of Pay & 
Cloathing & it seems the same Spirit per- 
sists among them as to their Discharges 
which took Possession of the Pennsilvania 
Line. Since the Precedent has taken Place 
with respect to Discharges we do not see 
that any Difference of Treatment can be 
held up & therefore we think those en- 
listed for three Tears or duri?ig the War 
must be discharged at the Expiration of 
the three Years. But it seems they will 
not take their Discharges unless they are 
paid & we are informed they have thrown 
out Threats to sieze the Stores and pay 
themselves. Their Pay is certainly due 
them yet they have less Reason to com- 
plain than the Troops in the Field as they 
have been paid within six Months. What 
they should receive would the farther dis- 
able the Public from paying the Troops 
and as these Men have all Trades it should 
seem that they could better support the 
Want of Pay than the Soldiers. It ap- 
pears to us totally out of the Power of 
Congress to pay the Artificers at this Time 
& therefore if those entitled to them were 
discharged & permitted thereby to be at 
Liberty to follow their several Occupa- 
tions in their own account they ought to 

be satisfied. If we could get Guards 
from the Regiment of Continental Troops 
to secure the Stores the Artificers might 
be discharged & sent about their Business. 
But as probably this Expedient would be 
creating another Evil considering these 
Troops are under the same Predicament 
we have thought it best to state the Matter 
to you that you might fall on some Mea- 
sures for securing the Stores and having 
the three Years Men discharged & sent 
from the Post. Probably some of the citi- 
zens might be prevailed on to take the 
Guard of the Stores till the Men who have 
evidenced a Disposition to seize them 
should be gone. But we leave the Matter 
to your Discretion & if you find Diffi- 
culties too great for the Attempt you will 
inform us as the Matter should not be 
began unless there is a Certainty of its 
being carried thro'. If it is possible to 
furnish Money it shall be done so far as a 
Months Pay; but at present w T e see no 
Prospect of it. It is really lamentable 
that the Public should be in this Situation 
but it is not in our Power to remedy it. 
We are Sir 

with much Esteem 

Your very obed Servants 
Richard Peters 
By order 
Brigadier General Irvine 

In Council, Philadelphia, June 18th, 1781. 

Whereas Brigadier General Irvine has 
represented to this Council, that a number 
of spirited well affected Inhabitants of the 
Counties west of the Susquehanna, have 
signified their intentions of equipping 
themselves to act as Light Horsemen and 
Volunteers, to be in readiness to repel any 
Incursion of the Enemy in this State, and 
in case of necessity to march to the relief , 
and assistance of our neighbouring States, 
now invaded by the Enemy and in great 

Resolved, That this Board do highly 
approve the spirit manifested on this occa- 
sion, and also of General Irvines intention 
to form said Volunteers, and take charge 
of them in the proposed service, and do for 
that purpose assure him, and them, that 




they shall receive all proper and necessary 
encouragement from this Board. 
Extract from the Minutes 

T. J. Matlack Secy 
Brigadier General Irvine. 


In Council Philadelphia July 23rd. 1781 

I duly received your letter of the six- 
teenth Instant, and have laid it before the 
Council. As you was in Town at the time 
of the Change of our system of supplies, 
it is hardly necessary to inform you, that 
M" Morris undertook to procure for this 
State, the articles required by Congress, 
which of course included the support of 
all Continentals in the State, this com- 
menced on the twentieth Instant by 
agreement with M r Morris, who then con- 
ceived himself in a condition to assume it. 
M T . Morris afterwards objected to the num- 
ber of posts in the Country, and made it 
a point to confine his Contracts to certain 
enumerated places, which did not include 
Lebanon, Hanover, or Yellow Springs, — 
the latter he has since taken up. But 
with respect to the others there is a real 
difficulty as all the moneys designed for 
these purposes were taken out of our 
hands, and transferred to Mr Morris, so 
that we apprehend it will be necessary, if 
M r . Morris cannot be induced to extend his 
contracts (which we do not expect) to 
move the several parties down to those 
places where contracts are made, viz 1 York 
and Lancaster. And as the prisoners are 
to be five miles from York, and the uncon- 
ditional prisoners, closely confined in Lan- 
caster, we hope this may be done, as it 
will be a great relief to us in the business, 
having no money, and little credit, and if 
you concur in opinion with us, we request 
you will give the necessary orders as Gene- 
ral S l Clair is not here. Your observation, 
that recruits must have provision and quar- 
ters immediately on inlisting, is very just, 
but we apprehend this would be more pro- 
perly done by granting assistance at two 
shillings per day, until they reached the 
rendezvous which in the case of the rifle 

Corps to be raised, we have fixed as 

per Copy of the recruiting Instructions 


sent you inclosed. The number of class 
recruits got in Philadelphia by our last ac- 
count was thirty three, of whom I am 
sorry to inform you sixteen had deserted. 
We had earnestly requested they might be 
sent off as soon as they amounted to five, 
or six, but some delay happened, and pri- 
vateers sailing in the mean time it is pro- 
bable many of them are gone. We have 
not had regular accounts from the Coun- 
try but we fear the harvest will make the 
business more tedious and difficult than we 
could have expected. York and Cumber- 
land, have been generally slow upon these 
occasions. It has been observed and I 
believe with justice, that those Counties 
who suffered least by the Enemy have 
been most backward in furnishing their 
proportions of publick duty of every kind, 
and your remark, that the people are as 
secure as if there was no War in the Coun- 
try, is applicable to more parts of the 
State, than you have under your Eye. I 
send you General Waynes letter to me on 
the affair of the sixth Instant, which came 
to us at first, in very alarming colours, but 
rather seems to do us honour at present, — 
tho' our loss is to be regretted when we 
see what difficulty there is in getting Men, 
and training them. By our accounts from 
Europe the prospect of possessing all the 
Southern States, and reducing Maryland 
and Pennsylvania this Campaign, will pro- 
tract, if not frustrate all negotiations this 
summer. General Washington is at Kings- 
bridge or its neighborhood, but his opera- 
tions are so slow that I suspect he is wait- 
ing for something, perhaps the fleet of the 
Count d'Grass this would give us some 
spirits and afford a favourable prospect of 
breaking up that important Post. 
I am sir with much respect 

Your obedient and very 
humble servant 
Jos. Reed Presid! 
Brigadier General Irvine 


In Council Philadelphia August 29th, 17S1 

I received your favour of the ninth In- 
stant per M' Blaine, who returned before 
I had time to prepare an answer. The 
movements of the British army, having 




relieved us from apprehensions for the pri- 
soners we have in concert with General 
S Clair, been endeavouring to arrange and 
equip the Troops now in the State, which 
we compute at five hundred. Captain 
Zeigler has accordingly received very suf- 
ficient supplies for that number, consisting 
of shirts, shoes, overalls, hats and hunting 
shirts ; blue cloth not being procurable at 
any rate or price. I have also the satisfac- 
tion to inform you that Captain Mason 
from Amsterdam acquaints us, that M r 
Searle has succeeded in that part of his 
mission which relates to military stores, 
that he was shipping them early in the 
summer, on board a ship of most reputable 
force so that they may be hourly expected. 
Captain Mason having been taken and his 
papers destroyed, we have no particulars 
but are much flattered by the prospects he 
gives us. As soon as I received your let- 
ter due inquiry was made with respect to 
the supply of the post at York, and it ap- 
pears that Colonel Blaine and his brother 
had taken that contract ; that the Brother 
had expected Instructions and Money from 
Philad.' which not receiving, he came down 
here, but his brother and Mr Morris were 
all at Camp. However I endeavoured to 
hurry him back as fast as possible and 
hope that by this time the matter is in a 
more favourable train. 

You have judged very properly with 
respect to the nature of M r Morris's en- 
gagements on account of the State. But 
should any like embarrassment arise, or 
any deficiency of provisions be apprehend- 
ed, it will undoubtedly be proper to ad- 
dress him, either in the first instance or 
thro' the medium of the Board of War. 

There seems at present a prospect of a 
considerable part of our Army going to 
the Southward, General Washington has 
ordered all the Recruits thither ; which is 
a pleasing circumstance as the division of 
the Line is very inconvenient on many ac- 

I am sir with much esteem, 
Your obedient and very 

humble servant 
Jos. Reed 

To Brigadier General Ikvine. 

Philadelphia September 21st, 1781 


In the present situation of affairs I should 
be happy in being assisted with your good 
Judgment and advice, in forming such ar- 
rangements as may be most effectual, for 
drawing forth the strength and resources 
of the State in the most effectual manner, 
and concerting a previous general Plan for 
this purpose, and defending this City 

I shall therefore, beg the favour of your 
Company in Market street at one.. oClock 
to meet a few other Gentlemen proper to 
be consulted on such an occasion. 
I am Sir with much esteem 
Your most obedient and 

very humble servant 

Jos. Rked 
To General Irvine 


According to Surtees' History of the 
County Durham, the chief ancestor of the 
Washington family in England resided 
at Washington, a ville in the Bishopric 
of Durham. Bolden Buke, written 1180 
(27 H. II.) informs us that Willielmus de 
Hertburn held the Manor of Wassyngton 
or Wessington of the L. Bishop of Durham 
in capite, in exchange for the vill of Hert- 
burn, rendering four pounds and doing 
service, therefore, in the great chace of the 
lord bishop, with two greyhounds, and also 
paying one mark to the palatine aid, when 
such tax should be raised. Towards the 
middle of the thirteenth century the resi- 
dent family, as was customary, had as- 
sumed the name of the manor, which was 
situated a few miles from the mouth of the 
river Wear, near Hilton Castle ; and we 
read of one William de Wessynton living 
in this vicinity as early as 1274 (3 Ed. I.). 
About the year 1328 (2 Ed. III.) Wanter de 
Wessyngton, on giving his daughter Isabel 
in marriage to Marmaduke Basset, granted 
unto the latter the Manor of Ossinton in 
Co. Durham. 

Sir William de Wessyngton, Knight, 
was in active service during the Scotch 




wars of King Edward III., and took pri- 
soner with his own hands in battle a Mon- 
sieur Robert de Colvill of the Manor of 
Oxenham. An order, issued Dec. 8, 1346 
(20 Ed. III.) desires Wm, de Weshynton to 
bring his Scotch prisoner, Alexander de 
Haliburton, to the Tower, and Thomas 
Grey received similar orders respecting 
his prisoners David Graham and John de 
Haliburton. The Scotch hostages being- 
released by an order of Aug. 16, 1357, 
Monsieur de Wessyngton appears at the 
time to have been the custodian of Patrick, 
son and heir of Lord David of Graham. 
An inquisition post-mortem, held in the 
twenty-second year of the pontificate of 
Bishop Hatfield, informs us that the good 
Knight, Sir William Wessington, died in 
the year 1366, leaving a widow Katherine 
and an heir bearing his own name, and 
that at his death he held the manor and 
ville of Wessington by the same service 
as has been above mentioned. 

Cotemporary with Sir William was 
Thomas de Wessyngton, who married 
Isabella, youngest daughter of Jacobus de 
Use worth. Isabella's brother Richard died 
sine prole in 1362, and her sister Dionisia, 
wife of Cuthbert de Kendale, died soon 
after, whereupon she and her sister Alice, 
as coheiresses, came into possession of the 
manor of Little Us worth. Thomas de 
Wessyngton died in 1378 (1 R. II.) aged 
37, being seized of a fourth part of the 
vill of Great Usworth, parish of Wash- 
ington, Co. Durham, and a moiety of the 
manor of Little Usworth ; his daughter 
Christina married William de Chestre, 
w r ho at his death was found to be seized of 
one-half the last named manor de jure 
uxoris. Usworth was in the immediate 
vicinity of the manor of Wassyngton. 

Edmundus de Wassyngton, with others 
of the comitia of John, Duke of Lancaster 
and King of Castile, received royal letters 
of protection from Richard II., dated 
March 4, 1378, which were to remain in 
force till the next feast of St. Michael 
(Sept. 29). By inquis p. m. John de 
Washington held Milborn manor, in county 
Westmoreland on the borders of Cumber- 
land, in 1397 (21 R. II.), Walter de Wis- 

singdon, living in 1409 near New Castle, 
had free warren on the lands of the Bis!, op 
of Durham. In the retinue of the Duke 
j of Gloucester, at the battle of Agineouit, 
in 1415, was John Wissington, and a 
follower of Sir John West at the same 
time was named John Wassyngton ; while 
the Prior of Durham, elected 5th Nov., 
1416, was another John de Wessyngton, a 
person of much learning, who, dying in 
1446, was buried in the Cathedral. 

In Bishop Langley's time, 1406-37, the 
Washington Estate had passed to tLeBlay- 
kestons, of Blakiston, Coxhowe, etc., — an 
old Durham family whose arms were " ar- 
gent, two bars gules, and in chief three cocks 
of the second." Yet we elsewhere learn 
that before 1 400 the direct male line expired 
in a Sir William de Washington, Knt., of 
Washington, whose only daughter Dionisia 
(or Eleanor) married Sir Wm Tempest, 
Knt., of Studley-Royal, E. R. of York, who 
was M. P. for that county in 1401 (2 H. IV.). 
The Lady Tempest died Jan. 2, 1451, and 
her granddaughter, Dionisia Temple, mar- 
ried Sir Wm.^Mallory, of Mobberley, Co. 
Chester, from which family the Washington 
estate passed to the Aislabies. 

But notwithstanding the extinction of 
the eldest male line, younger branches of 
the Washingtons are supposed to have 
been still in existence, and from an early 
period the family were much scattered. 
We have already seen one of the name 
located in the north of Westmoreland 
towards the close of the fourteenth century, 
but some of the family were resident in 
the southern part of this country almost 
one hundred and fifty years previous, 
being thus cotemporary with the earliest 
of the Durham stock. James Lawrence 
(son of Sir Robert Lawrence, of Trafford, 
Co. Lane.) living 1252 (37 H. III.), married 
Matilda the sole daughter and heiress of 
John Washington, and by his marriage 
acquired the Manors of Washington and 
Sedgwick (or Seggeswick). His son and 
successor John Lawrence levied a fine of 
Washington and Sedgwick in 1283, and 
was father of a second John, who pre- 
sented to the church of Washington in 
1326, and died about 1360, leaving as 




his son and heir Sir Robert Lawrence. 
Seggeswick, on the river Can, in Co. 
"Westmoreland, was about six or seven 
miles north of Warton, Lancashire, which 
in turn was situated near the influx of the 
Decker into the Kent Sands. At Warton, 
during the latter half of the fifteenth 
century, was living Robert Washington, 
Gent (the son of John W.), and the 
family arms, " argent, two bars gules and 
in chief three mullets of the second — " 
are to be found on the north side of the 
door of the parish church. Robert Wash- 
ington had children by each of his three 
marriages ; his first wife being a Westfield ; 
the second a daughter of Miles Whitting- 
ton, of Barwick (or Borwick juxta Warton 
manor), Co. Lane, and the third Agnes, 
daughter of Bateman, of Hersham 

(or Heversham), near Carton el-Fells, Co. 
Westmoreland. From this family, as is 
alleged, was descended George Washing- 
ton, President of the United States, while 
the last of the name remaining in the 
original locality was the Rev. Thomas 
Washington, Vicar of Warton, who died 
about the year 1823. 

Again running backward in the course 
of time, we find Richard de Washington 
appointed March 2, 1273, to the Chantry 
or Chapel in the parish of Watton-at- 
Stone, Co. Herts, where he died about 
1322. In the same county, George Wash- 
ington, cap., was appointed Rector of 
Stapleford, May 4, 1504, and resigned in 
1506 ; Thomas Washington, Clk., was ap- 
pointed Oct. 24, 1556, as Rector of Widial, 
and died in 1559; while Adam Wash- 
ington, Et-q., a barrister of Lincoln's Inn, 
and of Beaches (parish of Brent-Pelham), 
on the borders of Essex, married Elizabeth 
Fiyer in 1639, and bore the same arms as 
the Washingtons of Lancashire, as before 

Robert de Washington, living 1349 
(23 Ed. III.), married Margaret, daughter 
and heiress of Andrew Hawkyn, who 
owned lands at Preston, in Holderness, E. 
R. of York. This Robert may have been 
an ancestor of Richard Washington, who 
under the reign of Edward VI. held the 
Ma;. or of Armethorpe and lands at Hampall 

(both near Dancaster), Co. York, together 
with the rectory of Sharpe and lands 
called Threplondes in Co. Westmoreland, 
while his son James, who died in 1580, 
aged 44, held in addition the Manor of 
Adwickle-street, Co. York. A pedigree 
of this family, from the Heraldic Visita- 
tion of 1666, exists among the Harl. MSS. 
of the British Museum, and it has been 
still further extended since that period; 
from Richard Washington and his wife 
Jane Lunde* was descended, in the eighth 
generation, Godfrey Washington of Don- 
caster, coroner of the W. R. of Yorkshire, 
who died in 1770 aged 60, and it is pro- 
bable the latter gentleman was a cousin, in 
the third or fourth degree, of Baron James 
Washington who in 1844, at the age of 66, 
was the Royal Chamberlain of Bavaria. 
The arms of this family are given the same 
as those of the Lancashire stock, with a 
crescent for diiference, though it is said 
they earlier bore arms "billetee, on a 
bend three swans," coloring not defined. 

Besides the place called Washington, or 
Wassinton, in Co. Durham, we have Wes- 
sington, Co. Northumb., north-east of 
Heddon-on-the-Wall ; Washington west of 
Alfreton in Derbyshire, called on Cam- 
den's maps of 1610 " Wessinton ;" and 
lastly in Co. Sussex the parish of Wash- 
ington. The latter place was known in 
the tenth century as Wasingatune, and 
herein, in 963, King Edgar granted certain 
lands to the chief Athelwold ; under the 
Norman Conqueror it was held by William 
de Braose, and subsequently passed into 
the possession of the Dukes of Norfolk. 

I. J. G. 


Fkom the time that Mexico, under the 
name of New Spain, became subject to 
Spanish rule, until the period of her Inde- 

* Lunde Washington was at one time manager of 
Mt. Vernon estate for his kinsman Gen. Geo. Wash- 




pendence, in the year 1821, the Province 
was governed by a series of officials with 
the title of Viceroy. With some noble 
exceptions, these rulers were men remark- 
able principally for their indolence, ineffi- 
ciency, and rapacity. We do not propose 
to linger upon those who, with a little 
brief power in their hands, turned it only 
to selfish purposes, leaving the people they 
professed to protect in a degraded and 
miserable condition ; but to point for a 
moment to some of those whose glory, like 
the glory of the stars, will never wane, 
because they identified themselves and 
their efforts with the great cause of huma- 
nity and human elevation. 

As a luminary of the first magnitude 
stands the name of Don Juan Vicente 
Giiemes Pacheco Horcasitas y Aguayo, 
Conde de Revilla-Gigedo. That his cha- 
racter, genius, and peculiar difficulties may 
be better comprehended, and his labors 
better appreciated, a glance at his imme- 
diate predecessors, and the state of the 
country he governed, will be necessary. 

Between the years 1*783 and 1789 no 
fewer than five Viceroys had received the 
staff of office. The first, Don Matias de 
Galvez, was a brother of the celebrated 
minister and visitador, Don Jose de Gal- 
vez, but he was destitute of the ambition, 
brilliant endowments, and capacities which 
marked the career of his distinguished 
relative. From the office of Captain- 
General of Guatemala, through the influ- 
ence of Don Jose, he was promoted to the 
Viceroyship of New Spain in the year 
1783, towards the close of the reign of 
Carlos III., and though old and infirm, he 
labored earnestly to acquit himself well in 
whatever pertained to the exalted post he 

The colony at this period was in a state 
of almost sluggish tranquillity. Little 
seemed to be required, and correspond- 
ingly little was accomplished. The author- 
ity of the Viceroys was established and 
respected, the period of turbulence among 

which the gradual advancement of the 
population might require. But the admi- 
nistration of Don Matias was not entirely 
without historic results ; he began the 
work of paving the streets of the capital, 
and fostered the Academy of Fine Arts 
founded by his predecessor. Some of the 
best models in marble which adorn the 
collection of San Fernando at the present 
day were placed there in his time. The 
sentence of suppression was removed from 
the Gaceta, and it reappeared ; the nation- 
al Bank of San Carlos was established, a 
bubble Avhich subsequently burst and 
involved many in ruin. 

The administration of Don Matias conti- 
nued but little more than a year ; over- 
powered with infirmities, he resigned his 
authority into the hands of the Royal 
Council, and died on the 3d of November 
in the year 1784. 

His successor Don Bernardo de Galvez, 
son of Don Matias, was one of the most 
distinguished Governors of the colony. 
From the Captain-Generalship of Havana, 
through the influence of his uncle, the 
Marquis of Sonora, he was elevated to the 
office made vacant by the death of his 
father. Young, zealous, ambitious, and 
popular, he undertook various works of 
public utility. He made or laid out several 
causeways from the city of Mexico, paved 
many streets, began the system of street- 
lighting, and, with a view to beautify his 
capital, embellished the vice-regal residence 
and commenced the towers of the cathe- 

But the most conspicuous measure of 
his rule was the rebuilding of the palace of 
Chapultepec and the construction of a 
fortress within it. The popularity of this 
undertaking and the ostentation in which 
the young Viceroy lived, combined with 
an act of royal clemency which he had 
the presumption to perform, in pardoning 
some criminals whom he had designedly 
met on their way to the scaffold, attracted 
the attention of the suspicious court. How- 

the royal officials had passed, the spirit of ever this may be, without any known cause, 
independence which was wont to animate; this young man, gay, vigorous, and full 
the Aztec bosom slumbered, and the Vice- of flattering expectations, yielded to the 
roys had only to project improvements , undermining power of a hidden malady, 




and descended swiftly to the grave, after 
having held his authority one year and five 
months. His exequies were solemnly per- 
formed in the Cathedral, and in the dark- 
ness of the night, amidst the lamentations 
of the people, military display and funeral 
music, giving to the pageant an august- 
ness almost royal, his remains were depo- 
sited in the church of San Fernando. 

The powers of government fell, as usual 
on the decease of the Viceroy, into the 
hands of the Heal Audiencia. Shortly, 
however, news came that His Majesty of 
Spain had named Archbishop de Haro for 
the vacancy. He was a man of great learn- 
ing and benevolence ; his short government, 
however, was unmarked by any notable 
historic event. In a few months he resign- 
ed his authority to Senor Don Manuel 
Antonio Flores, Lieutenant-General of the 
Royal Armada, and Viceroy of Santa Fe 
de Bogota. Old, in enfeebled health, and 
with few endowments for command, almost 
nothing can be said of his administration 
further than that he organized three mili- 
tary battalions, commenced the Botanical 
Garden, and paid some attention to the 
mining interests of the country. The 
death of Carlo III., and his celebrated 
minister, Don Jose de Galvez, occurred 
during his government. Unfitted for the 
exalted position he had attained, both by 
his tastes and qualifications, in a little more 
than a year Flores sent his resignation to 
his royal master, and the thanks he gave 
the king for his acceptance of the resigna- 
tion demonstrated that he sincerely re- 
nounced the office, and earnestly desired 
to retire to the more quiet enjoyments of 
domestic life. In October, 1789, a ship 
arrived at Vera Cruz, bringing his succes- 
sor, the second Count Revilla-Gigedo. At 
Guadalupe, Flores, according to the royal 
order, delivered to him the staff of office, 
and soon set sail for Spain in the same ves- 
sel that had brought the new Viceroy. 

With the departure of Senor Flores for 
his native land, all obstacles are removed 
to the introduction of the main subject 
of our sketch — Don Juan Vicente Giiemes 
Pacheco Horcasitas y Aguayo, Conde de 
Revilla-Gigedo, 52d Viceroy of New Spain. 

This remarkable man came from an 
illustrious ancestry. His father was Vice- 
roy of Mexico as early as 1749. In his 
childhood, his parents designated him for 
the quiet and comparative obscurity of 
cloistral life ; but the activity and enthusi- 
asm of his inclinations defeated this inten- 
tion, and he embraced the more congenial 
profession of arms. He held a command 
at the siege which the Spaniards so obsti- 
nately maintained at Gibraltar in 1782, and 
acquitted himself with distinction in that 
desperate conflict. At the decease of his 
father he inherited his title, and was deser- 
vedly honored by his royal master with 
many dignities in Spain, and on the resig- 
nation of Flores, as we have seen, he w r as 
appointed Viceroy of Mexico. 

His predecessors had made no conside- 
rable improvements in the general adminis- 
tration of the colony, ashasbeen intimated, 
until a certain temporary vigor was infused 
into affairs by the arrival of the royal 
Commissioner {Visitador), Don Jose de 
Galvez, who came clothed with authority 
to adjust whatever might require adjust- 
ment. Active, ambitious, inventive, and 
restless, he directed his efforts to a class of 
creations, excisions, and reforms which 
should tend to exalt his own efficiency in 
the eyes of the Crown, and prove the inca- 
pacity and uselessness of the Viceroys. 
Don Manuel Flores had not the executive 
qualities necessary to sustain and perfect 
the improvements initiated by Don Jose. 
He might be a man of judgment, but he 
was not informed upon the affairs of the 
colony, was slow to comprehend the im- 
port of his office, and averse to burden 
himself with the thousand details with 
which it was necessary to have minute 
acquaintance. But whatever Don Jose 
might have done for the colony, it is certain 
that Revilla-Gigedo encountered defects, 
abuses, and disorders almost without num- 
ber, which the broad comprehensiveness of 
his understanding seized, and the energy 
of his character corrected. 

He assumed the government in October, 
1789, and the first event which displayed 
his vigilance and integrity was the consign- 
ing to summary justice the perpetrators of 




certain notorious assassinations, which by 
their atrocity had thrown the kingdom 
into consternation. A short experience 
convinced the new Viceroy that labor, in 
every sense, could alone give order and 
form to the mass of disorder which had 
been mis-called government. A glance at 
the situation of the Province in 1789 will 
convey the best idea of the merit of this 
celebrated magistrate, whom neither limited 
time, social considerations, nor the constant 
and daring struggle with antiquated and 
deep-rooted prejudices, deterred from his 
career of progress. 

The streets of the capital were without 
drains, sidewalks, or pavements. They 
were the depositories, moreover, of all the 
impurities from the houses ; and, in pro- 
cess of time, these filthy accumulations 
exhaled vapors extremely deleterious to 
the health of the population. The market 
stood opposite the palace, and was con- 
structed with an open space in the centre, 
surrounded by wooden sheds in which 
provisions were exposed for sale, and the 
refuse thrown on one side, awaiting the good 
offices of swine, which fed at large in the 
city. The sheds afforded asylum at night 
for a promiscuous company of men and 
women, vagrants and drunkards. The 
baths were open to all who paid the required 
fee ; and no reference was had to the pro- 
prieties arising from the distinctions of sex. 
Alter nine o'clock it was dangerous to go 
out, since the streets were lighted only by 
an occasional lamp, hung by the owners at 
the doors of shops and houses, in obedience 
to a municipal regulation. This requisition 
even was either neglected altogether, cr 
the light withdrawn at an early hour. The 
lower classes went almost naked, their only 
clothing consisting of a sheet-like garment 
(which also performed the office of coun- 
terpane), and a palm hat. It was as cus- 
tomary to sell the clothing of the dead in 
public shops as it was to bury them in the 
churches of small towns. These practices, 
superadded to the foul condition of the 
streets, produced many epidemics. 

In the erection of edifices no regard 
was observed to harmony or regularity. 
The city was destitute of public prome-| 

nades, except the single one planted by 
the Viceroy Bucareli. The fountains were 
large basins of mason-work, foul with se- 
diment, the dust of the street, the contact 
with the hands of water-carriers ; nor was 
the addition uncommon of that with which 
both hands and feet had been laved. 

Another fertile source of public disorder 
and demoralization existed in the abundance 
of drinking establishments called pulque- 
rias, where was sold the intoxicating be- 
verage pidque, made from the juice of a 
species of aloes. Nearly all the squares 
contained a pulqueria — an enormous hut 
or wigwam — and in the centre stood huge 
jars of the fermented liquid. Around these 
tempting vessels gathered half naked 
leper os, beggars, prostitutes, and all the 
worst elements of the population ; and 
here, amidst gambling, licentiousness, and 
drunken merriment, germinated plots for 
thefts, assassinations, and their attendant 

In fine, the condition of affairs, moral 
and physical, was quite bad enough to 
chill the courage of the most undaunted. 
Who but a man of unconquerable energy 
would have had the heroism to attack such 
a mass of disorder w r ith any hope of its 
correction ? 

Great as were these evils, still greater 
existed in the judicial organization of the 
kingdom. There were tribunals and sys- 
tems without end, nominally for the admi- 
nistration of justice, but they were really 
only so many systems of oppression. The 
Acordata alone exercised its tyrannical 
iurisdiction by means of twenty-five hun- 
dred subordinates, and imposed, without 
appeal, restraint, or molestation, the most 
opprobrious punishments — even death itself. 

Neither was this multitude of judicial 
branches regulated by codes of laws or any 
other fixed rules; each had its peculiar 
formularies, and no organization existed 
which afforded guarantees to litigants or 
determined the attributes of the Judges. 
Revilla-Gigedo himself stood aghast before 
systems so monstrous and so complicated. 

The provision for education, also, was to 
the last degree worthless. No school for 
primary gratuitous instruction had been 




established in the capital or any part of the 
kingdom. Before the expulsion of the 
Jesuits, in 1*767, the care of the youth had 
devolved upon them. Subsequently, the 
few schools that remained fell into the 
hands of ignorant and cruel teachers, who 
nourished the hearts of the children with 
absurd fictions, and brutalized them by 
ridiculous and inefficient discipline. 

The roads of the kingdom were in such 
condition that the only available method 
of travel and transportation was on mule- 
back. The corporations of towns wasted 
their funds in sky-rockets, festivities, and 
all sorts of useless expenditures. Officers 
and office-holders were in unison with all 
this disorder. There were neither data 
nor ideas how to form statistics ; books, 
entries, and judicial writings conformed 
only to the caprices of the chiefs. The 
tribunal of accounts, a place of pride and 
highly aristocratic, having its three minis- 
ters in large wigs and its army of account- 
ants, was the most delinquent and worthless 
of any. It assumed great superiority, and 
the idlers at its head sometimes believed 
themselves above even the Viceroy him- 

The military organization was equally 
useless and incomplete. In the city and 
provincial militia, there was neither instruc- 
tion nor discipline. The coasts and frontiers 
were without custody ; and the few small 
veteran bodies that existed were unworthy 
of confidence, since military rank was con- 
sidered salable and transferable — a kind of 
speculation of which several of the Viceroys 
had availed themselves. 

This is but an outline of the state of 
things in New Spain when Revilla-Gigedo 
entered upon his duties as chief officer of 
the Province. To ordinary minds, the 
remedy for these complicated evils would 
require years of study or perplexed experi- 
ment. The acute comprehension of the 
Count de Revilla-Gigedo soon unmasked 
the origin of the difficulties, namely : the 
indolence and avarice of most of the gov- 
ernors, whose only aim seemed to be the 
accumulation of a fortune to carry back to 
Spain when the period of their control 

With a firm and confident hand the 
Count applied methods of reform to the 
shapeless mass, and truly entitled himself 
to a higher tribute of gratitude than the 
nation for which he labored has awarded 
him. Declining all the festivities usually 
proffered to a Viceroy, he directed his 
attention to the condition of the fortresses 
and other provisions for defence ; to the 
purification of the palace ; to the removal 
of those unsightly old sheds that had served 
for markets, and the construction of others 
more decent and commodious ; to sanitary 
regulations respecting the streets ; to mea- 
sures by which the hall-naked laboring class 
should be induced to clothe themselves; to 
the establishment of ordinances concerning 
the public baths ; the erection of edifices 
with some view to order ; the paving and 
lighting of streets ; provision for a night- 
watch and police system ; the extinguish- 
ment of fires ; the suppression of the 
disorders of the pulquer'ias / the construc- 
tions of aqueducts and fountains, by which 
the health of the population was materially 
promoted. He further provided for the 
same object, by prohibiting the sale of the 
clothing of the dead, and stopping bu- 
rials in churches. The cemeteries of Vera 
Cruz and Puebla resulted from this pro- 
hibition. He repaired public highways 
and causeways, and established a Botanical 
Garden at Chapultepec, which had been 
projected by one of his predecessors. He 
caused primary schools to be opened in most 
of the important towns ; furnished the 
Academy with professors in Architecture, 
Sculpture, Painting, &q. ; wrought a general 
reform in the ordinances by which crafts 
and trades were regulated; and, as by a 
species of magic, gave life and animation 
to useful establishments, which neither time 
nor revolution has destroyed. 

Neither did the Viceroy restrict his 
reforms to things merely material ; he 
devised expedients to remove abuses in 
the moral administration, and cure some of 
its palpable evils, — though many of those 
expedients, of the highest importance, were 
so hampered, benumbed, and opposed in 
the Court of Spain that they were not 
carried into effect. For all in which he 




did succeed, he had to struggle with the 
sluggishness of magistrates, inveterate pre- 
judices, and all the train of obstacles they 
bring, and to plunge, sword in hand, upon 
the hoary vices he would extirpate; but 
his projects were so evidently good, and 
conformable to justice, that the Court 
could not withhold its sanction. 

Mining, agriculture, and manufactures 
also received special attention from Revilla- 
Gigedo, and strong impulses were imparted 
to them through his wisdom and energy. 
With respect also to whatever facilitated 
communication, the purposes of the Viceroy 
were magnificent ; but limited power, lim- 
ited time, and limited means, together with 
the obstructions interposed by paltry private 
interests or favoritism, defeated many of 
his grandest schemes. 

In order to accomplish, in the short 
space of five years, the reforms we have 
mentioned, and many others to which time 
does not allow us to refer, the most inde- 
fatigable industry was necessary. Revilla- 
Gigedo only allotted to himself three or 
four hours for sleep, retiring regularly at 
nine in the evening and rising at one, to 
pursue his labors, or to sally out that he 
might personally observe the manner in 
which the municipal laws were heeded. 

He was neat and elegant in his person, 
and a strict observer of etiquette. He ate 
only twice in the day ; and, while he support- 
ed all the proprieties of a state table, never 
tasted anything from his own table, but 
received his food prepared and seasoned 
from the convent of the Capucins. It was 
sent to him in a small trunk, locked, which 
had two keys — one kept by himself, the 
other by the Abbess. 

Many curious anecdotes are related of 
this remai-kable man. One or two may 
serve to illustrate more fully the striking 
features of his character. 

On a certain occasion he went to the 
Tribunal of Accounts, an office for which he 
had an aversion by reason of the pride and 
indolence of its chiefs. It was ten o'clock, 
and not a soul was present. The Viceroy 
undertook to arrange a packet of papers, 
which were in the greatest confusion. 
When the employes entered, they were 


almost petrified with astonishment. Revilla- 
Gigedo then took his hat, and, with a sar- 
donic smile, said to them: — "Gentlemen, 
from eight to eleven I shall come to regulate 
this archive ; meanwhile, there is no neces- 
sity that you should fatigue yourselves. 
You can sleep and breakfast, confident 
that the service of the king suffers no loss." 
The following is related by Don Carlos 
Bustamente in his " Continuacion " of 
Padre Cavo : 

A certain widow stated to the Viceroy 
that her husband on his death-bed had 
been arrested for debt, and that she had 
taken care to place in safety a small cof- 
fer of jewels which were her dowry. 
These jewels she had intrusted to a gen- 
tleman, without exacting any receipt or 
equivalent. Urged by the necessities of 
her widowhood, she had petitioned for her 
treasures, and he had not only denied that 
he had received them, but had treated her 
as if she were mad. The fertile mind of the 
Viceroy soon suggested a method of re- 
dress. The following night he concealed 
her in a place from which she was to sally 
at a preconcerted signal. The recipient of 
the jewels was summoned, and in a friendly 
manner w r as solicited to return them ; but, 
as before, he denied all knowledge of the 
matter. The demand was politely renewed, 
with promises that his honor should be 
protected ; still he persisted in the denial. 
In the course of conversation, the Viceroy 
inquired if he took snuff. 

" Yes, Senor," he replied, offering his 
box. " Take what your Excellency pleases. ,, 
Affecting distraction and urgency to dis- 
patch some important business, the Vice- 
roy left him, and calling a confidential 
assistant, sent him with the snuff-box to the 
wife of the depositorio, with directions to 
ask for the coffer of jewels which had cer- 
tain marks such as had been described by 
the lady. In a short time the messenger 
returned with the little trunk. The widow 
was then called from her place of conceal- 
ment, and asked if that was the box she 

" It is the same, Senor," she answered, 
" which I intrusted on deposit to this gen- 




The Viceroy gave him a glance of indig- 

'* How have yon dared to deceive me, a 
genleman and a Viceroy, when I removed 
all difficulties out of the way in order to 
cover your honor, and to satisfy this unfor- 
tunate woman ? Henceforth you shall 
understand I am not to be trifled with. I 
have ordered a coach to convey you to the 

In May, 1794, Revilla-Gigedo resigned 
his office* into the hands of Branciforte, 

* One of the remarkable events which occurred 
during the government of Revilla-Gigedo, was the 
appearance of an Aurora Borealis of unusual splen- 
dor in the year 1789. A manuscript letter, written 
by his Secretary and signed by tlie Viceroy, giving 
an account of this phenomenon and the consternation 
it produced, has been preserved. We subjoin a 
translation from the original document : — 
Most Excellent Senor: 

At 8 o'clock on the night of the 14th of November, 
an Aurora Borealis appeared in this city. The Indians 
of the country, who are greatly without instruction 
and are very faint-hearted, began to be terrified and 
to make- such a tumult that the streets became 
thronged with people, who shrieked and wailed, 
believing that fit e was about to fall from heaven — 
that the city was about to be overwhelmed — or other 
- similar absurdity which this or that fanatic invented 
and propagated, the excited people immediately 
believing it. The Ecclesiastics, who ought to have 
tranquillized the ignorant, undeceived thein and drawn 
them away from their error, assisted in confirming 
them in it. They began to ring bells for the Suppli- 
catory ; they opened the churches, and even the 
Brotherhood of St. Augustin came forth carrying in 
procession St. Nicholas. Other priests began to preach, 
and all the town wandered about crazy, shrieking, 
praying, and performing acts of contrition in the streets. 
The number of persons who went out to Guadalupe 
to commend themselves to the Virgin was very con- 
siderable; and though the phenomenon disappeared 
before ten o'clock, even as late as two in the morning 
many people were still roaming about with burning 
brands, and praying in the public ways. 

Seeing that the inhabitants left their houses 
unprotected, I determined that patrols should go the 
rounds to guard the property fear had caused the 
owners to forsake. I likewise sent a request to the 
Archbishop, that he would command the calling of 
Supplications to cease, that the churches might be 
closed ; on his own part taking the necessary steps to 
quiet the tumult and disorder, since, as it could at 
once be perceived, the cause deserved not the least 
dread or solicitude. I caused, moreover, that several 
officers should go through the streets in a manner the 
most favorable to undeceive the people of their error 
and induce them to return to their houses. 

who had been appointed his successor, and 
soon after embarked for Spain, where he 
became director of artillery, a military 
position of importance and responsibility. 
Five years later, May 2d, 1*799, he died at 
Madrid, universally lamented, as he was in 
Mexico also, where the memory of his 
good deeds is never to be obliterated. 

The celebrated " Instruccion," which he 
wrote for the benefit of Branciforte, is a 
memorial of the most important events that 
happened during his government. It is a 
national treasure which has been most 
jealously cared for, and remained unpub- 
lished until 1831. The attentive reader 
can glean from it the principles which 
guided the policy of the Cabinet at Madrid, 
in order to maintain the strong hand Spain 
had extended over Mexico ; the source, 
amount, investment, etc., of the large sums 
with which this Province had enriched the 
Royal Treasury ; it brings into near inspec- 
tion the judicial system ; acquaints us with 
the character of the population, the military 
organization, the condition of agriculture 
and the mining interests, home and foreign 
commerce, the state of arts and industry, 
and the policy of the Viceroy ship, both 
general as regards the colony at large, and. 
particular as regards the capital. It also 
records curious and acute observations, 
indicates reforms and projects, and em- 
bodies reflections which disclose the upright 
and magnanimous principles of the writer 
— bis deep desire for the prosperity of the 
nation he ruled, and furnishes to legislators 
suggestions well worthy their consideration. 

It is to be regretted that so far as Branci- 
forte is concerned, it was practically an effort 
expended in vain. He neither thought nor 
worked like his illustrious predecessor, 
though he contributed to give the last touch 
to the reputation of Revilla-Gigedo, by 
influencing the Council to accuse him. 
Envy seems to be indispensable in order to 

I give Your Excellency this account lest, perhaps, 
notice through another source might arrive, of such 
character as to cause anxiet}\ 
Exmo. Senor, 

El Conde de Revilla-Gigedo. 

Mexico, 30th Nov., 1789. 

Exmo. Sekor Don Antonio Porlier. 




lift the splendor of great men, as the 
clouds of heaven are necessary, which, dis- 
persed, cause the sun to shine with more 
clearness and brilliancy. 


Old Portrait of Franklin. — Dr. Ed- 
ward Vanderpool, 206 Fourth street, in 
this city, has in his possession a por- 
trait of Dr. Franklin, painted at Tren- 
ton, N\J., a year or two before his death, 
by an English artist named. Stibbs, which, 
with a very close likeness both in face 
and attitude to the well known Cochin 
Portrait, represents him with the marks 
of much more advanced age than any 
of the engraved likenesses. It is in oil 
on canvas, stretched on board 5£ by 4£ 
inches in size, with powdered wig and a 
red coat, one hand over the other resting 
on a cane. The expression is smiling, but 
evidently senile. It is, however, a most 
interesting relic, and its authenticity un- 
doubted, the picture having been given 
by the artist's daughter to Dr. Vander- 
pool. • G. G. 

one of our current witticisms is not as 
new as may be generally supposed. 

"Instead of that alacrity with which 
every man in the United States was to 
turn out, as a volunteer, to light Great 
Britain, as triumphantly foretold by the 
administration prints, we hear of nothing 
but lamentations and dissatisfaction from 
every militia man who has been so fortu- 
nate as to draw a prize, as it is called, by 
which he becomes liable to be called on 
any moment to join the detachment of 
thirteen thousand men that make up the 
quota of this State." — New York Even- 
ing Post, May 12th, 1812. 

I have a strong impression that " copper- 
heads" is used, with its present political 
meaning, by the journal quoted above or 
some of its contemporaries. But, w T hether 
this is so or not, it is quite evident from 
the above extract that if the word did 
not exist at that time, it was, at least, 
sadly needed. S. W. P. 

Intellectual Capacity of Negroes in 
Boston. — Phillis Wheatley's was not the 
only instance in Boston, of the negro's capa- 
city for intellectual improvement. A worthy 
Englishman, Richard Dalton, Esq., a great 
admirer of the Greek classips, because of 
the tenderness of his eyes, taught his negro 
boy, Caesar, to read to him distinctly any 
Greek writer, without understanding the 
meaning or interpretation. — Douglass, ii. 

In the Boston Chronicle for September 

Phillips and Davis — A Coincidence. 
—On the 8th of December, 1837, Wendell 
Phillips, speaking in Faneuil Hall, Bos- 
ton, in reply to one who vindicated the 
mob that murdered Elijah P. Lovejoy, at 
Alton, the previous month, used the fol- 
lowing language : — 

"Sir, when I heard the gentleman lay 
down principles which place the murderers 
of Alton side by side with Otis, and Han- 
cock, and Quincy, and i\dams, I thought 
those pictured lips [pointing to the por- 
traits in the hall] would have broken into 
voice to rebuke the recreant American — 
the slanderer of the dead." 

Twenty years later, October 11th, 1858, 
Jefferson Davis spoke in Faneuil Hall, and 
used similar imagery. He said : — 

" If those voices, which breathed the 
first instincts into the Colony of Massachu- 
setts, and into those colonies which formed 

21 769 is advertised:-'' To be sold a the United State s , t0 pnK ., aiin community, 

^kely Little negroe boy, who ea»wo&<Ae. nd de nd a53ei . t it in3t t £ e 

French language, and very fi tor a Valet. p ow [,,. ful mothel . oountry . if tl ? ogo voices 

live here still, how must they feel who 
come here to preach treason to the consti- 

Draw a Prize. — The following extract 
from an old newspaper may interest some!tution, and assail the Union it ordained 
of your readers, as serving to show that ! and established ? It would seem that their 




criminal hearts would fear that those voices, 
so long slumbering, would break their si- 
lence, that those forms which look down 
from theee walls behind and around, would 
come forth, and that their sabres would 
once more be drawn from their scabbards, 
to drive from this sacred temple these fana- 
tical men, who deserve it more than did 
the changers of money and those who sold 
doves in the temple of the living God." 

It is hardly credible that at the very 
time that Davis uttered these scorching 
words against those who lift up their hands 
against the Union and the Constitution, 
his " criminal hearty was meditating the 
treason that it has since perpetrated ; but 
we have evidence that compels us to be- 
lieve such to have been the case. 

X. Y. Z. 

Revolutionary Pensioners. — We have 
noticed with pleasure the unanimous pas- 
sage in the House of Representatives, at 
Washington, of a bill adding one hundred 
dollars per annum to the pensions of the 
little band of Revolutionary veterans who 
still survive, and whose lives, it is to be 
hoped, may be prolonged to witness the full 
triumph of those liberties which their valor 
helped to establish. It appears, by an of- 
ficial return, that the number now living 
of the heroes whose efforts in behalf of 
their country are still gratefully remem- 
bered, is but twelve. Of these the oldest 
has attained the age of 105 years, and the 
youngest is 94. The names and ages, with 
amount of pension allowed under existing 
laws, are stated in a communication from 
the Pension Bureau, as follows : — 

Amaziah Goodwin, born in Somersworth, 
N, H., Feb. 16, 1*759 ; pension $38 33. 
John Goodnow, born in Sudbury, Mass., 

Jan. 30, 1762 ; pension $36 67. 

Adam Link, born in Washington Co., 

Pa., — 1762 ; pension . 

Daniel Waldo, born in Windham, Conn., 

Sept. 10, 1762; pension $96. 

Jonas Gates, born in Barre, Mass., — , 

1763 ; pension $96. 

Benjamin Miller, born in Springfield, 

Mass., April 4, 1764; pension $24 54. 

(Died Sept. 1863. — ed. h.m.) 

James Barham, born in Southampton 
Co., Va., May 18, 1764 ; pension $32 33. 

William Hutchings, born in York, Me., 
— , 1764 ; pension $21 66. 

John Pettingill, born in Windham, 
Conn., Nov. 30, 1766; pension $50. 

Alexander Maroney, enlisted at Lake 
George, 1ST. Y., born — , 1770 ; pension 

Samuel Downing, served in the 2d 1ST.H. 
regiment ; pension $80. 

Lemuel Cook, on the roll at Albany, 
jfif. Y. ; pension $100. 

With regard to the last three, it will be 
observed that full particulars are wanting. 
In the case of Maroney, the files state that 
he was " enlisted" by his father, being a 
minor. To all of the pensions here stated, 
it is now proposed to add $100 per an- 

There were at the date of the latest re- 
port in print seven pensioners on the State 

oil of Massachusetts receiving pensions 
from the treasury of this Commonwealth, 
under resolves of the Legislature indepen- 
dently of the action of Congress. Of these 
Benjamin Smith, of Grafton, who receives 
the largest sum, viz. $150 per annum, is 
described as " a soldier of the Revolution," 
and we believe that some of the others 
received their pensions in respect of Revo- 
lutionary services. 

The names of the others are Martin 
Wheelock, Lyman Webster, Peter Jowder, 
James Pomeroy, John T. Stone, James 
Daniels. If authorized by a vote of the 
Legislature similar to the movement in 
Congress which called forth the interest- 
ing facts above noted, respecting the Unit- 
ed States pensioners, the Secretary of the 
Commonwealth would, perhaps, be able, 
by a search of the files, to furnish com- 
plete information on the subject. — JBoston 

Daniel Taylor, the Spy. — The physi- 
cian who administered to Daniel Taylor (the 
British spy) the emetic on October 9, 1777, 
which brought up the silver ball in which 
was inclosed the short letter from Sir 
Henry Clinton toBurgoyne, was Dr. Moses 
Higby, afterwards of Newburgh, in this 




State. He resided at the time near the old 
Fall's house, at the Square in the town of 
Xew Windsor, where General (afterwards 
Governor) George Clinton had his head- 
quarters temporarily in the fall of 1777,1 
subsequently to the defeat at Fort Mont- 
gomery. He died in Newburgh May 3, | 
1823, at the age of eighty, and had prac- 
tised there and in New Windsor for nearly ; 
sixty years. The letter inclosed in the 
ball was written on the previous day atj 
Fort Montgomery, and was intended to j 
inform Burgoyne (then encamped near 
Saratoga) that ho colonial troops inter- 
vened their respective forces (which they 
intended, if possible, to unite) except the 
command of Gates, and expressed the hope 
that the recent English success at the Fort 
would facilitate his contemplated operations 
both above and below Albany. Immedi- 
ately after the storming of the Fort, Gen. 
George Clinton made his head-quarters at 
Mrs. Fall's house to collect his men, who 
had become scattered on the night of the 
storming, in order that he might march 
them, together with such new recruits as 
he might obtain, to Esopus (now Kingston) 
to prevent the English from landing from 
their vessels at that place, which he had 
been advised by his brother Col. James 
Clinton (serving under him), they would 
do if the vessels could break the chain 
which was across the river near the Fort 
(this obstruction across the river from near 
St. Anthony's Nose to Fort Montgomery 
was, in fact, a chevaux de frize, and was 
arranged by Capt. Machen,* the Engineer 
of Fort Montgomery, with the assistance 
of Capt. Hazel wood, whose similar work 
across the Delaware River had been so 
effectual previously; it was 1860 feet long, 
and separated in a few hours, by reason of 
the tide, after its completion, but was soon 
after relaid in another position under the 

* Capt. Machen came to America about 1766 as 
an officer in the English service, but soon resigned. 
He then opened the outlet to " -Machen's Pond," now 
called Orange Lake, four miles west of Newburgh, and 
erected a small building in which he made copper coin 
for change, and, though it was illegal, yet he was not 
interfered with. The public regarded the coinage as 
a convenience which was not at that early day suffi- 
cieutly supplied by the government. 

suggestion of Mai. Gen. Heath. It cost 
£50,000, and weighed 170 tons. When 
it broke, Congress refused to pay the bill 
for the iron-work upon it, until the quality 
of the iron was investigated. The investi- 
gation proved satisfactory). 

He did not rally his men in time, but 
when he reached Kingston (by way of the 
valley of the Wallkill), he discovered that 
the English vessels had ascended the river, 
landed troops, set fire to the village, and 
had just retired, leaving it still in flames. 
The spy was captured before Clinton start- 
ed from the Square. It is not known by 
what route the spy came from Fort Montgo- 
mery on his intercepted way to Burgoyne, 
and he refused to state it. His person was 
searched and the ball was accidentally found 
in his hair, where it had been ingeniously 
fastened, and probably before he started. 
Its form was oval, about the size of a bullet, 
and consisted of two sections which were 
firmly united by a screw in the centre. It 
was pure silver, for the probable reason that 
if the bearer should be compelled, by any 
exigency, to swallow it for its and his safety, 
the metal might not affect him as lead, 
brass, or copper would. The shell of it 
was about the thickness of a common wafer ; 
and compactly folded in it was the short 
letter to Burgoyne, written on thin silk 
paper. The letter contained but three sen- 
tences, and was forwarded by Gen. Clinton 
to the u Council of Safety," after the court- 
martial of Taylor. When the ball was dis- 
covered, Taylor snatched it from the search- 
ing officer, and under pretence of throwing 
it away, swallowed it. This, however, was 
noticed. Clinton immediately sent for Dr. 
Higby, who, instantly upon his arrival, ad- 
ministered with much difficulty a powerful 
emetic. The ball was thrown up almost im- 
mediately ; and Taylor picking it up, ran a 
short distance, was overtaken, and, upon 
being brought back, the ball could not be 
found, and he refused to state what he had 
done with it. Clinton promptly informed 
him that he believed he had again swallowed 
it, and that if it was not produced at once, 
he should instantly order him to be hung, 
and that he should be cut open to obtain 
it. He then produced it. Taylor was a 




major in the English service. He was 
taken by Clinton to Kingston with the 
troops, and was there tried before a Court- 
Martial (of which Capt. John Woodward, 
the father of Judge Woodward who was 
afterwards one of the Justices of the Su- 
preme Court of this State, was Judge Ad- 
vocate), and was unanimously condemned 
as a spy, and was hung the next day from 
an apple-tree on the outskirts of the vil- 
lage, and buried under it. He wore a 
citizen's dress at the time of his capture, 
was about forty years of age, and was pri- 
vileged by Clinton to write several letters 
to relatives in England, which, after being 
read and found not to communicate any 
military information, were sent to Sir 
Henry Clinton for further disposition. 

His remains were never removed. He 
was an officer of equal rank with Andre 
(each being a major), and both were select- 
ed as spies, and executed as such ; and 
both intrusted with important duties, and 
for the same government, and by the same 
officer (Sir Henry Clinton), yet Andre 
was exhumed by order of the British Go- 
vernment, and his remains deposited with 
military honors in Westminster Abbey, 
while those of Taylor have been neglected 
by his country to the present time. The 
probable impossibility of identifying the 
particular spot of his burial may constitute 
the reason why his bones w T ere not removed 
at the time when Andre's were. The grave' 
of the latter was marked by a stone imme- 
diately after his execution, and a willow 
planted by it, both of which remained 
there at the time of the removal to Eng- 
land. No mark was put upon Taylor's 
grave, and the old apple-tree, no doubt, 
had long since gone, and probably no one 
then living or accessible could identify 
the spot. 

John M. Eager, JYew York. 

Names and Location of Tribes on the 
Androscoggin, by N.T.True. — The tribes 
of New England were settled on the princi- 
pal rivers. On the Connecticut were the 
Mohegans. Those on the sources of the 
Connecticut river were called Micmacs or 
Fresh Water Indians. On the Merrimac 

were the Pennacooks. On the Saco were 
the Sokokis, of w 7 hom the Pequakeys at 
Fryeburg were a branch. On the Andros- 
coggin were the Anasagunticooks, of 
which tribe were the Rokomekos at Canton 
Point, and the Pejescots on the Lower 
Androscoggin. The Norridgewocks lived 
on the Kennebec. The Penobscots, or 
Tarratines, as they were often called, on 
the Penobscot; theWawenocks, on the St. 
George's, Sheepscot, and Pemaquid Rivers ; 
the Passamaquoddies on the St. Croix ; the 
Marechites on the St. John, and the Mic- 
macs in Nova Scotia. 

The Indians on the Androscoggin are 
known under the general name of Anasagun- 
ticooks, though it appears that it was origi- 
nally confined to those residing above Lewis- 
ton Falls. At a late period it seemed to 
extend to the scattered remnants of Indians 
on the river, and at St. Francis in Canada. 

It is a curious fact that the word Ana- 
sagunticook, Amoscoggin, and Amasaconte, 
are all derived from the same roots, and 
have essentially the same meaning. Amasa- 
conte was the name of the tribe at Far- 
mington, and as the carrying place, by 
means of numerous ponds, was very easy, 
it is probable that the intercourse between 
the Indians on the Androscoggin and Sandy 
Rivers was very intimate, and may thus 
have rendered them, in a certain sense, 
nearly identical. 

The Pejepscots occupied the territory 
between Lewiston Falls and the Kennebec 
River. Their headquarters were at Bruns- 
wick, where they had a fort near the falls. 
They also had a location at Little River 
Falls. Their position was a most important 
one. It was at the great carrying place 
between the Eastern and Western tribes. 
It was also the turning off place of the In- 
dians coming down the river to Macquait. 
Their position early brought them into con- 
tact with the whites. An English trader 
occupied their territory below the Falls as 
early as 1624-5, and another at the Little 
River Falls, consequently they were the 
first to be broken up as a tribe. 

They probably depended largely on fish- 
ing for their support, although they, no 
doubt, had corn fields in Durham, Bruns- 




wick, and Topsham. Colonel Church, as 
late as 1690, found a barn of corn to a 
large amount at their fort in Brunswick. 
Still, they did not appear to have any fixed 
habitation at that time below Lewiston Falls, 
unless it might have been on Sabattis river. 

It is doubtful if any tribe in New Eng- 
land had greater facilities for procuring 
food at all seasons of the year than the 
Pejepscots. At certain periods, salmon, 
sturgeon, and other fish swarmed the river 
at the Falls, where they could easily spear 
them. Their hunting grounds were near, 
corn could be raised or brought down the 
river, while in the severest weather, or 
time of scarcity, they could reach Macquait, 
a distance of three miles, where clams were 
abundant. Like the immense water power 
at Brunswick, still unimproved, it would 
seem as though the natives did not them- 
selves appreciate the natural advantages 
around them, though they may have been 
originally a populous tribe. 

The Rokomekos had their headquarters 
at Canton Point, and this may be consider- 
ed the centre of the Indian population on 
the whole river. They were a semi-agri- 
cultural people. The broad intervales, to 
the extent of several hundred acres, were 
cleared and cultivated with corn. From 
what can be gleaned of their condition, it 
is probable that they were among the most 
populous of any tribe in Maine, previous to 
1617, when they suffered from the plague 
which carried off so many Indians through- 
out New England. 

No tribe of Indians was more dreaded 
by the whites than the Rokomekos. They 
would turn off from the river through the 
northern part of what is now Cumberland 
County, and pounce upon the settlers of the 
seaport towns, killing and taking captive 
the inhabitants, or coming clown the river 
in a flotilla of canoes, prowl along the 
shores, or at a later period, through the in- 
fluence of the French, they would ascend 
the river, go to Canada, join the French, 
and again descend to the sea-coast to anni- 
hilate, if possible, the English settlements. 
They embraced the Indians up and down 
the Androscoggin river, from Lewiston 
Falls to its source. 

Our knowledge of the condition of the 
Indians about Rokomeko is very limited. 
They had cornfields near Rumford Falls 
and at Rumford Point. 

It is not known whether there was a dis- 
tinct tribe at Lewiston Falls. Some of the 
Pennacook Indians fled from their tribe in 
New Hampshire through fear of the Mo- 
hawks, and built a fort there about the 
year 1680, so that this place constituted a 
sort of garrison for the protection of their 
families while the men were away from 
home. The excellent facilities for fishing 
at the Falls must have always attracted the 
Indians to that place. 

At Bethel, about two and a half miles 
above the village, there was undoubtedly 
a small tribe, possibly a branch of the Ro- 
komekos, as they a'ere said to have carried 
their dead to Rokomeko for burial. They 
had left the place long before the town 
was settled, as quite large trees had grown 
up in their corn-fields. About twenty cel- 
lars for the storage of corn, a dozen or 
more gun barrels, kettles, hoes, and other 
implements were found by the first settlers, 
indicating that they had left in a hurried 

Cartridge Paper in 1778. — When the 
American army entered Philadelphia, in 
June, 1778, upon the evacuation of the 
English troops, there was a want of paper 
fitted for the construction of cartridges. 
It was advertised for, and but a small quan 
tity procured. An order was then issued 
demanding its instant production by all 
people in that city who had it. This pro 
duced but little, and most probably on ac- 
count of its scarcity. A file ot' soldiers was 
then ordered to make search for it in every 
place where any was likely to be found. 
Among other places visited in July, 1778, 
was a garret in a house in which Benjamin 
Franklin had previously had his printing 
office. Here were discovered about twenty- 
five hundred copies of a sermon which the 
Rev. Gilbert Tenant had written (printed 
by Franklin) upon "Defensive War," to 
rouse the colonists during the French 
troubles. They were all taken and used 
as cases for musket cartridges, and at once 




sent to the army, and most of them were 
used at the battle of Monmouth. The re- 
quisites in cartridge paper were, of course, 
thinness, strength, pliability, and inflamma- 
bility, and such paper was necessarily 
scarce then. J. M. E. 


Indians in Oeakge County. — Osbas- 
quemonus, the chief of the Minsies tribe 
(the word having become corrupted into 
" Minisink," see Eager's Hist, of Orange 
Co., p. 407, and Stone's Life of Brandt), 
was one of the signers to the deed of the 
large Minisink Patent. Besides him, eleven 
other chiefs signed, though all did not be- 
long to the same tribe, but set up some 
hunting and other ancient rights to the 
land. He was a chief of the Wawayanda 
tribe, whose village was located as early 
(or rather as late) as 1704, upon the Otter 
Hill, near Campbell Hall, and near the 
point where the Beaver Dam empties into 
that stream. He was also one of the sign- 
ers to what is known as the Wawayanda 
Patent. This last patent was intended by 
the chiefs to cover but sixty thousand acres, 
but, when subsequently surveyed, was dis- 
covered to contain nearly or quite one 
hundred and fifty; but as the grant was 
made by meter and bounds, and no parti- 
cular number of acres was mentioned in it, 
it could not, by the decisions of the Eng- 
lish Courts, be revoked, nor the quantity 
of land be diminished to the intention of 
the Indians. Its date was March 5, 1703, 
and though the English Governor, upon 
ascertaining the mistake, petitioned Queen 
Anne to reduce the quantity, yet nothing 
was heard from the petition — at least no- 
thing was done to that end. Among the 
other signers to tins patent w^ere Rapingo- 
nick (who died about 1730 at the Dela- 
ware Gap); Wawastawaw, Moghopuck 
(who subsequently lived on the flats now 
known asHaverstraw) ; Comelawaw, Nana- 
witt, Ariwimack (who was chief of the 
tribe then occupying the low grounds on 
the Wallkill, extending from near Goshen, 
down that stream to Shawangunks in Ulster 
County) ; Rumbout (a Minsies) ; Gulia- 
paw (whose tribe had their village near 

Long Pond, one of the feeders of the Mor- 
ris Canal). This village was within fifty 
rods of the north end of the pond, and in 
the vicinity many rude utensils, and arrow- 
heads, and some stone axes, have been 
found. What is now known as Warwick 
Creek, was formerly called Wawayanda 
Creek, after an early tribe. At the early 
settlement of the lands along it (about 1742), 
there were some evidences of a fortified 
Indian village at the point where the War- 
wick falls into the Pochuck Creek. About 
1811, a large number of Indian bones (sup- 
posed to be such from the earthen-ware 
found with them), were discovered between 
two large flat stones in the immediate 
vicinity of the confluence of the two 
streams. There were evidences of a vil- 
lage at the mouth of the Tinbrook when 
the Wileman Patent was granted in 1709. 
Also one on the west bank of the Wall- 
kill, near where apart of the army, known 
as the Virginia Line, lay encamped in 
1782. Another is known to have existed 
on the old Palatine Road, north of the vil- 
lage of Wardsbridge (now Montgomery), 
and near the site of the Lutheran church 
which the Germans erected who settled 
the Patent called Germantown, guaranteed 
in 1722. At Crist's Mill, near by, the 
remnant of a tribe is known to have lived 
as late as the old French war in 1755. The 
streams through Orange County abounded 
in otter and beaver in the early part of the 
last century, and this fact probably accounts 
for the large number of small tribes who 
have left proofs of their existence upon the 
banks of them. Some few years since an 
instrument of polished stone, evidently 
made to dress these animals, was discover- 
ed in the bed of the Beaver Dam near the 
old church at Neelytown. General John 
MacBride, of Hamptonburgh (still living), 
remembers to have seen the remains of a 
beaver dam upon the small stream which 
empties into the Otter Kill upon his farm. 
There was an Indian settlement within 
half a mile of this place in 1811. 

J. M. E. 




The Anniversary of Siiakspeare's 
Death. — We are glad to observe that the 
New England Historic Genealogical Society 
has voted to properly observe the three 
hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
Shakspeare. At a recent meeting, the 
details of the celebration were referred 
to the government of the Society. On 
that occasion, one of the members spoke 
as follows : 

Mr. President: With your permission, I 
intend to bring before this meeting a mat- 
ter which I believe to be of interest to this 
Society. It is known to us all that the 
three hundredth anniversary of the birth 
of Shakspeare takes place on the twenty- 
third day of April of the current year. It 
is understood that appropriate notice of 
this event will be taken in England. But 
I have yet to learn that any measures have 
been inaugurated in this country for the 
celebration of that day. Should it be suffer- 
ed to pass by without something being 
done by way of commemoration in this 
western world, the neglect cannot fail, 
in my opinion, to cause us disgrace. 

England was, it is true, the birthplace of 
the greatest writer in our language, but he 
belongs to us as much as to the land of his 
nativity. There are probably fifty readers 
of him in the United States to one reader 
in Great Britain. I have been informed by 
a bookseller that he has frequently sold 
new copies of Siiakspeare's works for one 
dollar and twenty-five cents each. Does 
any one suppose that this book has ever 
been on sale in England at five or six shil- 
lings sterling ? 

The question very naturally arises : 
" Whose business is it to provide for the 
celebration suggested ?" 

Boston has long claimed to be the Lite- 
rary Emporium, the Athens of America. 
There are now, as there always have been, 
among us scientific and literary men, poets 
(perhaps), poetasters certainly, who in 
their own estimation and that of their 
friends are deserving of high honor. One 
would think that some of these would 
move in the matter. Veneration for the 
mighty dead, a deep appreciation of his 
matchless powers, gratitude for what they 


have learned from him, and even an esprit 
de corps would, we should suppose, have 
prompted them to take measures that the 
birthday of Shakspeare should not pass un- 
noticed. But, as yet, all is still in that 
quarter. Perhaps it is as well. Should 
some of them attempt to commemorate 
him in song, the words which the object 
of their rhyme puts into the mouth of one 
of his characters might be applicable : 

I had rather be a kitten, and cry — mew, 
Than one of these same metre ballad mongers! 
I had rather hear a brazen canstick turn*u\ 
Or a dry wheel grate on an axletree ; 
And that would set my teeth nothing on edge, 
Nothing so much as mincing poetry ; 
'Tis like the forced gait of a shuffling nag. 
[First Part King Henry IV., Act. III. Sc. 1.] 

If, then, those upon whom it might 
seem to be incumbent to do this will uot 
move, I would suggest that this Society 
should do something. Our title indicates 
the objects of our labors to be History 
and Genealogy. Both of these are so 
closely connected with English antecedents 
that we cannot separate them if we would. 
English history is our history till within 
less than two hundred and fifty years ; it is 
measurably our history till within less than 
a century ; and even now we have no 
small sympathy in the public movements 
of our fatherland. Our genealogy, how- 
ever much it has become spread out over 
this u boundless continent," finds its source 
on English territory. Shakspeare lived in 
an age when maritime discovery was 
active. One of his warmest friends and 
most munificent benefactors was that Earl 
of Southampton, whose name appears in 
one of the early patents of the region in 
which we dwell. The poet's works an; 
marked by mention of places discovered in 
his time, and are illustrated by tales brought 
home by early American voyagers. 

These facts, and others which might be 
named, seem to render it proper that this 
Society should celebrate in some way the 
three hundredth anniversary of his birth. 
And should it so happen that ours should 
be the only celebration of this event in 
America, or even in New England, it will 
I redound much to the credit of this Society, 




and be a pleasant thing in our annals for 
posterity to read. 

On account of personal reasons, Mr. 
President, I submit no motion, but would 
beg leave to suggest that a committee be 
raised, at this meeting, with full powers to 
make the necessary arrangements for the 
celebration which has been spoken of. 

Latin Ode on Washington. — The fol- 
lowing from the Pennsylvania Magazine 
of October, 1775, may interest your read- 
ers : 

In Geo. "Washington dtjcis supremi munere a 
senatu, populoque americano donatum. 

Te voeat Boston, (ubi dux iniquus 
Obsidit cives miseros, et obstat, 
Urbe quo cedant minus;) excitatque 

Pristina virtus. 

Prospere eedat, bone, quod pararia. 

Occidunt cives, gladio petita 

Heu perit virgo misere ! atque clamor 

Personat aures. 

Di boni dent nunc tibi quse preecamur 
Sospitem ac reddant populo dolenti : 
Hostium turmas subito repellas 

Casde furentes. 

Te manent plausus, favor et benignus 
Omnium quotquot tenet ora nostra 
Quo ruit ssevus sanie profusus 

Indicus olim. 

H. P. W. 


Descendants of John Fenwicke. — 
Where can I find a genealogical account 
of the descendants of John Fenwicke, the 
early Quaker settler in New Jersey ? 


Richard Cox. — A New Jersey Masonic 
Committee appointed to write a Masonic 
History of that State, report that Riehard 
Cox was the first Provincial Grand Master 
of America. Where was Henry Price at 
that time ? 

Prison Walls in Boston. — The city of 
Boston has recently come into possession 
of an estate upon Cross street, near North 

street, upon which is a building that the 
tradition of the neighborhood says was at 
a time prior to the Revolution the Town 
Jail. The walls, from their thickness and 
appearance, would seem to warrant the 
statement of its use. As the city authori- 
ties are about to remove the building, it 
occurs to the writer that some of our citi- 
zens may know the facts in regard to it, 
and, if so, would be glad to examine the 
premises before the ancient edifice is taken 
down. Can any antiquarian enlighten us 
in regard to this subject? 

A Political Lesson. — Can any of your 
readers give an explanation of the follow- 
ing political caricature? The plate is a 
well executed mezzotint, ten by thirteen 
inches, entitled " A Political Lesson." It 
represents a richly dressed old gentleman 
booted and spurred, just thrown from his 
horse, his head striking a broken mile- 
stone, on which is inscribed : "To Boston, 
VI. miles." His hat and wig are on the 
ground. Near the milestone is a finger- 
board inscribed : " To Salem." The sky 
looks loving. Besides the table, the fol- 
lowing is under the plate: J. Dixon, inve- 
nit et fecit. Published 7 Septr. 1774. Pr. 
Is. 6d. Printed for John Bowles, at No. 
13 in Cornhill. 

A Statue on the Battery, New York. 
— I recently heard an old resident assert, 
quite positively, that many years since there 
stood on the Battery an equestrian statue, 
in marble or bronze, of some public charac- 
ter. I can find no corroboration of this 
statement. I suppose it must be a mistake 
for the Pitt statue recently presented to 
the Historical Society. From the age of 
my informant, it could not be the old leaden 

affair of King George. Can any reader 
enlighten me ? 


The Arms of Harberdinck. — What 
has become of the arms of Jan Harber- 
dinck, which used to be back of the pulpit 
in the North Dutch Church, New York ? 
It is a pity to see the mementos of old 
benefactors of churches thus displaced. 






Witim Whams. — (Vol. vilL, p. 79.) A 
copy of this work, with the original con- 
tract for publishing it, in the handwriting 
of S. G. Goodrich (Peter Parley), and 
signed by him, Nov. 15, 1827, is in my 
possession. At that time the contents of 
the book had not been written, but before 
the ensuing Christmas, less than thirty 
days, the whole matter was handed to the 
publisher. The authors, who were mem- 
bers of a Literary Club, were James W. 
Miller, Oliver C. Wyman, Moses Whitney, 
Jr., and Henry J. Finn. All of these gen- 
tlemen, except the second named, are de- 
ceased. Of Mr. Miller, it is said that he 
has written some of the sweetest verses in 
the English language ; the second named 
is well known as one of our best writers 
of satiric and humorous verse ; the third 
was a well known contributor to our 
magazines and to the daily press ; the last 
named — the lamented Finn — the inimi- 
table actor and artist, was lost in the ill- 
fated steamer Lexington, January 13, 
1840. The designs for the cover and the 
tail-piece, as well as the verses on the title- 
page, and the 12, 19, 22, 27, 30, and 31 
articles were written by him. The 16 and 
37 were by Mr. Whitney. The 5, 7, 9, 15, 
20, 29, 33, 34, 36, 39, 40, and 43, were by 
Mr. Miller; the remaining twenty-five arti- 
cles w r ere by Mr. Wyman. Soon after its 
issue here, a London firm re-published it, 
and it met with a ready sale. 

Mr. Wyman edited " Poems and Sketch- 
es," by James W. Miller, with a notice of 
his life, in 1829. 

Of the three writers above named, who 
are deceased, their companion can truly 

" Green be the turf above them, 
Friends of my better days ; 
None knew them but to love them, 
None named them but to praise." 

J. C. 
Boston. March, 1S64. 

Thomas Odiorne. — Is the folio win <r his 

only work ? 

The Progress of Refinement. 

A Poem 

in three Books, to which are added a 
Poem on Fame and Miscellanies. By 
Thomas Odiorne. Boston : Printed by 
Young & Etheridge, opposite to the en- 
trance of the Branch Bank, State street, 
1791. J. c. 


Swittiw ani l($eir JjnrmMngs. 


Chicago Historical Society. — The monthly 
meeting was held March 15th, W. L. Newberry 
Esq., President, in the chair. The total collec- 
tions for the past two months (including 135 
bound books) were 1,053, from 106 contribu- 
tions. They embraced the entire documentary 
publications of the Provincial Government of 
Canada, 1858-1863, with numerous publications 
from the United States and Great Britain. 

The correspondence for the same time — ninety- 
one letters written, and forty received — was 
submitted. Letters accepting membership were 
read from Mr. Alpheus Todd, Librarian of the 
" Parliament Library," Quebec, Hon. Henry 
S. Baird of Wisconsin, and Mr. N. S. Cushing 
of Chicago. 

A valuable paper was presented at the meet- 
ing from Prof H. Bannister, of the " Garrett 
Biblical Institute," Illinois, being a translation 
from the German of J. G. Miiller, executed by 
Prof. Bannister, of an essay on " The Idea of the 
Great Spirit among the Indians of North Ameri- 
ca" elaborately written, with comprehensive 
references to authorities. 

Three papers were then read, obligingly pre- 
pared for the society by Hon. Henry S. Baird. 
an early and esteemed resident of Green Bay, 

Their titles were as follows : 1. " The Early 
Commerce and Navigation on the Upper or 
Northwestern Lakes;" 2. "Indian Tribes, 
Chiefs and Treaties;" 3. "The Green Bay 
Fisheries — a Sketch." 

The several papers called forth interesting 
remarks, especially from the President, who was 
requested to put in writing his personal recollec- 
tions of the early commerce, settlement, and 
improvements of the Upper Lake region, for the 
benefit of the society. Forcible remarks were 
also made on the naii mat importance of securing 
full, reliable, and detailed statistics and particu- 




lars of the " Fisheries of the Great Lakes" — an 
industry whose products, it is believed, much 
surpass any estimate now formed. 

Mr. Band reports the annual catch " on G-reen 
Bay proper" — exclusive of the large fishing es- 
tablishments situated on Lake Michigan, north 
and south of the entrance to Green Bay, also on 
the Fox Eiver above the Bay, and Winnebago 
Lake, where large quantities are yearly taken 
and salted for export or consumed at home — at 
30,000 to 35,000 barrels. 

The catch — classified as to relative quantities 
taken — he thus enumerates: 1. White Fish; 
2. Trout; 3. Herring; 4. Pickerel; 5. Black 
and White Bass, Catfish, Pike, Eed-Horse, Suck- 
ers, about equal. Other varieties taken are 
Sturgeon, Mullet, Muskanongee, with a great 
variety of " Pan-fish." The Trout abounds in 
the small streams on the west side of Green Bay. 

Mr. Baird gave interesting details of the modes 
of taking fish adopted by the Indians, and at 
the present day, noticing the general complaint 
against the use of " pound nets," as very de- 
structive to the fish, many of which are caught 
and perish in the meshes of the nets, corrupting 
the surrounding water. 

The recent decease of Dr. Franklin Scammon 
— a founder, late Treasurer, and a Besident Life 
Member of the society ; also first Professor of 
Botany in the University of Chicago — was 
announced by the Secretary ; who was followed 
by impressive remarks from E. B. McCagg, Esq. 
Mr. McCagg submitted resolutions expressive 
of the high and honorable esteem in which the 
deceased was held, which were unanimously 

ment by the aborigines ; and from the fact that 
they are invariably so found — though now mostly 
killed out by sawdust deposits — he argued that 
these shell deposits were formed by human 
hands, the clams having been gathered for food. 
In the evening Bishop Burgess, of Gardiner, 
read a paper contributed by Hon. Wm. Willis 
of this city — Mr. W. not being present — on 

A letter was received from Hon. W. P. Haines, 
of Biddeford, accompanying an elaborately car- 
ved powder-horn, the work of a soldier at Fort 
Wm. Henry, on Lake George, during the old 
j French and Indian war. The presentation of 
I the relic to the society was made. 

Judge Bourne, of Kennebunk, read a long, 
1 elaborate, and very able paper on the Popham 
I Settlement, in reply to Thornton, of Boston, 
| who has argued that a Popham colony was only 
a penal colony. Judge B. controverted this 



Maine Historical Society. — Augusta, March, 
1864. — The Maine Historical Society held a 
meeting in the Court-House. 

Judge Williamson, of Belfast, read a paper in 
"the afternoon on Slavery in Maine, giving ac- 
count of the kidnapping of Indians, and show- 
ing that in early times negro slaves were held in 
what is now the State of Maine, at Kittery and 
as far east as Pownalboro. 

Rev. Mr. Ballard, of Brunswick, read a paper 
relating to Indian Treaties. 

Rev. D. Cushman, of Warren, an interesting 
paper on the Clam Shell Deposits of the State, 
showing that, like the oyster shell deposits on 
the Damariscotta, they are all found in pleasant 
localities, on southern declivities, on just such 
spots as would naturally be selected for settle- 

Massachusetts Historical Society. — Boston, 
Feb. — A stated monthly meeting of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society was held at their 
rooms, the President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, 
in the chair. After the transaction of the usual 
business, the President paid a tribute to the 
memory of the late Frederick Tudor. We 
copy the closing portion of the eulogy : 

As a cultivator of fruits and flowers, and trees, 
too, at Nahant, he not only placed himself in 
the front rank of horticulturists, but he gave 
a signal instance of how much could be done by 
ingenuity, perseverance, and skill, in overcoming 
the most formidable obstacles of soil and climate, 
and obtaining a victory over nature herself. 

It has been said that New England is a region 
of rocks and ice. Mr. Tudor seemed willing to 
accept it as such, and to be resolved that rocks 
and ice should be the main ministers to his own 
fortune, and through him to the health and hap- 
piness of others. 

I may not omit to add that while New Eng- 
land was his chosen and constant home, he was 
a man of enlarged and earnest patriotism. Tak- 
ing pride in his father's Revolutionary services, 
and inheriting his place in the society of the 
Cincinnati, he stood fast to the Stars and Stripes 
and to the Union cause, of which they are the 
honored emblem, in adversity as well as in pros- 
perity ; and nowhere has our National banner 
been more frequently or more eagerly displayed 
on every fit occasion during the past three years, 
than from the windows of his beautiful residence 




in Bacon street. He was of a spirit to have borne 
it bravely to the battle-field, had an occasion 
occurred before age had impaired the vigor of 
his arm. 

Nor did he fail to observe and to honor true 
heroism in other parts of the world as well a? 
in our own. It is an interesting fact, that when 
the tidings came to us from the far East of the 
noble endurance and brilliant achievements of 
the lamented Havelock, Mr. Tudor, without 
calling any one to his counsel, or allowing any 
one to share the cost, caused a magnificent sword 
to be made at Springfield, and prepared it with a 
suitable inscription to be presented to that great 
Christian hero. It was unhappily too late to 
reach him before his death. 

It only remains for me to offer, in behalf of the 
Standing Committee, the customary resolution : 

Resolved, That the Massachusetts Historical 
Society have learned with deep regret the death 
of their valued associate, Frederick Tudor, Esq., 
and that the President be directed to name one 
of our members to prepare a memoir of him for 
our proceedings. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 
Hon. Emory Washburne read an elabora'e paper 
on villenage and slavery in England, which was 
followed by an interesting discussion on this sub- 
ject, in which Horace Gray, Jr., Esq., Hon. 
James Savage, and Hon. G. T. Davis took part. 
The Society then adjourned. 

New England Historic Genealogical So 
ciety. — Boston, Wednesday, March 2. — A stated 
meeting was held this afternoon at three o'clock, 
the President, Dr. Lewis, in the chair. 

Rev. M. Bradlee, the corresponding secretary, 
reported letters accepting membership from the 
following persons: — Solomon Piper, E. B. Fos- 
ter, Edward S. Rand, Rev. Lucius Eastman, 
William Whitwell, of Boston, — Henry B. 
Humphrey, of Thomaston, Me., and George 
H. Brown, of Groton, Mass., as resident mem- 
bers; and Alden J. Spooner, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., as a corresponding member. 

Mr. Sheppard, the librarian, reported that 
during the last month donations had been re- 
ceived of 101 volumes, G6 pamphlets, a port- 
folio of manuscripts from the estate of the late 
George Eddy Henshaw, and an invoice of 1790 
of a Japan merchant, written in Dutch. Seventy- 
five of the above volumes were the gift of the [ 
librarian from his own library. 

Mr. Trask, the historiographer, read a memoir j 
of the late Andrew Henshaw Ward, author of j 
the History of Shrewsbury, &c, a resident | 
member, who died at Newtonville, February I 
18, in his eightieth year. 

John H. Sheppard, the librarian, who was a ' 

classmate of Mr. Ward at Harvard College, 
offered the following resolution, which he pre- 
faced by some remarks upon the character of his 
friend. He esteemed it the highest praise that 
could be bestowed upon a man to s.iy that he 
had been a useful member of society. Mr. 
Ward he considered eminently such a man : — 

liesulved, That in the recent and sudden 
death of Andrew H. Ward, Esq., of West New- 
ton, we deplore the loss of a venerable and very 
early member of the society ; and that as a 
benefactor, genealogist, and courteous gentle- 
man, we shall long cherish the memory of this 
excellent man. 

This resolution was unanimously adopted. 

Prof. Calvin E. Stone, D.D., of Andover, read 
a paper in which he desciibed the life and doc- 
trines of the celebrated Jonathan Edwards. For 
more than an hour he held an unusually large 
audience in profound attention. The paper was 
an erudite, eloquent, and masterly production — 
a voice ex cathedra. 

He began w T ith a fascinating picture of the angel- 
like character of that young Christian of seventeen 
— Miss Pierpont, of New Haven, whom Edwards 
married ; and proceeded to give a brief narrative 
of Mr. Edwards's life, and the extraordinary in- 
fluence of his ministerial labours ; perhaps a 
purer character has never adorned the history of 
New England. He then undertook the elabo- 
rate task of expounding his great work on the 
" Will." After giving some account of his very 
numerous writings, some of which have never 
been published, he gave an exposition of his 
theology and its over-shadowing influence in the 
early Divinity schools ; then of Samuel Hopkin*, 
his successor, whose famous creed for a term 
darkened the religious world ; then of Joseph 
Bellamy, the successor of Hopkins, who took up 
the line of religious metaphysics and went on ; 
and then of Nathaniel Emmons, one of the best 
and most devout of men, at the head of another 
system. The views of Dr. Timothy Dwight, of 
whose theology he spoke in exalted terms; of 
Dr. Leonard Woods, Dr. Lyman Beecher, and 
Dr. Nathaniel W. Taylor, all eminent divines 
and at the head of numerous partisans, were all 
set forth, and Prof. Stowe concluded after all, that 
these systems, and all other systems of divinity, 
were mere human inventions, and in their nature 
cannot rest on any immutable law ; because they 
have been and always will be changing ; leaving 
man's hope of salvation on the belief and prac- 
tice of a few simple truths. 

Rev. William S. Bai tlet, of Chelsea, proposed 
that the society celebrate, on the 23d of April 
next, the two hundredth anniversary of the birth 
of Shakspeare. In England appropriate notice 
will be taken of this event; but he had yet to 




learn that any measures had been taken in this 
country to celebrate it. Should it be suffered to 
pass by without notice in this western world, the 
neglect, he thought, could not fail to cause us 
disgrace ; for Shakspeare belongs to us as much 
as to the land of his nativity, and he has a much 
larger number of readers in the United States 
than in England. 

The matter was referred for action to the 
Board of Directors. 


American Numismatic Society. — New York, 
March 11. — This Society held a special meeting 
on Friday evening, for the election of officers 
for the ensuing year. The following gentlemen 
were elected, the election in each case being 
afterwards made unanimous : — 

President — Frank H. Norton (Astor Library). 
Vice-President — Dr. Geo. H. Perine. 
Recording Secretary — Jas. Oliver. 
Corresponding Secretary — Francis A. Wood, 
68 E. 17th st. 

Treasurer — J. Hanna. 
Curator and Librarian — Edward Groh. 
The Society took up the request of the 
Committee of the Metropolitan Fair for a 
loan for exhibition, laid over from the last 
meeting. On motion, the Society resolved to 
send a portion of its collection of coins and 
medals as a loan to the Fair ; and the President 
appointed Mes-rs. Hanna, E. Groh, Perine, and 
Wood a committee to carry the resolution into 

A number of donations of coins, Confederate 
and other notes, etc., were made by various 
gentlemen, when the meeting adjourned. 

This Society has now fully reorganized, and 
holds its regular meetings on the second and 
fourth Thursdays of each month, in the Ladies' 
Reading Room of the Society's Library. 

Its collection of coins and medals comprises 
upwards of 1000 specimens, and it also possesses 
a library of about 150 volumes and pamphlets. 

Any information in regard to coins or medals 
will be cheerfully afforded by the Society, 
through its Secretary, who will also receive ap- 
plications for membership. 

Buffalo Historical Society — Buffalo, Feb. 
1864. — The weekly club meetings of the Society 
have been held as follows : January 21st, at 
Rev. Dr. Chester's, when a paper was read by 
La'irentius G. Sellstedt, on the Life and Character 
of the late Win. J. Wilgus, as an artist; January 

a paper on the Manufacture of Iron in Buffalo ; 
February 1st, at S. S. Jewett's, when a paper 
was read by Colonel William A. Bird, on the 
Boundary Survey between the United States 
and the British Provinces. 

George R. Babcock said that a very important 
era in our lake commerce, was the placing of 
the first steamboat on the Upper Lakes — the 
Walk-in- the- Water. In view of the immense 
importance which the steamboat interest has 
since attained, it seems surprising that persons 
yet in active business among us saw that first 
boat built. Henry Daw, of this city, was one of 
them, and he moved that Mr. Daw, at his con- 
venience, collect the facts in regard to the build- 
ing of that vessel, and her history up to the time 
of her shipwreck ; which motion was carried. 

Mr. Daw remarked that, when at Detroit 
recently, he saw at the rooms of the Historical 
Society there, a drawing of the Walk-in- the- 
Water, made by a young man who was a passen- 
ger on the boat at the time she was lost. 

G. W. Clinton thought it was desirable for 
the Society to have a picture of that first steam- 
boat, and also one of the last of the great side- 
wheel steamers, the City of Buffalo. 

H. W. Rogers desired to see likenesses of all 
the old citizens in the rooms of the Society — of 
the Mayors, Gen. Potter, Col. Blossom, B. D. 
Coe, etc. He said that Dr. Winne had a pencil 
portrait of the late John Root, and on his motion 
it was voted that application be made to Dr. 
Winne for it. 

The following gentlemen were elected corre- 
sponding members : 

Austin Flint, M.D., New York; Chas. A. Lee, 
M.D., Peekskill ; E. M. Moore, M.D., Roches- 
ter ; Wm. H. Bull, Bath, N. Y. ; Henry R. Myga't, 
Oxford, N. Y. ; J. Watts DePeyster, Tivoli, N. 
Y. ; Frank H. Hamilton, M.D., New Yo k. 
Also as honorary members : Rev. Samuel M. 
Fisher, D.D., Clinton, N. Y.; Hiland Hall, 
Bennington, Vt. 


Historical Society of Pennsylvania. — Phi- 
ladelphia, March, 1864. — The Society held its 
regular monthly meeting at their Hall in 
the Athenaeum. An unusually large number 
of members were present, attracted as well 
by the interest now so frequently had in the 
proceedings, as by the anticipation that pos- 
sibly some definite initiatory decision might be 
had on the subject of a New Historical Hall. 
The matter had been introduced .at the late 
25th, at M. P. Bush's, when John Wilkeson read ' annual meeting, where some gentlemen gave it 




as their opinion that a sum could be raised suffi- 
ciently large to erect a hall somewhat like that 
of the New York Historical Society at that mo- 

The following named gentlemen were appoint- 
ed a committee to have general charge for the 
building of a hall for the Society : — Hon. Joseph 
R Inger.-oll, Hon. John M. Read, Joseph Harri- 
son, Charles Macalestor, Joseph Patterson, John 
Jordan, J. Francis Fisher, J. William Wallace, 
Wm. Duane, Wm. Bucknell, J. Morris Wain, A. 
G Cattell, A. G. Coffin, A. G. Fell, H. N. Brough- 
ton, and Colonel G. W. Childs. 

Colonel Childs offered a resolution, providing 
for the appointment of a committee to procure 
the photographs of recent battle-fields, which 
was unanimously adopted. 

A list of valuable historical contributions to 
the Society was read by the Secretary. 

Mr. William Dewey, of Philadelphia, present- 
ed a curious manuscript formerly owned by Mr. 
Anthony Benezet, and apparently all in the 
handwriting of that well known and excellent 
citizen of ancient Philadelphia. It was a book 
of the discipline of Friends, and went back to 
a.d. 1719. Among the queries which Friends 
directed to be made in 1747 are these : 

u Are Friends careful to attend their meetings 
both on First-days and other days of the week ? 
Do they refrain sleeping in meeting, or do they 
accustom themselves to snuffing or chewing to- 
bacco in meeting ? Are there any Friends that 
frequent music houses, or go to dancing or gam- 
ing ? Do Friends observe the advice of former 
meetings, not to encourage the importation of 
negroes, nor buy them after imported ?" 

Mr. H. G. Jones, the Corresponding Secretary, 
read the following letter from John William 
Wallace, Esq., lately elected a Vice-President : — 
No. 728 Spruce street, Feb. 22, 1864.— Sir :— I 
have received your communication of the 10th 
instant, informing me of my election as a Vice- 
President of the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania for the year 1864-5. 

I am obliged to the members of the Histori- 
cal Society. Not having had at any time active 
relations to the body, I receive it as a mark of 
their good-will. 

At no time, I think, of our national history, 
so much as now, have duties fallen on those 
persons who form the Historical Associations of 
the country. The great, immediate, and practi- 
cal interests of the conflict going on about us 
are so absorbing that we are scarcely conscious 
of anything in the scene but a great, immediate, 
and practical issue. In some senses, it is well 
that we should see no more. 

Yet in the moral interest of it all, in the dis- 
play of armies which it exhibits, in the scenes 

and occurrences of battle, which stand out as 
upon a foreground, it cannot be doubted that 
the events of the day which is passing over us 
are destined to form for succeeding ages a theme 
of inexhaustible and still deepening interest. 

We are, I suppose, so much, ourselves, par- 
takers in these events ; we are so entirely of 
this age and of its type, that we are not capable, 
perhaps, of estimating, in their full truth and 
genuine character, either the events themselves, 
or the persons who appear to originate and give 
them definition. We see no great deal, perhaps, 
in either persons or events, which resembles the 
type of that heroism and of that statesmanship 
which history has thus far considered the Ame- 
rican type, dignified and remarkable type, no 
doubt, and one which perhaps will never be re- 
produced ; the type, I mean, of that day which 
achieved our Independence, and established our 
Constitution; the day of 1776 and 1787. 

Yet it cannot be denied, I apprehend, that 
both the events and the men of this day have 
their own type ; a remarkable type also ; one 
which, if it finds no exemplar in any previous 
age or in any other country, is probably not the 
less a genuine type in its relations to greatness. 
It is a type cast in the mould of a new and in- 
dividual creation ; the product of that indigenous 
and self-vital spirit which inhabits a vast country 
of popular institutions ; a spirit of power strong 
in its own strength. 

Time alone, " in whose train Truth walks ever 
slow and late," can reveal how far the whole, or 
part of this, is true. 

In the meantime, sir, it seems to me that the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania rightly en- 
larges its designs and labors. Not forgetting 
the ancient duties of the past, and continuing 
still to rescue from dumb forgetfulness the re- 
cords of earlier days, it is of late, in some sort, 
"leaving the things that are behind," in order 
to preserve for future times our now present 
fame and records ; records and a fame which, 
when this present shall have become the past, 
will thus stand forth genuine, undimmed, and 

The Society, I believe, is now corecting, in 
justice to her children, whatever illustrates 
great passing events, and whatever conduces to 
the true appreciation of distinguished living cha- 
racter among them. Trophies of Gettysburg 
which are now gathered in its halls prove this. 
The zeal with which she has co-operated in esta- 
blishing the State Cemetery on that battle-field 
is an evidence in the same direction. The pro- 
position lately made, I understand, for the erec- 
tion of a new Historical Hall and for placing 
the historical honor of the Commonwealth 
with greater external dignity before its peo- 



[April, 1864. 

pie, includes perhaps and illustrates the same 

Certainly, in a country like ours, where every- 
thing which belongs to individual or family dis- 
tinction is fugitive, where neither the greatest 
of our statesmen nor the most successful of our 
Generals can become the founder of a powerful 
and enduring house, it is the duty of our histo- 
rical societies to collect and preserve the muni- 
ments of true greatness wheresoever exhibited 
throughout the country. History, in her own 
time, will assume the pen and immortalize it for 
the nations. 

Were the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 
less fortunate, sir, in its President, or were my 
fellow officers less able to discharge the duties 
in his rare and always regretted absence, I 
should hardly be willing to accept the post you 
offer me, when duties, such as those I speak of, 
attend its offices of trust. As it is, sir, I receive 
the mark of your kindness with thanks, and 
with the expectation of indulgence fcr my dis- 
charge of its labors. 

I have the honor to be, with great truth, your 
obedient servant, 

John William Wallace. 

Horatio Gates Jones, Esq., Corresponding Se- 
cretary of the Historical Society of Pennsylva- 

Mr. H. G\ Jones, the Corresponding Secretary, 
exhibited an original unpublished letter of Gene- 
ral Washington, in these wods. The address, 
fortunately for the fame of the person to whom 
it had been directed, had been torn off : — 

Headquatiters, MORR18TOWN, ) 
22d February, 1777. J 

Sir: — The cry of want of provisions comes 
to me from all quarters. General Maxwell 
writes word that his men are starving. Gene- 
ral Johnson, of Maryland, yesterday, informed 
me that his people draw none. This difficulty, 
I understand, prevails also at Chatham. What, 
sir, is the meaning of this? And why were 
you so desirous of excluding o'hers from this 
business, when you are unable to accomplish it 
yourself? Consider, I beseech you, the conse- 
quences of this neglect ; and exert yourself to 
remedy the evil and complaints, which cannot be 
less fatal to the army than disagreeable 1 o 
Sir. your very humble servant, 

Go. Washington. 

After the trinsaction of a few items of busi- 
ness of no public interest, the meeting adjourned. 

ing the above name has been organized in the 
City of Prov.dence by a few gentlemen interested 
in Numismatics. 

In consideration that they are as yet upon the 
first round of the ladder, their prospects are very 
auspicious, and as the members all manifest deep 
interest in the cause, they hope to make an 
interesting and profitable association. 

The meetings are held monthly. The follow- 
ing are the officers elected for the year ensu- 

President — Eobert B. Chambers; Vice-Presi- 
dent — George J. Paine ; Secretary — Desmond 
FitzGerald ; Treasurer — Edward H. Eobinson ; 
Cabinet Keeper — Charles A. Cooper. 



The Rhode Island Numismatic Association- 
— Providence, March \bth, 1864. A society bear- 

As a step in bibliographical progress, may be 
noticed the first successful attempts at piinting 
on vellum in this country. The earliest actual 
specimens executed were three copies of a rare 
Cromwellian tract, Tie Soldiers Pocket Bible — a 
little manual of Scripture texts, drawn up for 
the use of the Commonwealth Army, and re- 
printed by Mr. George Livermore, from one of the 
two known copies that are extant. It consists 
of three or four leaves only. The vellum 
copies were printed by Houghion, of Cambridge, 
at the well known Riverside press. More re- 
cently Prof. Allen, of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, has caused two copies of his Life of 
Piiilidor to be p inted on velium, at the office 
of Sherman and Co., of Philadelphia. It forms 
a post octavo volume of some 200 pages, so is a 
considerable specimen of this elegant application 
of the typographic art. We have not heard how 
far these specimens have overcome the difficul- 
ties presented by the material; but both in 
England and France all attempts at producing 
an article like the delicate soft vellum of a rich 
C;eam color, or ivory hue, employed by the 
Italian printers of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, have failed, and the secret of its 
manufacture may be considered one of the lost 
arts. Even the bibliographical enterprise of Dr. 
Dibdin failed before the difficulties of a vellum 
impression of any of his wo: ks. He commenced 
to print a single copy of his Typographical A><ti- 
qudies of England in this style, but abandoned 
the attempt when a few sheets had been exe- 
cuted, and the unique copy of this specimen, as 
far as it was proceeded with, is now in the 
choice library of an amateur at Providence, R. I. 



Vol. VIII.] 

MAY, 1864. 

[No. 5. 

(Smntl g^prtnunt. 


It is with no ordinary feelings of regret 
that we devote a small space in the present 
number to the late William Jackson Davis, 
a warm personal friend, a constant contri- 
butor to the magazine, and a historical 
scholar of unpretending and unambitious 

Although but little known as an author, 
and never claiming to be one, his rank as 
a historical student and local antiquarian 
was very high. His knowledge, patiently 
acquired, minute, authentic, and impartial, 
was always at the service of other students. 

In the Historical Magazine he always 
took a deep interest, and his contributions 
to its columns, directly from his own re- 
searches and obtained from other sources, 
as in examining them he came upon suit- 
able matter, were constant and always of 
the greatest value and importance ; while in 
the minor departments he was always 
ready to give, in Notes and Replies, guid- 
ance to the inquirer. 

His special study was the history of the 
city of New York, as to which he was an 
authority. He had collected all the early 
published accounts and views of the city, 
its buildings and streets, as well as informa- 
tion and portraits of its prominent citizens; 
and Valentine's Manuals of the Common 
Council were enriched with many of the 
interesting views of early New York by 
the zeal and industry of our late friend. 

The editor of that repository of New 
York city history says: "I have been in- 
debted to him for many interesting picto- 


rial illustrations connected with our city, 
and he also contributed to the Manual an- 
nually compiled by me interesting articles, 
among others one on the Old State Prison, 
published in the Manual of 1853 ; articles 
on the King's Arms Tavern, Fraunce's 
Tavern, and the Old Bridewell, in that of 

Some of these papers, with others by his 
friend Henry B. Dawson, Esq., were print- 
ed separately in a small volume entitled: 
"Reminiscences of New York and its Vi- 
cinity." New York. 1855. 

The interesting matter which he collected 
regarding the Bridewell was also embodied 
in a paper read before the New York His- 
torical Society. 

His active connection with that society 
was not his only historical labor. Mr. 
Davis was, we may say, the originator of 
the Bradford Club, having suggested the 
idea and the name, and in conjunction with 
some, if not all the present members, issued 
in 1857 "A Journal of the Expedition to 
Quebec in the year 1775, under the Com- 
mand of Colonel Benedict Arnold, by 
James Melvin, a Private in Captain Dear- 
born's Company," which he edited and 
prepared for the press; and also in 1858, 
the " Diary of Washington ; from the first 
day of October, 1789, to the tenth day of 
March, 1790, from the Original Manuscript, 
now first printed," a volume edited by 
Benson J. Lossing, Esq. 

The subsequent publications bear the 
name of the Bradford Club, and are well 

The Hon. George Bancroft, to whom 
Mr. Davis for a considerable period acted 
as private secretary, a position completely 
hi accordance with his tastes, thus writes 
of him : " The most remarkable trait in the 




character of our late friend, Mr. William 
Jackson Davis, was his sweetness of dispo- 
sition. Long a sufferer and slowly wasting 
away, he never murmured, he never was 
peevish, he never was impatient. He was 
free from guile, and never harbored a harsh 
thought, never uttered harsh words against 
any one. His delicate, gentle nature loved 
to lean on others, and in his attachments 
he was a most devoted friend. His know- 
ledge of the special history of the city of 
New York and its environs, his minute 
acquaintance with their old buildings and 
celebrated spots, exceeded that of any one 
I have met, and his memory was very 
unusually retentive. His leading passion 
was for books. He spent all the money 
that he could spare from the necessary 
subsistence of his family in purchasing rare 
and curious ones ; and he was skilled in 
illustrating them. The company he liked 
best was that of book collectors. His 
happiest hours were those which he passed 
in reading the details of by-gone years; 
and sometimes he would sit silent and alone 
in his room and find pleasure enough in just 
gazing at his own library, which now forms 
the chief part of what he has left for his 
children. Writing very little himself, his 
sympathies went out freely to every one of 
his acquaintance who was engaged in ma- 
king sketches of old times, old fortifica- 
tions, old mansions, or old traditions. 

"He was a most faithful member of the 
New York Historical Society, and took 
pride in its officers, its meetings, its papers, 
and in every effort of any and every one 
of its members." 

Mr. Davis was born in Queens County, 
December 20, 1818. Losing his mother 
while an infant, he did not escape the con- 
sequences of a loss of maternal care, which 
no other, even the most affectionate, can 
replace. He grew up by no means strong, 
and was forced by his precarious health to 
abandon the business of engraving, to 
which he first applied himself. 

Employment in one of the offices of the 
municipal government enabled him to in- 
dulge his antiquarian taste, and he soon 
became an impassioned student of the his- 
tory of the great city. 

He died in New York on the 26th day of 
March, 1864. 

Mr. Davis's library ,though comparatively 
small, was well chosen and confined almost 
exclusively to a few historical departments. 
Besides several of the earlier works on 
America and histories of the French war, 
it embraced all the important histories of 
the Revolution,Warren, Andrews, Ramsay, 
Murray, Botta, the Memoirs of Lee, 
Heath* Thatcher, Simcoe, Reidesel, Moody, 
Gano, Dring, Andross, Sherburne, Willet : 
biographies of all the prominent men in 
the struggle; separate histories of the 
various states ; and especially a fine collec- 
tion on New York, embracing all the vari- 
ous " Pictures of New York ;" the early 
works of De Vries, Jogues, Yanderdonck, 
the Brieden-Radt ; the Colonial Docu- 
ments, Collections of the New York His- 
torical Society and addresses bearing on 
New York history. 


" Lord George Sackville, a younger son 
of the first, and father of the last Duke of 
Dorset, commenced his political career as 
Chief Secretary for Ireland, when his father 
was for the second time Viceroy, and 
afterwards attained high military rank. 
Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, nephew of 
Frederick the Great, Was commander-in- 
chief of the allied army on the Continent, 
destined for the }3rotection of Hanover ; 
but the British troops of which it was 
partly composed were under the command 
of the high English aristocrat. Dissen- 
sions soon arose between him and the 
foreign prince, who was his superior officer ; 
in the words of Walpole, " both liked to 
govern, neither liked to be governed." At 
the battle of Minden, on the 1st of August, 
1*759, when the French infantry reeled before 
the British battalions, Sackville was at the 
head of the Blues. At the critical moment of 
confusion in the enemies' rank, he received 
orders to advance with the English and 
Hanoverian cavalry, which were separat- 
ed from the infantry by a wood. These 
orders he undoubtedly disobeyed. His 




personal courage having been previously 
suspected, he had preserved, and was 
proud of exhibiting, the uniform he had 
worn at Fontenoy, pierced by a musket 
ball, which on that fatal day wounded him 
in the breast. His disobedience at Minden 
was attributed by his friends to the orders 
being ambiguous and even contradictory, 
while his enemies traced it to the effect of 
panic, or to the impulse of unwarrantable 
pique and wounded pride. He appeared 
after the battle, at dinner in the tent of 
his victorious commander, who remarked 
to the other officers present, "Look at 
that man ! As much at his ease as if he 
had done wonders." The general order 
of the prince contained a direct imputa- 
tion ; it declared that if Lieutenant-General 
the Marquis of Granby had had the good 
fortune to have been at the head of the 
cavalry, his presence would have greatly 
contributed to make the decision of the 
day more complete and more brilliant. 
Stung to the quick by this public rebuke, 
feeling that the indignation which pervaded 
the camp had spread through the court 
and the country, he wrote for liberty to 
resign his command, and return to Eng- 
land to brave a storm of obloquy which, 
after the recent fate of Byng, was far more 
terrible to a soldier than the worst perils 
of the battle-field. 

On his arrival he found himself sum- 
marily dismissed from the colonelcy of his 
regiment, and struck — by the hand of 
George the Second, who was deeply in- 
censed, and resolved to make his degrada- 
tion more galling — from the list of generals. 
Having demanded a court-martial, a ques- 
tion arose whether a man who had ceased 
to be in the army was still subject to 
military law, but the court assembled on 
the 29th of February, 1760, and was com- 
posed of sixteen members, all general 
officers. The accusations were three in 
number. First, for refusing to advance 
with the cavalry and sustain the infantry 
when engaged ; second, after the cavalry 
were in motion, in needlessly halting them; 
third, that he moved so slowly as not to 
reach the action in time to join in the 
pursuit. Assuming a dictatorial tone to 

the court, he complained that he had been 
punished before trial; and, while he relied 
on the ambiguity of the orders, it was but 
too evident that they did not direct him to 
stand still. Forgetting that the moment 
of the enemies' signal discomfiture was his 
opportunity, he attempted in his defence 
to justify his inactivity on the ground that 
the movement of the cavalry was unneces- 
sary. " The glory of that day," said he, 
" was reserved for the six brave (English) 
regiments, who, it will scarcely be credited 
in future ages, by a single attack put forty 
battalions and sixty squadrons to flight." 
The allusion would seem to have been 
peculiarly inopportune, for while those six 
infantry regiments suffered a loss of one 
thousand three hundred and seventy-nine 
men and officers, the Gazette does not 
record a single casualty amongst the 
British cavalry. According to Walpole, 
"Whatever were his deficiencies in the 
day of battle, he has at least shown no 
want of spirit either in pushing on his 
trial, or during it. He had a formal mes- 
sage that he must abide the event, what- 
ever it should be ; he accepted that issue, 
and during the course of the examination 
attacked judges, prosecutor, and evidence. 
Indeed, a man cannot be said to want 
spirit who could show so much in his 
circumstances. I think, without much hero- 
ism, I would sooner have led the cavalry 
up to the charge than have gone to White- 
hall to be worried as he was. One hour 
of such resolution at Minden would have 
established his character for ever." Gray, 
the poet, wrote at the time, " The old 
Rundles who sat on Lordly Sackville, have 
at last hammered out their message. He 
is declared disobedient and unfit for all 
military command. The unembarrassed 
countenance, the looks of revenge, con- 
tempt, and superiority that he bestowed 
on his accusers, were the admiration of all. 
You may think, perhaps, he intends to go 
abroad and hide his head — au contraire 
all the world visits him on his condemna- 
tion." The court discharged their duty 
with firmness, neither misled by his per- 
suasive powers, nor irritated by his over- 
bearing pride ; and it was said that seven 




of the members were in favor of capital 
punishment. The promulgation of the sen- 
tence was followed by his name being 
struck off the list of privy councillors ; and 
the announcement of its confirmation de- 
clared it to be his majesty's pleasure "that 
the sentence be given out in public orders, 
that officers may be convinced that neither 
high birth nor great employments shall 
shelter offences of such a nature." 

If disaster had attended the English 
arms at Minden, Sackville would inevitably 
have shared the fate of Byng; but the 
splendid successes of Wolfe in the conquest 
of Canada, following fast after that victory, 
had tranquillized popular feeling, and, 
strange to say, on the accession of the new 
sovereign, he found favor with George the 
Third, by whom he was named for office 
in 1765, but the other members of the 
new ministry refused to act with a man 
who had been so publicly disgraced. Hav- 
ing, in 1770, acquired property under the 
will of Lady Elizabeth Germain, who had 
been a favorite correspondent of Swift, on 
condition that he should thenceforth bear 
her name, we may well believe that he 
eagerly seized on any occasion that afforded 
even a hope of retrieving his sullied repute. 
It was a period "when corruption did, 
indeed, glitter in the van and maintain 
a standing army of mercenaries,'* and 
Lord George, aspiring to be a patriot, 
having expressed himself in parliament 
warmly on some popular question, Go- 
vernor Johnson replied that " he wondered 
the noble lord should interest himself so 
deeply in the honour of the country, when 
he had hitherto been so regardless of his 
own." On a refusal to retract an insult 
so publicly given, Lord George demanded 
an immediate meeting, and named the 
ring in Hyde Park ; but as the challenged 
was then, as a member, attending a com- 
mittee of the House of Commons, lie hoped 
that a meeting within an hour would be 
satisfactory. The subsequent incidents are 
characteristic of the taste for duelling then 
in fashion. The combatants would seem 
to have arranged all the preliminaries 
between themselves ; the governor sug- 
gested that one second, the bearer of the 

message, Mr. Thomas Townsend, after- 
wards Lord Sydney, would answer for 
them both; and as he had an open wound 
in his arm, and his legs were very much 
swelled, he expressed a wish to use pistols 
— a request to which his opponent politely 
acceded. In hurrying to the appointed spot, 
the governor met Sir James Lowther in Pic- 
cadilly, who accompanied him as his friend, 
and when on the ground, Lord George y 
accosting his adversary, desired Mm to 
take whatever distance he pleased. Being 
placed at twenty short paces apart, Lord 
George called on the- governor to fire,, 
which the other refused, declaring that, 
as his lordship had brought him there, 
he must fire first. Neither of the shots- 
took effect, but his opponent's second ball 
broke Lord George s pistol, and one of the 
splinters grazed his hand. The seconds 
then interfered, and the governor after- 
wards avowed that he had never met a 
man who behaved with more coolness or 

Some remarkable coincidences gave cre- 
dence for a time to a surmise, now con- 
sidered palpably erroneous, that Lord: 
George Germain was the author of Junius. 
The hostility of that celebrated assailant 
of character to the Marquis of Granby 
was accounted for by this theory, and his- 
detestation of the Scotch was traced to 
the fact that ten ©f the members of the 
court-martial had been natives of Scotland. 
"Time works wonders." The object of 
much and merited obloquy in 1775 was- 
selected in the administration of Lord 
North for the high office of Secretary 
of State for the Colonies-. His policy as 
a minister was destined to be as disastrous 
as his military career had been disgraceful ; 
he was, in office, the determined foe of 
American independence, and he directed 
those measures which severed her transat- 
lantic provinces from Great Britain. Ben- 
jamin Franklin, in an early letter to Priestly, 
thus predicted the consequences: "When 
Lord Germain is at the head of affairs, it 
cannot be expected that anything like 
reason or moderation could be attended 
to. Everything breathes rancour and des- 
peration, and nothing but absolute impo- 




tence will stop their proceedings. We, 
therefore, look on final separation from 
yon as a certain and speedy event !" 

On his resigning the seals in 1782, he 
was raised by royal favour to the peerage, 
by the title of Viscount Sackville: an 
elevation which revived all the bitter re- 
collections of days gone by, and was thus 
denounced in a spirited satirical produc- 
tion of the period. 

The Robe Patrician now shall cover all! 

Disgrace no more degrade, or fear appal ; 

The guilt is lost, that once the conscious plain 

Of Minden blushing saw through all her slain. 

Such is the magic of this crimson vest, 

When clasped with royal hands across the breast ; 

It mounts the coward to the hero's place, 

Wipes from the recreant brow each foul disgrace; 

Confounds, perverts all honours and degree, 

And makes a hero e'en, Germain, of thee ! 

Know, haughty peer, the western world disdains 

Such tools of office, and such feeble chains, 

As hands like thine, or stronger hand of George, 

Or heads or hands more wise and strong can forge. 

The newly created peer on his introduc- 
tion into the House of Lords was destined 
to endure perhaps the most galling of his 
many humiliations ; he heard his igno- 
minious sentence and its confirmation read 
aloud, and himself denounced as "the 
greatest criminal this country ever knew." 
He was accused not only of misconduct 
in the field, but of being the author of all 
the calamities of the recent war. It was 
moved that the admission of a man whose 
disgrace had been entered on the orderly 
book of every regiment, would be dero- 
gatory to the dignity of that assembly, 
and the House was earnestly invoked not 
to suffer him to enter it and contaminate 
the peerage. The obnoxious viscount de- 
fended himself with courage and calmness ; 
the prerogative of the crown was recog- 
nised ; but a protest recorded the sen- 
timents of nine peers, and the object thus 
arraigned did not long survive the accu- 
mulated indignities to which he had been 
forced to submit. 


Dear Sir: 

Hearing that you are desirous of obtain- 
ing information of any kind concerning the 
aborigines of the country, I venture to for- 
ward you a few observations on the man- 
ners and customs of the Esquimaux and 
Loucheux, made during a visit among them 
last summer. They are very broken and 
fragmentary, but they may perhaps furnish 
you with materials to work up in a better 
way. Should incidents, apparently trifling 
in themselves, be noticed, it will not be 
without design, for in savage life they often 
prove the truest indices to character, and 
help us to understand much that we might 
otherwise fail to comprehend. 

I left here on the 29th of May in a small 
canoe, paddled by a couple of Chipewyan 
Indians belonging to my mission. We 
followed the ice down the McKenzie, and 
on the 11th of June entered the frigid 
zone. Then, however, it was more like a 
torrid one, for the sun shed upon us abun- 
dance of light and heat for the whole 
twenty-four hours. When near Point Se- 
paration we met with the first party of 
Esquimaux, and between there and the 
fort on Peel's river we saw great numbers, 
all of whom, from their thievish propensi- 
ties, gave us a great deal of trouble. They 
are a fine-looking race of people, and, from 
their general appearance and habits, I ima- 
gine them to be much more intelligent than 
the Indians. And if proof were wanting, 
we have it in a girl who was brought up 
from the Arctic coast, and is now living at 
my house. She is remarkably clever and 
active, and reads, speaks, and writes the 
English language very correctly. The men 
are tall, active, and exceedingly strong; 
most of them have a profusion of beard and 
whiskers. The women are rather short, . 
but comparatively fair, and possess very 
regular and by no means badly formed fea- 
tures. The peculiarity in both sexes con- 
sists in the obliquity of their eyes and 
somewhat pear shape of their face. The 
females have a singular practice of periodi- 
cally cutting the hair from the crow n of 




their husbands' heads, and, fastening the 
spoil to their own, wear it in large bundles, 
one on each side of the face, and a third 
on the top of the head, somewhat in the 
manner of the Japanese visitors recently in 
the United States. This practice by no 
means improves either their figure or ap- 
pearance, and as they advance in life the 
bundles become uncomfortably large. Both 
sexes are inveterate smokers, but they 
smoke very little at a time. Their pipes 
are made principally of copper, and are of 
their own manufacture. In shape the bowl 
is very like a reel used for cotton, and the 
aperture for receiving the tobacco not 
much larger than the hole through the cen- 
tre of the reel. This they fill with finely 
cut tobacco, and, when lighted, withhold 
respiration till the pipe is finished. The 
smoke is all swallowed, none being allowed 
to escape even through the nose. The 
effect is very great upon their nervous sys- 
tem, and when a pipe is finished they will 
sometimes lie for ten minutes trembling 
like an aspen leaf. All that I saw were 
exceedingly well dressed in deer-skin cloth- 
ing, with the hair outside ; and, being new 
and nicely ornamented with white seal- 
skins, looked clean and comfortable. Their 
little kiyacks or canoes were beautifully 
made, and all well armed with spears, 
bows, and arrows of their own manufacture. 
Their omiacks, or boats, were clumsy look- 
ing articles, and consisted of a rough frame- 
work of wood, lashed together with walrus 
lines, over which a lining of parchment 
was tightly stretched. They are used solely 
by the women and children, each one being 
large enough to hold three or four families, 
with their baggage. 

At Peel's river I met with a large num- 
ber of Loucheux Indians, and with a far 
greater number at the Youcon. They are 
a fierce, turbulent, and cruel race, much 
more nearly approximating to Algonquin 
tribes than to the quiet Chipewyans of the 
McKenzie valley. They extend from about 
65° N". to very nearly the Arctic coast, 
and from the McKenzie westward to Beh- 
ring's Straits. They were once very nume- 
rous, but wars among them and with their 
Eskimo neighbors have diminished their 

numbers a good deal. They are still, how- 
ever, a strong and powerful people. 

They are doubtless of Tartar origin ; for 
their personal appearance, the practice of 
Shamanism, scarifications in sorrow, burn- 
ing their dead, infanticide, a species of 
caste, and many other customs, point us at 
once to the inhabitants of Eastern Siberia 
as the parent stock. And, though there 
are now many important differences both 
in habits and language, they are evidently 
a branch of the Chipewyan or Tinne race. 
And if this be so, then the Tinne family 
holds a very important position among the 
aborigines of the country, extending as it 
does in an unbroken line from Hudson's 
Bay to the Pacific Ocean, and in a broken 
though visible chain from near the Arctic 
coast to the Gulf of Mexico. How many 
centuries they took to traverse and occupy 
this immense extent of country, break up 
into bands, which grew up into tribes, and 
by non-intercourse acquire habits and dia- 
lects of their own, I can form no conjec- 
ture. But, with their wandering habits, 
nothing could be more easy; and with 
abundant means of life, there would soon 
be a rapid increase in numbers. A careful 
comparison of the vocabularies in HaWs 
Ethnology with several that have been 
taken in this district, and with the aid of a 
valuable and beautiful map of the aborigi- 
nal tribes of the country, lately published 
by the United States Government, shows 
at once the vast range the Tinne family 
takes. According to the above authorities, 
together with a census of the tribes here, 
taken a few years ago by the Hudson's 
Bay Company, the Tinne number forty-one 
tribes, amounting in the aggregate to about 
32,000 souls. Many subjects of interest 
here suggest themselves for remark ; but 
as they apply to the Tinne generally, and 
not to the Loucheux in particular, I must 
not indulge myself with them. 

The Loucheux are divided into many 
petty tribes, each one having its own chief, 
as the Hun-Kootchin (River Indians), Vun- 
ta-Kootchin (Lake Indians), Toucjion-Koot- 
chin (Wood Indians), and many others; 
but the general appearance, dress, habits, 
and language are very much the same in 




all, and all go under the general names of 
Loucheux and Kootchin. The latter is 
their own appellation, meaning literally 
41 the people," and of course is the one by 
which they ought always to be designated. 
The former was given to them by the whites 
who first came to trade with them. There 
is another division among them of a more 
interesting and important nature than the 
petty tribes just referred to. All, irre- 
spective of tribe, are divided into three 
grades, faintly resembling the upper, mid- 
dle, and lower classes of civilized nations. 
These are termed respectively Chit-sa, 
Nate-sa, and A-teet-sa, the former being 
the richest and the latter the poorest. 
They differ, however, from the customs of 
civilized life in this, that it is the rule for a 
man not to marry in his own, but to take 
a wife from either of the other classes. A 
Chitsa nobleman will marry an A-teet-sa 
peasant without any feeling of infra dig. 
This marriage code must have a beneficial 
influence in allaying feuds, as in every case 
the children belong to the grade of the 
mother, and the different families and 
tribes that belong to the same grade will 
never make war with each other. A man's 
children may belong to the grade against 
which he is called upon by his chief to 
fight, in which case he will naturally seek 
for peace. And so it has been, for there 
is very little warfare among them now. 

Their dress is the same in all the tribes, 
and very nearly so of both sexes. It con- 
sists of a sort of tunic or pointed shirt, and 
trowsers, to which the shoes are attached. 
The pointed shirt and shoes attached to 
the trowsers are two differences between 
their dress and that of the Tinne. It may, 
however, be a difference only of recent 
date. For if the derivation of the word 
Chipewyan be " pointed shirt " in the Cree, 
and not " dead dog," as some have said, 
then undoubtedly the Tinne wore garments 
of that shape when the Crees first met 
them. The only difference observable be- 
tween the dress of the women and that of 
the men is that the tunic of the women is 
rather longer, rounded a little in front, and 
more profusely decorated with either beads 
or hyaquois shells, of which both sexes are 

passionately fond. Their dresses are all 
made of leather, and when new look be- 
coming and comfortable. 

The men paint their faces something like 
the Crees ; and all have the septum of the 
nose pierced, through which two or more 
hyaquois shells are placed, giving a most 
extraordinary expression to the face. The 
women tatoo their chins in vertical lines, 
from one corner of the mouth to the other ; 
and in some few instances I observed two 
or three horizontal lines from the outer 
corners of their eyes. Neither of these 
customs is practised by the Tinne of the 
McKenzie valley, but both are adopted by 
the Moyave (Tinne) tribes of the south. 

The Kootchin are the only Indians in 
the Hudson's Bay territories who collect 
wealth or have a system of barter among 
themselves. Both are much practised by 
them, hyaquois shells or beads being the 
medium of currency. The man who has 
the most beads is considered the richest. 
After they are purchased from the Compa- 
ny's stores they are threaded by the women 
on strips of leather a fathom long, and are 
thus kept and bartered among themselves. 
Some never hunt a fur, but trade them 
from more distant tribes, among whom 
they make annual expeditions for that pur- 
pose. Were they in a country more acces- 
sible and hospitable this propensity might 
be turned to a good account, and they be- 
come as renowned as their congeners, the 
Navajos, who are rich in agricultural and 
commercial wealth. 

The Kootchin women are inferior in 
looks and fewer in number than the men. 
The former arises, probably, from the harsh 
treatment they receive and the heavy work 
they have to perform; the latter, I fear, 
must be attributed to female infanticide, 
which is but too prevalent among them. 
The Company's officers have made strenu- 
ous and laudable efforts to abolish so cruel 
a practice, and in many cases I rejoice to 
know were successful ; but it still obtains 
to a large extent among them. Polygamy 
is also the source of many evils among 
them. The Kootchin multiplies his wives 
as a farmer increases his beasts of burden. 
The more wives he has the more work he 



gets clone. Hence it is not uncommon for 
an influential Indian to have as many as 
four or five at the same time. The effect 
of this, where the number of females is so 
much below that of the males, may be easily 
conceived ; dissatisfaction, jealousies, quar- 
rels, and murders are the natural results. 
There is no marriage ceremony of any kind, 
nor previous courtship required. The 
only thing necessary is the consent of the 
bride's mother ; that is a sine qua non in 
all cases. Neither father nor brothers have 
a voice in the matter, and would rather sit 
and see the girl torn in pieces by contend- 
ing rivals than interfere in any way. 
Youths of both sexes mature very early. 
Girls generally have their first menses from 
thirteen to fourteen years of age. On their 
first appearance the unfortunate creature 
is banished from the camp for a whole year. 
A little tent is built for her at a distance 
from the others, in which she has to pass 
the whole of that time alone. Should she 
walk out at all, it must be with a kind of 
bonnet on her head, with long fringes at- 
tached, which nearly cover her face. I 
saw one thus exiled near to Fort Youcon. 
Formerly it was the practice of the whole 
nation to burn their dead, after which the 
ashes were collected, and being carefully 
sewed up in a leather bag, were suspended 
from the top of a painted pole placed in a 
clear and elevated spot. But owing to the 
long residence of the whites at Peel's river, 
the inhabitants of that vicinity now bury 
on stages or in the ground. Their neigh- 
bors of the Youcon are more or less adopt- 
ing the same methods. There is but little 
ceremony at the time of interment, unless 
the deceased had been a chief or some other 
notable personage. The property is inter- 
red with the owner, and nightly wailings 
are kept up for a time. During this pe- 
riod, indeed for nearly a year, the nearest 
male relative is employed in purchasing or 
otherwise collecting meat, grease, furs, 
beads, etc., for a " dead dance." At the 
time appointed all who are invited attend. 
The first day is spent in feasting upon the 
best they have, and in the evening the 
dance commences. It consists of a large 
number moving round and round in a 

circle, each trying to outstrip the other in 
the contortions of his body, but all beating 
admirable time with their feet. The dance 
is accompanied by a song or kind of dirge, 
in which the qualities of the deceased are 
enumerated. Some of their airs are ex- 
ceedingly plaintive and beautiful. This 
custom is kept up so long as the host can 
entertain his guests, after which time pre- 
sents of beads, etc., are distributed, and the 
ceremonies completed. It is said of the 
Crees that they have a no music in their 
souls." Be this as it may, it would by no 
means apply to the Kootchin. Mr. Lock- 
hart has already collected eight or ten of 
their songs, which he has set to music, and 
is still collecting others. Unfortunately 
he had none of their " dead songs " when 
I was there, or I would have inserted one 

There is no regular order of priesthood 
among them, though Shamanism prevails 
throughout. Any one w T ho feels disposed, 
may turn " medicine-man ;" but some are 
esteemed much more highly than others. 
All, how T ever, are implicitly trusted, and 
very liberally paid when their services are 
required. And not only do the people 
think the "doctors" can charm away sick- 
ness and danger, but also that they have 
power to inflict them — even on Indians at 
a distance ; and so deeply rooted is this 
idea in their minds, that they believe all 
who die before reaching old age have been 
killed by the influence of some conjuror 
whom they have offended, or whom some 
other person had hired to do the deed. 
When the services of a medicine-man are 
required, a female takes a quantity of beads 
to the tent of the selected doctor, and 
without saying anything throws them at 
his feet and returns. If he thinks the sum 
sufficient, he rises and follows her back to 
her tent, where the incantations take place. 
If successful, he receives all the credit ; if 
otherwise, he declares a distant doctor 
opposed him, w r ho, being better paid, 
proved the stronger. * 

As in the case of most other uncivilized 
people, it is very difficult to know what 
their real dispositions are, as they so fre- 
quently do acts so completely at variance 




with each other. As a whole they are de- 
cidedly bloodthirsty, cruel, and treache- 
rous, though to this charge there are many 
honorable exceptions. That they are su- 
perstitious and credulous, their whole sys- 
tem of Shamanism goes to prove. They 
are tolerably honest ; that is, they will not 
pilfer from the fort, and yet they pillage 
each other's wives if they can, and often 
rob distant Indians of their furs. They 
are exceedingly hospitable to any one 
visiting them in their camps ; at the same 
time selfishness is not one of their least 
prominent traits. All, I fear, are confirm- 
ed liars, as are all the Indians throughout 
the whole district. The inferior estimation 
in which women are held, the practice of 
robbing each other of their wives, and the 
facilities for divorce, combine to produce a 
very low state of morality among them. 
But as the Gospel has now found its way 
among them, it will, I trust, produce its 
legitimate fruits among them. Their pre- 
sent religious notions are very few and in- 
distinct. They have some knowledge of a 
supreme being, but as they possess no idea 
of a future state, this knowledge exerts no 
influence over their actions. If they have 
any religion at all it is one of fear, as they 
all more or less deprecate the wrath of de- 
mons. They possess, however, neither 
rites nor altars of any kind, nor do their 
medicine-men at all oppose the preaching 
of the Gospel among them. When there 
last summer, all at the fort — upwards of 
five hundred in number — attended my 
ministry with the greatest delight three 
times a day, and before I left, medicine-men 
renounced their craft, polygamists gave up 
their wives, murderers confessed their 
crimes, and mothers told of deeds of blood 
that sickened one to hear, and all sought 
for pardon and amendment. Whether 
they were sincere or not I cannot tell. 
Much may have been owing to novelty, as 
they had never seen a clergyman of any 
kind before ; but as I am just on the eve 
of visiting them again, I shall know this 
and many other things about them. 

With the aid of my good friend, Mr. 
Ross here, I have mapped out the position 
of the different tribes, but as I am not very 


certain as to its accuracy, will not Bend it 
now. I will, however, take a copy with 
me this summer, and when on the spot 
shall be able to correct all the errors in it, 
and, if I hear that you would like it, will 
forward it next year. 

Should this paper be of no use to you, 
may I ask you kindly to forward it to the 
editor of the Canadian Naturalist, as it 
may furnish him with an article. 
With very kind regards, 

Believe me, yours sincerelv, 

W. W. KlRKBY. 

Fobt Simpson, McKewzik's Kivek, June 1, 1862. 


We have noticed with satisfaction the 
interest manifested in the articles recently 
published in the Historical Magazine on 
the subject of slavery in Massachusetts. 
But we confess a little disappointment that 
the writer of those articles has not con- 
tinued the series — which must be our apo- 
logy to that gentleman if in the present 
communication we are anticipating his 
treatment of a part of his general subject. 
If so, we beg " E. Y. E." to receive it as 
a contribution of materials only for him to 
work up, as he may please, hereafter. 

We desire now to call attention to two 
acts of legislation in Massachusetts which 
were passed in the year 1788 — eight years 
after the alleged termination of slavery in 
that State by the adoption of the Constitu- 
tion. These acts were passed just after 
the adoption of the Federal Constitution 
by the State Convention. 

The first is the only one directly and 
positively hostile to slavery to be found 
among all their statutes. 

It is a very remarkable fact that the 
reluctance of the Legislature to meet the 
subject fairly and fully in front should have 
left their statute book in such a question- 
able shape. With Portia glowing with 
delight at the unsuccessful choice of her 
sable suitor, they seem to have wished to 




" A gentle riddance : draw the curtains; go — 
Let all of his complexion clmse me so." 

Merchant of Venice ; Act II. Sc. VIII. 

But neither the cupidity of their slave- 
trading merchants nor the peculiar impro- 
vidence of the negro — the one sharpened 
by successful gain, the other hardened into 
hopeless acquiescence with pauperism — 
would permit this u gentle riddance," and 
although the " curtains" have been " drawn" 
over these disagreeable features for nearly 
a century, the historian of slavery must 
let in the light upon them. To paraphrase 
slightly the verses of one of their own 
early elegiac poets : — 

" Let all New England, and let Boston know, 
How much they do to truth for slavery owe." 

As early as 1785, the Legislature insti- 
tuted an inquiry as to the measures proper 
to be adopted by them to discountenance 
and prevent any inhabitant of the com- 
monwealth being concerned in the slave- 
trade. The inquiry was also extended to 
the condition of negroes then in the State, 
or who might thereafter come or be 
brought into it. Journals : V. 222. Bills 
were prepared and referred to the Com- 
mittee on the Revision of the Laws, with 
instructions to revise all the laws respect- 
ing negroes and mulattoes, and report at a 
future session. lb. 342. 

In the following year, a joint order was 
made for a committee to report measures 
for j)reventing negroes coming into the 
commonwealth from other States. Jour- 
nals: VI. 463. Another similar order 
was made by the House of Representatives 
in 1787. Journals: VII. 524. 

Earlier in the same year, a number of 
African blacks petitioned the Legislature 
for aid to enable them to return to their 
native country. lb. "VII. 381. A Quaker 
petition against the slave-trade was read in 
the Senate June 20, 1787, and not accepted, 
but referred to the Revising Committee, 
who were directed to report a bill upon 
"the subject matter of negroes in this 
Commonwealth at large." Senate : Vol. 
VIII. 81. H. of B. Vol. VIII. 88. 

The prohibition of the slave-trade by 
Massachusetts was at last effected in 1788. 
A most flagrant and outrageous case of 

kidnapping occurred in Boston in the 
month of February in that year. This 
infamous transaction aroused the public in- 
dignation, and all classes united in urging 
upon the Legislature the passage of effec- 
tual laws to prevent the further prosecu- 
tion of the traffic, and protect the inhabit- 
ants of the State against the repetition of 
similar outrages. 

The movement was successful, and on 
the 26th of March, 1788, the Legislature 
of Massachusetts passed " An act to pre- 
vent the Slave- Trade, and for granting 
Belief to the Families of such unhappy 
Persons as may be kidnapped or decoyed 
away from this Commonwealth." By this 
law it was enacted " that no citizen of this 
commonwealth, or other person residing 
within the same," shall import, transport, 
buy or sell any of the inhabitants of Africa 
as slaves or servants for term of years, on 
penalty of fifty pounds for every person 
so misused, and two hundred pounds for 
every vessel fitted out and employed in 
the traffic. All insurance made on such 
vessels to be void and of no effect. And 
to meet the case of kidnapping, when inha- 
bitants were carried off, actions of damage 
might be brought by their friend's — the 
latter giving bonds to apply the moneys 
recovered to the use and maintenance of 
the family of the injured party. 

A proviso was added " that this act do not 
extend to vessels which have already sailed, 
their owners, factors, or commanders, for 
and during their present voyage, or to any 
insurance that shall have been made pre- 
vious to the passing of the same." How 
far this proviso may be justly held to be a 
legislative sanction of the traffic we leave 
to the reader to decide. It is obvious that 
the "public sentiment" of Massachusetts 
in 1788 was not strong enough against the 
slave trade, even under the atrocious pro- 
vocation of kidnapping in the streets of 
Boston, to treat the pirates who had al- 
ready sailed as they deserved. Rome was 
not built in a day — neither could the mo- 
dern Athens rejoice in an anti-slavery Mi- 
nerva, fresh in an instant from the brain of 
the almighty "public sentiment" of Massa- 




This act was, as we have seen, passed on 
the 25th of March, 1788. It was accom- 
panied by another act, passed on the fol- 
k> wing day, hardly less hostile to the negro 
than this was to slavery — the pioneer of a 
series of similar acts (though less severe) 
which have subjected the new States to 
most unsparing censure. 

The Massachusetts Act of March 26, 
1788, entitled " An Act for suppressing 
and punishing of Rogues, Vagabonds, 
common Beggars, and other idle, disor- 
derly and lewd Persons," contains the fol- 
lowing very remarkable provision : — 

" V. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid 
[the Senate and House of Representatives in General 
Court assembled], that no person being an African or 
Negro, other than a subject of the Emperor of Mo- 
rocco, or a citizen of some one of the United States 
(to be evidenced by a certificate from the Secretary 
of the State of which he shall be a citizen), shall 
tarry within this Commonwealth for a longer time 
than two months, and upon complaint made to any 
Justice of the Peace within this Commonwealth, that 
any such person has been within the same more than 
two months, the said Justice shall order the said per- 
son to depart out of this Commonwealth, and in case 
that the said African or Negro shall not depart as 
aforesaid, any Justice of the Peace within this Com- 
monwealth, upon complaint and proof made that 
such person has continued within this Commonwealth 
ten days after notice given him or her to depart as 
aforesaid, shall commit the said person to any house 
of correction within the county, there to be kept to 
hard labor agreeable to the rules and orders of the 
said house, until the Sessions of the Peace next to be 
holden within and for the said county ; and the mas- 
ter of the said house of correction is hereby required 
and directed to transmit an attested copy of the war- 
rant of commitment to the said Court, on the first 
day of their said session, and if upon trial at the said 
Court, it shall be made to appear that the said person 
has thus continued within the Commonwealth con- 
trary to the tenor of this act, ho or sho shall be 
whipped not exceeding ten stripes, and ordered to 
depart out of this Commonwealth within ten days; 
and if he or she shall not so depart, the same process 
Khali be had and punishment inflicted, and so toties 

The edition from which we copy is the 
earliest classified edition of " The Per- 
petual Laws of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts," and is not to be found in 
Part I. among those relating to " The Pub- 
lick and Private Rights of Persons," nor 
among the " Miscellaneous" Statutes, but 
in "Part IV." concerning " Criminal 

Matters." We doubt if anything in hu- 
man Legislation can be found which comes 
nearer branding color as a crime ! 

By this law, it will be observed that all 
negroes, resident in Massachusetts, not 
citizens of some one of the States, were 
required to depart in two months, on pen- 
alty of being apprehended, whipped, and 
ordered to depart. The process and punish- 
ment could be renewed every two months. 
The only contemporary explanation of the 
design of the law, which we have met 
with, is to the effect that it was intended 
to prevent fugitive slaves from resorting to 
that State, in hopes to obtain freedom, and 
then being thrown as a dead weight upon 
that community. Belknap: 1795. Are- 
cent writer states that this " enactment 
was said to have been the work of her 
[Massachusetts] leading lawyers, who were 
sufficiently sagacious to foresee the danger- 
ous consequences of the constitutional pro- 
vision, which, on restoring fugitives from 
labor, not only threatened to disturb the 
public peace, but the stability of the sys- 
tem." Amory's Life of Sullivan, I. 226, 
note. We give this illustration of legal 
sagacity in Massachusetts for what it is 
worth — although we are satisfied that the 
statute itself clearly illustrates the intention 
of those who framed it. Expositio con- 
temporanea est optima. 

Realizing the " dead weight" already 
resting upon them in the body of their own 
free negroes (though comparatively small 
in number) they evidently thought it " saga- 
cious" to prevent any addition to it. Fu- 
ture research must ascertain who were " ci- 
tizens" of Massachusetts in 1788 — before 
we can safely declare that even Massachu- 
setts Negroes, Indians and Mulattoes were 
exempted from the alternative of exile or 
the penalties of this statute. The reader 
will not fail to notice below the arbitrary 
and illegal extension of the statute, in its 
application to "people of color, commonly 
called Mulattoes, presumed to come within 
the intention" of the law. 

We have met with one example of the 
enforcement of this law, which is almost 
as " singular" as the statute itself. In the 
Massachusetts Mercury, Boston, printed 




by Young and Minns, Printers to the 
Honorable, the General Court, September 
16, 1800, No. 22, Vol. XVI— the follow- 
ing notice occupies a conspicuous place, 
filling a column of the paper : 

The Officers of Police having made return to the 
Subscriber of the names of the following persons, 
who are Africans or Negroes, not subjects of the 
Emperor of Morocco nor citizens of the United States, 
the same are hereby warned and directed to depart 
out of this Commonwealth before the 10th day of 
October next, as they would avoid the pains and 
penalties of the law in that case provided, which was 
passed by the Legislature, March 26, 1788. 

Charles Bulfinch, Superintendent. 
By order and Direction of the Selectmen. 

Prince Paterson, 
Flora Nash, 


Eliza Cotton. 


Thomas Nicholas and 
Hannah Champlin, 
Nancy Scott, 
Thomas Gardner, 
Violet Freeman, 
Sylvia Gardner, 
Dolly Peach, 
Sally Alexander, 

Philis Nichols, 
Plato Alderson, 
Jack Jeffers, 
Julius Holden, 
Cuffy Buffum, 
Hagar Blackburn 
Polly Gardner, 
Philis Taylor. 

Dinah Miller, 
Rhode Allen, 
Richard Preeman, 
Nancy Gardner, 

Bristol Morandy, 
Scipio Kent, 
Phoebe Seam ore, 
Phcebe Johnson, 

John Denny, 
Hannah Burdine. 

Sally Evens, 
Csesar West and 
Thomas Peterson, 
Henry Sanderson, 
Robert Willet, 
Mary Atkins, 
Amey Spalding, 
George Homes, 
Abraham Fitch, 
Abraham Francis, 
Sally Williams, 
Rnchol Pewnick, 
Esther Dove, 


Silvia Hendrick, 
Nancy Hall, 
Elizabeth Freeman, 
Margaret Harrison. 


John Cooper, 
Margaret Russell, 
Jack Billings. 


Thomas Burdine. 


Thomas Bostick, 
Prince Hayes, 
Nancy Hamik, 
Peggy Ocamum, 
Sally Freeman, 
Hannah West, 
Thomas Stanton, 
Henry Wilson, 
Edward Cole, 
Polly Brown, 
John Johnson, 
Prince Kilsbury, 
Joseph Hicks, 

Elizabeth Francis, 
William Williams, 
David Dove, 
Peter Bayle, 

Katy Bostick, 
Margaret Bean, 
Samuel Beujamin, 
Primus Hutchinson 


Mary Smith, 
Simon Jeffers, 
Peter Francis, 
Elizabeth Branch, 
William Brown, 
Clarissa Scotland, 
John Gardner, 
Fortune Gorden, 

Peter Larkiu and 
Stepney Johnson, 

James Scott, 
Jane Jackson, 
Oliver Nash, 
Thomas Thompson, 

Richard Allen, 
Samuel Posey, 
Prince Wales, 
Peter Gust, 
Butterfield Scotland, 
Cuffy Cummings, 
Sally Gardner, 
Samuel Stevens. 


Jenny Larkin, 
Anne Melville. 


John Evens, 
Cuffey Cook, 
Robert Woodson. 


James Jurden, 
Janus Crage, 

Polly Johnson. 


Anthony George, Peter Cane. 

Catherine Gould, 
Cato Small, 
Richard M'Coy, 


Charlotte Gould, 
Philis Colo. 


James Morfut and 
Mary Davis, 
Peter Lewis, 
Peter Hendrick, 
Mary Shoppo, 
John Pearce, 
Peter Branch, 
Rosanna Symonds, 
Lewis Victor, 
John Laco, 
Peter Jesemy, 
David Bartlet, 
Joseph Lewis, 
John Harrison, 
Boston Alexander, 

Hannah, his wife, 
George Powell, 
Charles Sharp, 
William Shoppo and 
Isaac Johnson, 
Charles Esings, 
Newell Symonds, 
Peter George. 
Lewis Sylvester, 
Thomas Foster, 
Rebecca Jesemy, 
Thomas Grant, 
Hamet Lewis, 
Mary Brown. 


Casme Francisco and Nancy, his wife. 

Mary Fraceway. 


Susannah Ross. 


John Short. 




Charlotte Morris, 


John Robinson. 


Thomas Williams. 


Henry Taylor. 


John Mum ford. 


Francis Thompson, 
Mary Joseph, 
Samuel Bean, 
Cato Gardner, 
Sophia Mitchel, 
Samuel Blackburn, 
Joseph Ocamum. 

John Brown, 
James Melvile, 
Hamlet Earl, 
Charles Mitchel, 
Samuel Frazier, 
Tiimothy Philips, 




Joseph Lovering. 

The following persons, from several of the United 
States, being people of color, commonly called Mulat- 
toes, are presumed to come within the intention of 
the same law, and are accordingly warned and direct- 
ed to depart out of the Commonwealth before the 
10th day of October next: 

Peter Badger, 
Waley Green, 

Polly Adams, 

John Brown, 
John Way and 
Peter Virginia, 
Lucinda Orange, 
Britton Doras, 
Frank Francies. 


Kelurah Allen, 
Silvia Babcock. 


Paul Jones. 


Polly Holland, 
Nancy Way, 
Leville Steward, 
Anna Sprague, 
Amos Willis, 


Hannah Potter. 


Jacob & Nelly Cummings, 
John Sch um agger, 
Peggy Willouby, 
Mary Reading, 
John Miles, 
Betsy Harris, 
Susannah Foster, 
Mary Thomson, 
Lucy Glapcion, 

Judeth Chew, 
Thomas Willouby, 
John Reading, 
Charles Brown, 
Hannah Williams, 
Douglas Brown, 
Thomas Burros, 
James & Freelove Buck, 
Lucy Lewis, 

Eliza Williams, 

Caesar and Silvia Caton, 

James and Rebecca Smith, 

Diana Bayle, 


William Guin. 

Elonc Virginia, 
Lydia Reed, 
Rebecca Reed, and 

Stephen Boadley, 


Abijah Reed, and 
Abijah Reed, Jr, 
Betsy Reed. 


Hannah Victor. 


Polly Boadley, James Long, 

Hannah Murray, Jeremiah Green, 

Nancy Principeso, David Jackson, 

George, Jackson, William Coak, 
Moses Long. 


Nancy Gust. 

John Clark, 

Sally Hacker, 
John Johnson, 
Anthony Paine, 
William Hacker, 
Betsy Guin, 


Sally Johnson. 



Thomas Steward, 
Mary Burk, 
Polly Losours, 
Lucy Brown. 


Nancy Doras." 

This notice appears to have been gene- 
rally published in Boston, and was copied 
in other cities without the list of names. 
We have met with it in the Commercial 
Advertiser of the 20th September, 1800, 
and the Daily Advertiser, 22d September, 
1800, both in New York. Also in the Ga- 
zette of the United States and Daily Ad- 
vertiser of 23d September, 1800, in Phila- 

We have seen no comments of the Bos- 
ton press on the subject, but references to 
it in the New York and Philadelphia 
papers hint at the probable cause of this 
stringent and sweeping application of this 
" singular" statute. 

In the year 1800, the whole country 
was excited by the discovery of an alleged 
plot for a general insurrection of negroes 
at the South. Gabriel, the negro general, 
was the " hero," though not the only vic- 
tim. The affair assumed at once a very 
serious aspect, and the alarm was " awful" 




in Virginia and South Carolina. The party 
violence of the day was not slow to make 
use of it, and it was doubtless true that 
the principles of Liberty and Equality had 
been in some degree infused into the minds 
of the negroes, and that the incautious and 
intemperate use of these words by the 
" fierce democracie" of that day in Virgi- 
nia may have inspired them with hopes of 

But the alarm was not confined to Vir- 
ginia. Even in Boston fears were express- 
ed and measures of prevention adopted. 
N". T. Advertiser, Sept. 26, 1800. The 
Gazette of the United States and Daily 
Advertiser, by C. P. Wayne, Vol. XVIII., 
Number 2493, Philadelphia, September 23, 

1800, copies the " Notice" with these re- 
marks : 

" The following notice has been published in the 
Boston papers : It seems probable, from the nature of 
the notice, that some suspicions of the design of the 
negroes are entertained, and we regret to say there is 
too much cause." 

Such was the act, and such was one of 
its applications. 

Additional acts were passed in 1798 and 

1801, but this portion was neither modified 
ncr r3pealed. It appears in the revised 
edition of 1807, without change. 

In 1821, the Legislature of Massachu 
setts, alarmed by "increase of a species of 
population, which threatened to become 
both injurious and burthensome," and fully 
alive to " the necessity of checking'' it, 
appointed a committee to report a bill 
concerning the admission into the State of 
free Negroes and Mulattoes. 

A report of this committee to the House 
of Representatives in 1822 refers to the 
statute of 1788, in these words : 

" They [the committee] have already found in the 
Statute Books of this Commonwealth, a law passed 
in 1788, regulating the residence in this State of cer- 
tain persons of color — they believe that this law has 
never been enforced, and ineffectual as it has proved, 
they would never have been the authors of placing 
among the Statutes a law so arbitrary in its principle, 
and in its operation so little accordant with the insti- 
tutions, feelings, and practices of the people of this 

this act, and reported no new bill such as 
they were instructed to prepare, it is per- 
haps proper to infer that they considered 
the State amply protected by the old law. 
It appears again in the revised laws of 
1823. Another additional act was passed 
in 1825, but without alteration of the pro- 
vision against negroes ; and this statute, 
" so arbitrary in its principle, and in its 
operation so little accordant with the insti- 
tutions, feelings, and practices of the people 
of the Commonwealth," continued to grace 
the Statute Book of Massachusetts until 
the first day of April, 1834, after which 
time its repeal no longer left it to " public 
opinion" to regulate its enforcement. — 
Journal of Commerce, March 17, 1864. 

G. E. R. 

States an& tymm, 

" These be good words," but as the 
committee did not recommend a repeal of 


The Book of Common Prayer for the 
Confederate States. — I have very recent- 
ly examined one of the copies of the Book 
of Common Prayer from the cargo of 
the Anglo-Rebel blockade-runner, Minna, 
captured on the 6th Dec, 1863, off Wil- 
mington, by the Government despatch- 
ship, Circassian, Capt. Eaton. The prize 
was carried into Boston, and this portion 
of the cargo sold there. 

The book was no doubt printed in Lon- 
don. I will give you a transcript of the 
title-page. I do not know whether Jeff. 
Davis is head of the Church as well as 
head of the Confederate States. Whoever 
was employed to correct the book has exe- 
cuted his work about as well as Mr. Davis's 
other agents ; of this I will offer proof 

The following is the title : — The Book of 
Common Prayer and Administration of the 
Sacraments ; and other Rites and Cere- 
monies of the Church, according to the use 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
Confederate States of America, together 




with the Psalter or Psalms of David. 
Richmond, Virginia: J. W. Randolph, 
1863. On the verso of the title, " London : 
— Printed by G. E. Eyre and W. Spottis- 
woode." The imprint of the titles to the 
metrical Psalms and to the Hymns agree 
with that of the title to the book ; but 
there is no reference on them to the place 
of printing or to the printers. 

The alterations in the book itself occur 
in the Prayer for the President of the 
Confederate States, etc., in the service of 
Morning and Evening Prayer, and in the 
Prayer for Congress. But in the form of 
ordaining or consecrating a Bishop, the 
promise of conformity to be taken by the 
elected Bishop is left unchanged. It still 
reads, " I do promise conformity and obedi- 
ence to the Doctrine, Discipline, and Wor- 
ship of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in the United States of America, etc." 

A more remarkable oversight occurs in 
one of the prayers to be used in ships-of- 
war at sea. The following passage is re- 
tained : " Preserve us from the dangers of 
the sea and from the violence of the enemy ; 
that we may be a safeguard unto the United 
States of America, and a security for such 
as pass on the seas upon their lawful oc- 

Every one will see at once how peculiar- 
ly appropriate it would be to use this form 
of prayer on board of the Alabama and 
the other Confederate privateers. 

The copy I describe is in 16mo ; I have 
seen another copy in 12mo., but I have 
not had the opportunity of examining it. I 
believe, however, that the two editions 
correspond in all respects. 

J. L. 

The Place of the Death of Father 
Rene Menard. — Bancroft, in the third 
volume of his history, using for the first 
time the simple narratives of the early 
mission labors of the Jesuit Fathers, drew 
a picture of singular beauty, which has 
prompted many to read, appreciate, and 
study the period and the men. 

Directed to it myself, I made his chapter 
a volume. In one matter I came to a 
conclusion different from his, and this was 

as to the place where Father Menard was 

" Bidding farewell to his neophytes and 
the French," says the eloquent historian, 
" and to those whom he never more should 
meet on earth, Menard departed with one 
attendant for the Bay of Chegoimegon. 
The accounts would indicate that he took 
the route by way of Keweena Lake and 
portage." History of the United States 
HI. 147. 

The course indicated in the Relations 
did not 'seem to me to bear out the conclu- 
sion that he was going to Chegoimegon 
from Keweenaw Bay. 

He made a considerable journey to a 
lake, the source of a river which he 
descended to a portage where he was lost, 
when within one day's journey of the 
Huron village to which he was proceeding. 

I had found statements that led me to 
believe that the Hurons were then on the 
Noquet Islands on Green Bay, and con- 
cluding the river to be the Menomomee, I 
gave, in the History of the Catholic Missions 
(p. 356), as the locality of his death the 
rapid of that river. 

A subsequent examination of Perrot's 
Moeurs et Coutumes des Sauvages makes 
it evident that the Hurons were then not 
on Noquet Island, but on the Black River. 
Perrot states it expressly in connection 
with Menard's death and previously. A 
branch of the Wisconsin still bears this 
name, which its black water makes true and 
descriptive. A conversation with the Hon. 
Geo. Gale makes me judge that the Hurons 
were on this river, and that Menard died 
on its banks. 

The Black River in name tallies with 
Perrot's account. In character it corres- 
ponds with that described in the Relations. 
It rises in a lake, the journey to which 
from Keweenaw would have been long and 
toilsome. Here Menard rested. The river 
runs at first through a marshy tract, and then 
enters a rough country, the channel being 
embarrassed with granite rocks. A fall 
occurs at last, and here was apparently 
the portage where Menard was lost. What 
makes it the more probable, is that a day's 
march below is a bluff commanding the 




river, evidently an old Indian village site, 
and recently occupied for a time by the 
Winnebagoes. It would be exactly the 
spot for a band of fugitives like these 
Hurons to plant their temporary village, 
as it gave them a look-out and protection 
from attack. J. G. Shea. 

Fkanklin's House at Passy. — Among 
the contributions to the Metropolitan 
Sanitary Fair was a sketch of the residence 
occupied by Franklin when at Passy, 
made by Victor Hugo, and accompanied 
by the following letter : 

"In 1836 I happened to be one day at 
Passy, at M. Raynouard's, the author of 
the tragedy of the Knight Templars. He 
wore his white hair streaming on his shoul- 
ders, and I said to him : 

M ' You wear your hair as Franklin used, 
and you look like him. , 

"He said to me smiling: 'This may 
come from the neighborhood,' and he 
pointed to a house that could be seen from 
his garden. 4 It is there,' said he to me, 
1 that Franklin lived in 1778.' 

"I drew that house, now pulled down. 
This is the sketch. I believe that this 
picture of the house of Franklin, at Passy, 
is the only one in existence. I offer it to 
the United States Sanitary Commission. 

" I am happy that the Sanitary Commis- 
sion have done me the honor to call upon 
me, and afford me an opportunity to renew 
the expression of my heartfelt sympathy 
for the gallant men who are struggling so 
gloriously to rid the great American 
Republic of that sinful system, Slavery. 
"Victor Hugo. 

" Hatttkville House, 15th. March, 1864." 

A Centenarian in Maine. — Mrs. 

Rebecca Pendleton, probably the oldest 
person in Maine, died at Northport, a 
town adjoining the city of Belfast, on the 
fifth of March, aged one hundred and four 
years and six months. She was born on 
Cape Elizabeth, in September, 1759. She 
witnessed the burning of Falmouth, now 
Portland, in 1779. Her faculties, with the 
exception of her hearing, were preserved 
to the day of her death. When more than 

a hundred years old, she walked two miles 
and back on the same day, to attend the 
funeral of her daughter of eighty years of 
age. j. w. 

Belfast, Maine. 

The Capucin Missions in Maine. — 
During the autumn of 1863, Mr. W. H. 
Weeks of Castine, while at work on the 
road leading to the battery, which the 
government was then erecting near the 
mouth of the harbor, upon the site of the 
old brick battery known as the Lower 
Fort, found near the fort, and but little 
below the surface of the ground, a piece of 
sheet-copper. Not observing anything re- 
markable on it, he cut off a piece to repair 
his boat ; subsequently, however, he dis- 
covered letters ; and an inscription, which 
has been thus rendered, was found : 

1648: 8 Jun: F. 
Leo Parisin : 
Capuc. Miss 
Posvi hoc fv- 
ndtm in hnr- 
em Nrse Dmae 
Sanctse Spei 

Some of these letters may not be correct, 
but the inscription is clear, and the plate 
was undoubtedly once in the corner-stone 
of the chapel of our Lady of Holy Hope, in 
the old French Fort. It runs in English 

1648. June 8th, I. Friar 

Leo of Paris, 

Capucin Missionary 

laid this corner stone 

in honor of Our Lady 

of Holy Hope. 

The first French missionary effort on the 
coast of Maine was that of Rev. Nicholas 
Aubri, on Neutral Island, in 1604 ; but 
the colony soon removed to Port Royal, 
where he was joined by the Rev. Jesse 
Fleche. The Jesuit Fathers who came 
to Port Royal in 1611, attempted in 1613 
to found a mission colony on Mount Desert 
Island, but it was broken up by Argal. 

The two French fishing companies who 
next obtained rights on the coast of Maine 
sent out priests. The first who came were 
Reformed Franciscans, or Recollects, who 
had a convent on the St. John's. One 




perished in the wilderness in 1623, and 
the rest abandoned the Held the next year. 

In 1630, under the protection of Charles 
St. Etienne de la Tour, three Recollect 
missionaries labored as far west as the 

D'Aulney established a Capucin Mission 
on the Kennebec in 1643, and the Superior 
residing there had depending on him a 
hospice on the Penobscot at the old fort 
near Castine. 

The Chapel founded by Father Leo in 
1648 was evidently one raised to meet 
the requirements of the increasing number 
of French on the coast. 

There is no published account of the 
labors of these Capucins, and we have 
simply a few detached facts and names. 

When the Jesuit Father Druillettes 
visited the Kennebec in 1646, he found 
Father Ignatius of Paris as Superior. In 
1648, Father Cosmas de Mante held that 
office. Father Leo of Paris is not named, 
and was doubtless the chaplain of the 
Fort. At that time, D'Aulney's establish- 
ment was broken up before 1650, and the 
Capucins carried off. 

Lieut. Bexjamin Jaques, who was 
the direct agent in the death of Father 
Rale at Norridgewock, Me., in 1724, was a 
native of Harpswell, in the same State. 
The account of that transaction, as pre- 
served among his descendants, has been for- 1 
nished to the writer by his great-grandson. ' 

He states that Capt. Johnson Harnian 
of York, the father-in-law of his ancestor, 
and his frequent companion in Indian 
hunting, came into the Kennebec region 
with a body of soldiers, with Capt. Moul- 
ton, to ascend the river and attack the 
Indian settlement at Norridgewock. The 
movement of the detachment was suffi- 
ciently rapid and secret to take the enemy 
by surprise. But they availed themselves 
of the very brief notice given them to meet 
the invaders in a hasty but vigorous con- 
flict, in which they were soon defeated. 
Rale was a fighter with the rest ; and from 
his wigwam endeavored to destroy as 
many of his foes as his opportunity would 
allow. Harman seeing the damage done 


from that quarter, ran to his habitation 
with Jaques. They burst in the door, and 
saw Rale in the act of dropping a bullet 
into the muzzle of his musket. Jaques 
asked him if he would " take quarter." 
He replied "None, only what is in the 
muzzle of my gun." Thereupon Jaques 
discharged his musket and wounded him 
mortally. Harman was a witness of the 
scene, but did not fire. When the Indians 
saw their spiritual guide was killed they 
became discouraged. They lessened their 
exertions at resistance and soon fled, leav- 
ing the English masters of their village, 
which, with its chapel, was immediately com- 
mitted to the flames. They never returned. 
Some time after this event, Jaques was 
ordered to Bagaduce (Castine), under a 
colonel with the office of captain. Here he 
was commissioned to go with a detachment 
of soldiers in boats to a point of land to be 
crossed for the purpose of discovering the 
movements of the Indians. He told the 
commander that he thought the enterprise 
would not be prudent. In reply for his 
opinion he received a reproof that was 
equivalent to an imputation on his courage. 
He said he " would not turn on his heel to 
save his life;" but that he "knew the 
modes of Indian warfare so well that he 
saw reasons for believing that the safety 
of the soldiers in making the scout would 
be greatly endangered by ambush." He 
obeyed the orders, took the men and the 
boats, and landed with his company on the 
shore proposed. They had proceeded but 
a short distance into the woods, on the 
point of land, before he saw an Indian step 
from behind a tree and level his gun at 
him. Instantly he did the same to the 
Indian ; and if his gun had not missed fire, 
probably both would have fallen, as he 
di*d before the accurate aim of his enemy. 
The Indian fled at once, fearing the attack 
of the soldiers. Jaques told them they 
" would see no more Indians, and might 
make their discoveries in safety ;" and so 
it proved. He lived but a few months 
afterwards. His remains were taken to 
Harpswell and there buried. 


Maine, April. 




Letter op Benedict Arnold. — Phila- 
delphia, March 20, IV 80.— Sir: — The Pre- 
sident and Council of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania having published, and officially trans- 
mitted to the different States Sundry Re- 
solutions of theirs, dated Philadelphia, 
Feb. 3, 1779, containing heavy charges 
tending to prejudice the minds of my Fel- 
low-Citizens against me, previous to a trial, 
which with much difficulty I have at length 

The justice due to my own character 
(and to the Public who have been so greatly 
deceived) will I trust excuse the liberty I 
take in transmitting to your Excellency the 
Proceedings of the Court Martial on my 
trial, which I must request you will do me 
the favor to lay before the Council and 
General Assembly ; as I would wish to 
take off from the minds of those gentle- 
men every unfavorable impression, which 
the unprecedented Publication of the Pre- 
sident and Council of Pennsylvania may 
have made, and to convince them that my 
character has been most cruelly and un- 
justly traduced. 

I have the Honor to be with the 
greatest Respect 
Your Excellency 
most obedient and 
very humble servant. 

B. Arnold. 
His Excellency, 
Governor Clinton. 

surviving revolutionary pensioner in Ver- 
mont, p. h. w. 

Coventry, Vt., 27 April, 18G4. 

Revolutionary Pensioners. — (Vol. 
viii. p. 148.) Jonas Gates, one of the 
twelve pensioners supposed to have been 
surviving when the additional pensions were 
granted, had then been dead some weeks. 
He died at Chelsea, Vt., 14 January, 1864, 
aged 99 years, six months, and nine days. 
He was a native of Barre, Mass., and 
entered the service at the age of fourteen 
as waiter to his father, who was a captain. 
When about seventeen years old he enlist- 
ed as a private, but was promoted to the 
post of orderly sergeant, which rank he 
held at the close of the war. He also 
enlisted in the war of 1812, and held a 
lieutenant's commission. He was the last 

Indian Tribes, Chiefs, and Treaties. 
— The following paper, bearing the above 
title, and prepared by Hon. Henry S. Baird, 
an early, intelligent, and respected resi- 
dent of Green Bay, Wisconsin, was lately 
read before the Chicago Historical Society. 
Presenting a compact summary of facts, 
derived in part from authentic public 
documents, and in part from the extensive 
personal information possessed by its au- 
thor, it may be convenient for reference. 

In relation to the " orthography " of the 
names, Mr. Baird writes : " I will not vouch 
for its correctness. I take it from treaties; 
and on reference to them, I find the same 
names often differently written in different 
treaties. An Indian language is difficult 
to write correctly. As there is no Indian 
alphabet, names are written according to 
their supposed sound. The Winnebago 
is the most harsh and guttural of all 
languages. The Menomonee is softer and 
more harmonious ; but both are very diffi- 
cult to speak properly by any one who has 
no Indian blood in his veins. 

" The district of country bounded by 
the Wisconsin River, Lake Michigan, Wolf 
River, and on both sides of Green Bay, 
Fox River, and Winnebago Lake, was 
formerly claimed and occupied principally 
by the Menomonee and Winnebago tribes 
of Indians. Each of these tribes, forty 
years ago, was powerful, and numbered 
several thousands. 

Principal chiefs of the Menomonees — 
Oshkosh (The Brave), Kaush-kaw-no-naive 

(Grizzly Bear), Josette Caron ( ), 

A-yaw-mah-taw (Fish Spawn), Osh-ke- 
e-na-neur (The Young Man), Pe-wait-e- 
naw (Rain), Che-na-po-mee (One that is 
looked at), Ke-ma-ni-kin (Little Wave), 
Ke-shee-o-quo-teur (Flying Cloud), Wa-bose 
(The Rabbit), Wain-e-saut (One who 
arranges the circle), Ke-shoh (The Sun), 
Ma-con-cee-'wa-be-no-chee (Bear's Child), 
A-ca-mut (The Prophet), Sh a w-e-no-ge-shick 
(South Sky), Sho-ne-on (Silver), Shaw-baw- 
so (Pale Color), Pa w-a-ko-neur (Big Soldier). 




Principal chiefs of the Winnebagoes. — 
Hoo-tshoop (Four Legs), Hay-tay-tshoan- 
sarp (Black-Hawk), Karry-man-nee (Walk- 
ing Turtle), Shoank-skaw (White Dog), 
Shoank-tshunsk-kaw (Black Wolf), Maunk- 
hay-raith (Tattooed Breast), Wheank-kaw 
(Big Duck), Spoank-ay-paw-kaw (Dog 
Head), Sar-ray-num-nee (Walking Mat), 
Waunk-tsliay-hee-sootsh (Red Devil), 
Waw-kawn-hoa-noa-nick (Little Snake), 
Non-kaw (Wood), Kaw-nee-show (White 
Crow), Hoon-kaw (Chief), Hoo-wawn-ee- 
kaw (Little Elk), Tshay-ro-tshoan-kaw 
(Smoker), Morah-tshay-kaw (Little Priest), 
Man-ah-kee-tshump (Spotted Arm). 

In character these two tribes were 
essentially different, as may be inferred 
from a former paper on the " North 
American Indians." 

The several treaties, by which the 
Indian title to the lands and domain 
formerly occupied and owned by these 
tribes was purchased, or, in popular phrase, 
"extinguished," were the following: 

1. Treaty of Butte des Morts, August 
11,1827, with Chippewas, Menomonees, and 
Winnebagoes. Lewis Cass and Thomas L. 
McKinney, U.S. Commissioners. 

2. Treaty of Green Bay, August 25, 
1828, with Winnebagoes, Pottawattimees, 
Chippewas, and Ottawas. Lewis Cass and 
Pierre Menard, Commissioners. 

3. Treaty of Prairie du Chien, August 
1, 1829, with Winnebagoes. Gen. Mc- 
Neil, Pierre Menard, and Caleb Atwater, 

4. Treaty of Washington, February 8, 

1831, with Menomonees. John H. Eaton 
and Samuel C. Stambaugh, Commissioners. 

5. Treaty of Fort Armstrong, September 
15, 1832, with Winnebagoes. Gen. Scott 
and John Reynolds, Commissioners. 

6. Treaty of Green Bay, October 27, 

1832, with Menomonees. Gov. George B. 
Porter, Commissioner. 

7. Treaty between the United States 
and the Menomonee Nation of Indians, 
concluded at " Cedar Point," on the Fox 
River, near Green Bay, on 1st September, 
A.D. 1836. Hon Henry Dodge, then 
Governor of Wisconsin, Commissioner of 
the United States. 

8. Treaty between the United States 
and the same Tribe of Indians, concluded 
at " Winneconnee," on Lake Winneconnee, 
near Oshkosh, in November, A.D. 1848. 
Hon. William Medill, then Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, Commissioner of the 
United States. 

The last are the latest and most impor- 
tant, as by them the largest portion of the 
land owned by the "Menomonees" was 
purchased by the Government. 

Mr. Crawford, the last N. S. Loyal- 
ist. — Mr. Archibald Crawford, who died 
on Monday last at Musquodobolt Harbor, 
in the 101st year of his age, was a native 
of South Carolina, and of Scottish parent- 
age. He was a Loyalist, and witnessed 
the first American Revolution ; and when 
that great revolution was consummated, 
young Crawford and his parents made the 
best of their way to Nova Scotia, in order 
to preserve their allegiance to George III. 
He lived for many years on the Musquodo- 
bolt River, near Crawford's Falls, where 
his hospitality was often enjoyed by 
travellers. From this place he removed 
to Porter's Lake, where his house was 
always the home of Presbyterian clergy- 
men officiating there. For the last few 
years he lived with his grandchildren at 
Musquodobolt Harbor. His wife, who 
died about five years ago, was also a loyal- 
ist. Mr. Crawford was probably the last 
of the Refugee Loyalists in the Province. 
He had a clear recollection of all the 
stirring times when the great Republic first 
took its place among the nations. — Halifax 

Beltrami, the Discoverer op the 
Northern Source of the Mississippi. 
— On the morning of the 28th of August, 
1823, Beltrami, an ardent Italian, with 
only an Indian guide, and bois-brule 
voyageur, by way of the Red River of the 
north, boldly penetrated to the extreme 
northern sources of the Mississippi, which 
he designated as the "Julian" sources, in 
compliment to the esteemed Countess of 
Albany. In the journal of his tour, he 
also describes Lac La Biche, or Elk Lake, 




now poetically rather than accurately 
designated Itasca, and says: "It is here, 
in my opinion, we shall fix the western 
sources of the Mississippi." 

This discoverer, so little known to 
Americans, was born in Bergamo, and in 
1807 was chancellor in one of the districts 
of Italy. In 1812 he went to Florence and 
became one of an interesting literary circle 
in that city, of which the Countess of 
Albany was a prominent member. 

Suspected of " Carbonarism," he became 
an exile, and visited France, Germany, 
England, the United States, and Mexico. 
Later in life he resided for several years 
near Heidelberg, but at length returned to 
his beloved Italia, and died at Filotrant in 
1855, aged seventy-five years. 

Prominent in the public library of 
Bergamo, there is a finely-executed paint- 
ing representing Beltrami in a canoe, 
pushing towards the sources of the Missis- 
sippi. A letter just received from Berga- 
mo, dated February 11, and addressed to 
a gentleman who has given great attention 
to the topography of the Upper Mississippi, 
and now on duty at the headquarters of 
the army, states that the city of Bergamo 
is about to publish a biographical notice of 
Beltrami, with a portrait, and that the 
work will be dedicated to the Historical 
Society of Minnesota. 

This society of the most northern State 
in the valley of the Mississippi has become 
favorably known in Europe, through the 
labors of its members, who have given to 
the world the "Dakota Grammar and 
Lexicon," issued by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, and one of the largest works on the 
language of the aborigines of North 
America ever published, and also by vari- 
ous additions to the topography and 
history of the region west of Lake Supe- 
rior, printed in its own Annals, and other 
historical magazines. 

Origin of the Name Pennsylvania. — 
Being moved to inquire when, and from 
whom, and under what circumstances the 
State received its name, we consulted Day's 
Historical Collections of Pennsylvania, a 
very good compilation, and found only this 

simple memorandum: "By the King's 
order, much against Penn's inclination, the 
new province was to be called Pennsylva- 
nia, in honor of the services of his illus- 
trious father." No particulars were given 
and no proof of the statement was cited. 
We opened a book of more research, and 
found the particulars recorded, with the 
authority given. It was Hazard's Annals 
of Pennsylvania, a work which contains, it 
is believed, the only authentic and circum- 
stantial account of the naming of the pro- 
vince on record. And now see how true 
is history : 

Hazard quotes from official records to 
show that when the privy council of Charles 
submitted to him the draft of the charter 
of the province, " there being a blank left 
for the name, their lordships agree to leave 
the nomination of it to the King." The 
day after the charter was granted to Penn, 
he wrote a letter to a certain Robert Tur- 
ner, in which he gives the particulars of 
the naming of his province. The essential 
parts of that letter we quote : 

" * * * Know that after many waitings, 
watchings, solicitings, and disputes in council, this 
day my country was confirmed to me under the great 
seal of England, with large powers and privileges, by 
the name of Pennsylvania, a name the King would 
give it in honor of my father. I chose New Wales, 
being a pretty hilly country ; but Penn being Welsh 
for a head, as Penmanmoire in Wales, and Penrith in 
Cumberland, and Penn in Buckinghamshire, the high- 
est land in England, called this Pennsylvania, which 
is the high or head woodlands ; for I proposed, when 
the Secretary, a Welshman, refused to have it called 
New Wales, Sylvania, and they added Penn to it, 
and though I much opposed it and went to the King 
to have it struck out and altered, he said it was past, 
and would take it upon him ; nor could twenty guineas 
move the under-secretaries to vary the name, for I 
feared lest it should be looked on as a vanity in me, 
and not as a respect in the King, as it truly was, to 
my father, whom he often mentions with praise." 

Although it may appear irreverent in us 
to say so, we cannot resist the temptation 
to remark that the great Quaker seems to 
have been a perfect master of the art of 
"how not to do it." At first sight the 
reader will probably conclude, as we did, 
that to the King do we owe the whole of 
the name of our State; but a second look 
will convince him that we are indebted to 




1*01111 for the Sylvania portion of it. So 
much seems to be clear and unquestionable. 
Now, from whom came the prefix Pennf 
That is not so clear. Penn having at first 
stated with much positiveness that "the 
King would give" to the province "the 
name of Pennsylvania,'' and having sub- 
sequently stated that he proposed Sylva- 
nia, Ave naturally hesitate to receive the 
remainder of his statement without a care- 
ful analysis of its meaning. Failing to 
obtain the adoption of the name of New 
Wales, Penn, as we have seen, proposed 
Sylvania, and immediately afterwards re- 
marks that "they added Penn to it." To 
whom does the term " they " refer ? There 
are three considerations which point to the 
secretary and his assistants as the persons 
meant. First, if Penn had meant the 
King it is to be presumed that he would 
have said so ; secondly, the term is plural, 
not singular ; thirdly, Penn offered to bribe 
the uncler-secretaries to omit the prefix, 
which he would hardly have done if the 
King had ordered it to be inserted. So 
far the evidence points from the King. 
But Penn does not forget himself, and 
straightway proceeds to give evidence on 
the other side — " for I feared lest it should 
be looked on as a vanity in me, and not as 
a respect in the King, as it truly was, to 
my father." And this is the history of 
the naming of our State. That the King's 
privy council, in submitting to his majesty 
the draft of the charter of the province, 
left to him the selection of a name there- 
for, Hazard expressly states and proves 
before giving the Turner letter ; but that 
the King exercised the privilege is not 
proved from that letter, nor from anything 
else in Hazard's book. 

We add a remark or two appropriate to 
the general subject. Inappropriate and 
uneuphonious as would have been the name 
by which Penn first proposed to call our 
State — namely, New Wales— there was 
nevertheless ample precedent for its use. 
The impulse to prefix new to the names of 
provinces and towns was a strong one with 
our colonial forefathers. There were New 
England, New Netherlands, New Amster- 
dam, New York, New Jersey, New Swe- 

den, etc. Why not New Wales and New 
Welshmen ! 

The charter of the province of Pennsyl- 
vania Avas granted to AVilliam Penn in con- 
sideration of a debt of £16,000 due by the 
King to his father at the time of his death. 
Sir William Penn, the father, had been an 
admiral of distinction in the British navy 
and a warm personal friend of his majesty. 
The son, therefore, in reality paid nothing 
out of his own pocket, as we say, for his 
province, except the sum it cost him to 
make the Elm-Tree treaty. 

Penn's fears that the name of Pennsyl- 
vania would be attributed to a desire on 
his part to perpetuate his own name in 
that of his province, have been realized in 
the popular opinion of the day. But how 
many pioneers of civilization who build 
towns and found cities in these latter days 
— there are no longer any provinces to be 
chartered — reflect the modesty of William 
Penn ! 

The Late Thaddeus Morrice, the 
Speaker's Page. — No one who has been 
accustomed to attend the sessions of Con- 
gress during the past fifteen years has 
failed to notice at the right of the Speaker 
a tall, slim, pale-faced, bright-looking lad, 
who gradually grew up into manhood, and 
still retained his position and title, which 
was that of" Speaker's page." No matter 
what party was in power in Congress, 
Thad. Morrice was retained. Every new 
Speaker found him an almost indispensable 
assistant. Standing just at the Speaker's 
elbow, with his arm leaning upon the desk 
and his chin resting upon his hand, which 
was between the Speaker and the audience, 
in that attitude of whispering to the 
Speaker, the faithful Thaddeus has stood 
during many sessions of Congress, the 
prompter of Boyd, Banks, Orr, Penning- 
ton, Grow, and Colfax. It is said he knew 
more of parliamentary law than any man 
in America. And he knew every member 
of the House in all these Congresses ; it 
was his special business to know them. 
No Speaker could get along without such 
an assistance at first. When Pennington 
was Speaker a good portion of all the 




words he uttered were literally put into 
his ear by Thad. He did not know one- 
quarter of the members even by sight, and 
was sadly deficient in parliamentary law. 
When any member arose he would, say, 
"the gentleman from," generally without 
the least idea what State he was to name, 
but so prompt was Thad. to give it, and so 
unobserved, in doing so, that not one in a 
hundred who was not cognisant of the pro- 
cess would imagine but what Pennington 
knew all the members. And many and 
many a time the old man would commence 
the statement of a question, not knowing 
how he was to finish his sentence, which 
was furnished and finished by the youthful 
parliamentarian at his elbow. 

Old House in Boston. — One of the 
most noted landmarks in our city is about 
to disappear. The ancient building which 
has stood for nearly one hundred and fifty 
years at the corner of Water and Washing- 
ton streets, is doomed. Workmen are now 
at work upon it, and it is to be taken 
down, and in a few days it will be num- 
bered with the things that were. It is 
without doubt the oldest building now 
standing in its original state on Washing- 
ton street, it having been built in 1715-16. 
Its dilapidated condition at the present 
time renders it an event not to be regretted, 
except by a certain few, who in their zeal 
for the preservation of the monuments of 
the past, seem to forget what is due to the 
present age. If such persons could always 
have had their way, what a queer place 
Boston would be now! There are reminiscen- 
ces relating to this old building and its asso- 
ciations with the newspaper press in this city, 
as well as with the printing business gene- 
rally, that may not be uninteresting. 

The estate formerly belonged to one 
Enoch Greenleaf, saddler, who, in 1709, 
owned seventy-one feet on Washington 
street, north of Water street, and included 
the site of the Journal building that now 
is, and that now occupied by Whittemore's 
book store. 

In April, 1716, Greenleaf sold this estate, 
measuring twenty-four feet on Oornhill 
street, as it was then called, to Thomas 

Debuke, for £800. Debuhe was a butcher, 
and had for a long time occupied part of 
the premises — his slaughter-house was in 
the rear. In June, same year, he mort- 
gaged it to John Cutler, surgeon, for £400 
— including in the description " my new 
built messuage^ <&c. This fixes the date 
of the erection. In front it was used as a 
butcher* s-shop, by Mr. Debuke ; and for a 
long time after his death a ponderous hook 
and staple were to be seen affixed to one 
of the principal beams, upon which it was 
said he used to hang his slaughtered cattle. 
He resided there till his death. In 1731 
it was sold by his heirs, Thomas and 
Jemima Debuke, to James JBowdoin, for 
" £1200 good public bills of credit" — he to 
assume the payment of a mortgage of £460 
to one John Valentine. 

In June, 1744, Bowdoin sold the estate 
to Thomas Fleet, for £650, lawful money, 
equal to $2167 67. Mr Fleet was a printer, 
and had formerly carried on his business in 
Pudding lane, now Devonshire street. 
He had, however, occupied these premises 
as a tenant since 1731. He had designated 
the building as the " Heart and Crown" 
in Cornhill — the emblems of which were 
displayed from the outer walls. This was 
a common practice in those days, the streets 
not bein^ numbered. "The Three Kings" 
—'•The Three Nuns"— The Three Fans" 
— and the " Brazen Head" were all in the 
immediate vicinity. 

The printing office was located in the 
upper rooms of the building ; the front 
chamber was fitted up as a " Vendue" or 
auction-room, and was used for that purpose 
many years ; and on the lower floor was a 
bookstore; while his family occupied the 
other parts of the house. 

For more than forty years a weekly 
newspaper was issued from this place. The 
first was the " Weekly Rehearsal," the 
fifth newspaper established in Boston ; the 
first number, dated "Monday, September 
27, 1731," and "printed by J. Draper, for 
the Author." The Author was Jeremy 
Gridley, a young man of fine literary 
acquirements, who, in after life, attained to 
great distinction in the Province. The 
paper was more than half filled with moral 




and entertaining essays, which were good 
specimens of the kind of writing that was 
popular in the times of the " Tatler," 
" Guardian" and " Spectator?"* It did 
not succeed, however, according to his 
wishes, and he soon retired from the 
concern, and in 1733 it fell into the hands 
of Thomas Fleet, who had for some time 
been the printer, and was interested in the 
publication. He now became sole proprie- 
tor. The " Rehearsal " was continued by 
him till August, 1735, when its publication 
was brought to a close — to be succeeded 
by " The Boston Evening Post" of which 
Mr. Fleet was sole editor and proprietor 
as well as printer and publisher. The 
Evening Post soon became the most popu- 
lar of the Boston newspapers, and was 
conducted in an able and independent 

Mr. Fleet was a man of more than ordi- 
nary talent, well versed in the ways of the 
world, and of great wit and humor ; of 
these he frequently furnished specimens in 
editorial paragraphs and advertisements. 
He was also well able to defend himself in 
any controversy in which he was engaged, 
whether secular or religious, as the co- 
lumns of his paper abundantly testify. 

He died in July, 1758, in the seventy- 
third year of his age. The Evening Post 
was continued by his sons, Thomas and 
John Fleet, and conducted with equal 
ability till April, 1775, when it was discon- 
tinued by order of General Howe. As all 
insignia of royalty had become unpopular 
at this time, the Crown was stricken from 
their sign and the Bible put in its place ; 
and the " Bible and Heart " soon became 
equally as well known as the " Heart and 
Crown" previously had been. The printing 
business generally was also carried on by 
them, and of which they had always enjoyed 
a large share. For more than twenty 
years, from 1779 to 1801, "Fleet's Pocket 
Almanac and Register" — a very useful 
manual of nearly two hundred pages — was 
compiled and published by them, and met 
with extensive sales. It afterwards passed 
into the hands of Manning and Loring, and 
John West. 

Thomas Fleet, the son, died in 1797, 

aged 65 years. He was never married. 
John Fleet died in 1806, aged 72, leaving 
several children; one of them, Thomas 
Fleet, a printer, was connected in business 
with his father, but relinquished it soon 
after his father's death, or in 1809, when 
the family vacated the premises and re- 
moved to another location. Thus, for a 
period of seventy-eight years, the Fleets, 
father, sons and grandson, conducted the 
printing business in this same venerable 
building, well known in times past as the 
" Heart and Crown" and the " Bible and 
Heart F in Cornhill, but now known simply 
as the corner of Water and Washington 
streets. The estate is still in possession of 
the family. 

Until a few years, comparatively, it 
continued to be used as a dwelling by 
many families, and for various kinds of 
business down to the present time ; but no 
one person has occupied the premises so 
long as to have become identified with the 
building, or the building with them. 
Although it has stood so many years, it 
seems to have undergone no material 
alteration in its outward appearance, and 
may therefore be considered a fair speci- 
men of the style of building a century and 
a half ago. The walls appear frail, and in 
danger of falling, and have more than once 
been complained of to the city govern- 
ment, — but examination by competent 
persons appointed for the purpose has 
resulted each time in the opinion that they 
were as firm as when first built ; the proof 
of this, however, will be ascertained in a 
few days. 

A new structure will soon rise upon the 
site, and being from plans drawn and under 
the superintendence of B. F. Dwight, Esq., 
the well known architect, is a sufficient 
guaranty that it will be worthy the location, 
an ornament to the city, and an honor to 
all parties concerned. — Boston Transcript. 

How Tecumseh was Killed.— The 
Western Christian Advocate recently con- 
tained an obituary notice of Isaac Ham- 
blin, Sen., who died at his residence, near 
Bloomfield, Ind., a few months since, aged 
about eighty-six years. Mr. Hamblin was 




a man of deep piety and unquestionable 
veracity. He was in the battle of the 
Thames, and the writer gives the following 
as his statement in regard to the manner 
in which Tecumseh was killed : 

He says he was standing but a few feet 
from Colonel Johnson when he fell, and in 
full view, and saw the whole of that part 
of the battle. He was well acquainted 
with Tecumseh, having seen him before 
the war, and having been a prisoner seven- 
teen days, and received many a cursing 
from him. He thinks that Tecumseh 
thought Johnson was Harrison, as he often 
heard the chief swear he would have 
Harrison's scalp, and seemed to have a 
special hatred towards him. Johnson's 
horse fell under him, himself being also 
deeply wounded; in the fall he lost his 
sword, his large pistols were empty, and 
he was entangled with his horse on the 
ground. Tecumseh had fired his rifle at 
him, and when he saw him fall, he threw 
down his gun and bounded forward like a 
tiger, sure of his prey. Johnson had only 
a side pistol ready for use. He aimed at 
the chief over the head of the horse, and 
shot him near the centre of his forehead. 
When the ball struck it seemed to him 
that the Indian jumped with his head full 
fifteen feet into the air. As soon as he 
struck the ground a little Frenchman ran 
his bayonet into him, and pinned him fast 
to the ground. 

An Eaely Canal (vol. viii. p. 114). — 
Worthington, in his History of Dedham, 
p. 12, gives the following account of a 
canal constructed soon after the settlement 
of the Massachusetts Colony. If his state- 
ments are to be relied upon, this canal was 
dusj about a century before that in the 

County of Orange, N. Y., mentioned in 
your March number. 

" About a quarter of a mile north of the 
new Court-House in Dedham, Mother 
Brook starts out of Charles River and 
runs in a proper and direct course round 
the highlands near the village, and then, at 
the only place where it could find a pass- 
age, goes easterly and joins the Nepouset 
River, forming in its course between the 

two rivers five mill seats of great value. 
This stream, thus leaving its principal bed 
and running off to join a neighboring 
stream, has been represented as a natural 
curiosity ; at least the inhabitants have no 
knowledge of its having been caused by 
them. When I discovered the record of 
its being an artificial work, a natural but 
groundless fear was excited that it would 
do harm to publish the truth concerning it. 
Abraham Shaw had been encouraged to 
build a water mill in the first year of the 
settlement, and a committee was appointed 
to designate the place. Shaw soon after 
died, but the committee suggested the 
measure of forming this new stream, which 
is recorded in these words : 

'28th day, 1st month, 1639. Ordered 
that a ditch shall be dug at common 
charge, through upper Charles Meadow 
into East Brook, that it may both be a 
partition fence in the same, and also may 
form a suitable course into a water mill, 
that it shall be found fitting to set a mill 
upon in the opinion of a workman to be 
employed for that purpose.' 

" The water-mill was soon after built, as 
we shall see hereafter. The source of East 
Brook was more than one hundred yards 
east of the Norfolk and Bristol Turnpike, 
where it crosses the stream. At this point 
a curious observer may "see the truth of 
this account in the original state of the 
ground ; he will in vain seek for any natu- 
ral bed of this stream. In addition to this 
evidence, the tradition of cutting the canal 
for this stream has been preserved in one 
family, which, from fear of consequences, 
has refrained from divulging the fact." 

I remember hearing, several years ago, a 
gentleman well versed in the history of 
Dedham, Mass., express strong doubts of 
Mother Brook being an artificial work, but 
do not recollect his reasons. The subject 
is certainly worth investigating. 


House where Hamilton died. — "The 
house in which General Alexander Hamil- 




ton breathed his last is still standing on 
the north-west corner of Eighth Avenue 
and Eighteenth street." — Evening Post, 
March 25th. 

Is not this an error ? 

A large modern edifice now occupies 
the whole of that corner. On the north- 
east corner is a house with modern brick 
front, while the main body of the building 
is evidently of a much more ancient con- 
struction. But it has been generally 
understood that Hamilton was taken from 
the boat which bore him from Weehawken, 
to the house of his friend, William Bayard, 
where he died. Did not Mr. Bayard live 
at or near the foot of the present Thirteenth 
street ? 

Alsop, Boerum, Haring, Low. — Can 
any reader give me information respecting 
the living descendants of the late John 
Alsop, Simon Boerum, John Haring, or 
Isaac Low, who represented this State in 
the Continental Congress — their names, 
present addresses, &c. 


Mayor John Whistler. — Where can 
I find a fuller account of this officer than 
the necessarily brief statements of facts 
given by Gardiner in his dictionary of the 
army ? h. j. r. 


Henry Francisco. — (vol. viii. p. 78.) 
His. Mag., Feb. 1864.— An intelligent 
resident of this city states, that one 
" Francisco" held the plough at one of 
the first agricultural fairs in Washington 
County, N. Y., about the year 1820, and 
was there spoken of as " the oldest man in 

The same informant adds, that in 
November, 1824, he became slightly ac- 
quainted with a Mr. Francisco Tyler, of 
one of the Masonic Lodges in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, who, during a brief conversation, 
informed him that he was the youngest 
son of Henry Francisco, of or near White- 
hall, N. Y., and that his father was then 


The records of the agricultural fair re- 
ferred to, as also inquiries at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, may throw some light upon the 
American patriarch of the nineteenth 


A Statue on the Battery, New 
York. — (vol. viii. p. 154). — I recollect 
having seen an equestrian statue of Wash- 
ington or Jackson on the Battery about 
twenty-five years ago, but if memory serves, 
it was a plaster model. It remained there 
some time, until sharpshooting youth be- 
came too daring or expert for its safety. I 
think one knocked off" the index finger point- 
ing to victory or in a better direction. 


Sumtm Ritir tljeir |rjrcnMngf« 


The Massachusetts Historical Society. — 
Boston, April 14. — The annual meeting of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society was held on the 
14th, the President, Hon. Eobert C. Winthrop, 
in the chair. The attendance was uncommonly 
large. The President, at the conclusion of the 
usual monthly business, thus referred to the pro- 
posed Shakspeare commemoration ; 

You will hardly need to be reminded, gentle- 
men, that you are now w T ithin a few days of the 
great Tercentenary Commemoration of the birth- 
day of Shakspeare ; and though our society has 
made no arrangements for any formal observance 
of the day, we can none of us be insensible to 
the interest of the occasion. 

It is eminently appropriate that the principal 
celebration of the event should take place in the 
land and on the spot where it occurred ; and we 
shall look eagerly for the reports of what shall be 
said and done at Stratford-upon-Avon on the 
successive days which have been designated for 
the commemoration. Our own land is, unhap- 
pily, hardly in a condition for engaging in the 
festivities of such an anniversary with all the zeal 
and heartiness it is so well calculated to excite. 
Yet we all feel that it might well become us to 
take a part in the jubilee. We all feel that, as 
the descendants of English ancestors who were 




cotemporary with Shakspeare, we have a full 
share both in the large inheritance of his fame, 
and in the world's great debt to his memory. 

We do not forget that he had finished his mar- 
vellous work, and gone to his rest four years 
before the Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth 
Rock ; fourteen years before the Massachusetts 
Company embarked at Southampton. 

We do not forget that it was the wreck of Sir 
George Somers in the Bermudas in 1609, when 
on his way to Virginia for the settlement of an 
American Colony, which suggested the scene and 
some of the most striking incidents for that one 
of his dramas which stands first in his printed 
volumes, and which, for the sublimity of its con- 
ceptions and the exquisite beauty of its language, 
is second to nothing which he ever wrote. 

It is interesting to us to remember, too,' that 
the son of the same Earl of Southampton, who 
was Shakspeare's earliest patron and especial 
friend, and to whom he dedicated his first poem, 
was among the best friends of some of our own 
New England colonies. 

But, above all, we cannot forget the inexhaust- 
ible wealth which Shakspeare has contributed 
to that English Literature, which, down to the 
period of our National Independence, certainly, 
we have a right to speak of as our literature, and 
to that English language, which, thank Heaven, 
is ours, and will be ours for ever. 

Nor can we fail, as an Historical Society, toj 
remember Shakspeare as an historian as well; 
as a dramatist and poet. The original title of 
his collected works, as published successively in 
1623, 1632, 1664, and 1685, was "Mr. WiUiam 
Shakspeare's Comedies, Histories, and Tra- 
gedies." And what historian has ever done so 
much as he to give life and individuality to the 
great characters which he portrays, or to make 
the events which he describes familiar as house- 
hold words for ever? It may be that he was not 
always exact in following the old chronicles of 
Hollinshed, or that he may have sometimes in- 
dulged a poetic license in dressing his figures for 
the stage. Yet no one will doubt that the 
common mind of the last two centuries has owed 
its most vivid impressions — I had almost said its 
only impressions — of the Richards and the 
Henries, of Macbeth and Hamlet, of King Lear 
and King John — to say nothing of Julius Caesar 
and Mark Antony — to the historical dramas ol 

Unhappily he that has given us so many grand 
delineations of others has left but few records oi 
himself. Even the day of his birth, which is 
about to be celebrated, is but a matter of infer- 
ence ; it is only known, certainly, as the day of 
his death. We know the date of his baptism 

born and where he was buried. We know that 
he married Anne Hathaway, and had three 
children. We know that he went to London, 
wrote plays, and helped to perform them at the 
Globe and the Blackfryers. We know that he 
returned to Stratford-upon-Avon, made a will, 
" commending his soul into the hands of God his 
creator, hoping and assuredly believing, through 
the only merits of Jesus Christ his Saviour, to be 
made partaker of life everlasting," and soon 
afterwards died at fifty-two years of age. 

Almost every thing else is inference, conjecture, 
uncertain tradition. And so it happens that we 
know least of him of whom we should all desire 
to know most. Not one familiar letter, not one 
authentic conversation, hardly a domestic inci- 
dent. Only three or four known autographs, 
and those but signatures. Not a scrap of his 
original manuscript, a single line of which would 
outsell the collected autographs of all the mon- 
archs of the world ; not a scrap of those priceless 
manuscripts, though the players must have had 
them all when they said, in their preface to the 
first edition of his works, that ° his mind and 
hand went together ; and that what he thought 
he uttered with that easiness that we have scarce 
received from him a blot in his papers." 

And this brings before us a fact most import- 
ant to his character. We know that so insensible 
was he to the worth of his own writings, or so 
indifferent to their fate, that he never collected 
or revised them for publication, and that it was 
seven years after his death before they entered 
upon that world-wide career of immortality 
which the press and the stage, the art and the 
literature of almost every land beneath the sun, 
have since united to secure for them, and which 
they seem destined to enjoy, generation after 
generation, age after age, above all other writings 
except the Holy Scriptures. 

Nor would we willingly forget that the only 
epithets coupled with his name by his cotem- 
poraries and friends were, " Our gentle Shak- 
speare " — " Our worthy Shakspeare " — " Our 
beloved Shakspeare." 

But it is not my purpose, gentlemen — even 
were it in my power — to forestall the eloquent 
eulogies which will be pronounced on the great 
English Dramatist, at home and abroad, during 
the approaching Commemoration Week. I only 
designed by these few remarks to prepare the 
way for the following resolution, which your 
Standing Committee have authorized me to sub- 
mit for your adoption : 

Resolved, By the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, that in view of the near approach of the 
Tercentenary Commemoration of the birthday 
of Shakspeare, we gladly avail ourselves of the 

and of his funeral. We know where he was opportunity afforded us by this, our Seventy- 




third Annual Meeting, to enter upon our records We have, happily, changed all that. People 
an expression of profound reverence for the j who reside here begin to own Brooklyn, feel 
genius of that marvellous man; of our gratitude proud of it, and try to improve it. One of the 

to God for the matchless gifts with which he 
was endowed for the instruction and delight of 
mankind ; of our deep sense of the inexhaustible 
riches which his writings have added to the 
literature and the language which were the birth- 
right of our fathers, and which are ours by in- 
heritance ; and of our hearty sympathy with all 
those, whether in Old England, in our own 
country, or in any other part of the world, who 
shall unite in celebrating so memorable a nativity. 
The resolution was unanimously adopted. 
The reports of the Standing Committee, the 
Librarian, and the Treasurer were read. 

After the transaction of some private business 
the following gentlemen were elected officers for 
the ensuing year: — 

President, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, LL.D. ; 
Vice-Presidents, Jared Sparks, LL.D., Colonel 
Thomas Aspinwall, A.M. ; Recording Secretary, 
Charles Deane, A.M. (in place of Rev. Chandler 
Robbins) ; Corresponding Secretary, Rev. Chan- 
dler Robbins, D.D. (in place of Joseph Willard 
who declined a re-election) ; Treasurer, Hon 
Richard Frothingham, A.M. ; Librarian, Thomas 
C. Amory, jr., A.M. (in place of Dr. Nathaniel 
B. Shurtleff, who declined a re-election) ; Cabinet 
Keeper, Samuel A. Green, M.D. ; Standing Com- 
mittee, William G. Brooks, esq., Rev. George E. 
Ellis, D.D., Horace Gray, jr., A.M., Charles E. 
Norton, A.M., Rev. Edward E. Hale, A.M. 


Long Island Historical Society. — A Sketch 
of its Origin, Progress, and Position. Ten years 
ago it was justly said of Brooklyn that it was 
merely a dormitory for New York business men. 
Thousands of residents of Brooklyn — citizens 
of Brooklyn they could not be called, for 
they exercised none of the most cherished pri- 
vileges of citizenship here — knew and cared 
nothing about our local affairs, took no in- 
terest in local institutions, except their own 
churches. Brooklyn was called the City 01 
Churches probably because it had no other insti- 
tutions. Something had been done for the cause 
of education, but that had its origin in a charita- 
ble bequest, and was not an evidence of public 
spirit. We had a few scattered literary socie- 
ties, which lingered along in a feeble condition ,, 
no place of public amusement ; a lecture-room, ( 
and a second rate ball-room or two, limited our 
facilities for providing anything else in the shape 
of a public entertainment. 

consequences of this change has been the esta- 
blishment of various institutions which enhance 
the attractions of our city as a place of residence 
for persons of taste and culture. Our present 
object is to sketch the most recent of these insti- 
tutions, the Long Island Historical Society. The 
growth of this Society has been remarkable ; any 
person stepping into its well furnished rooms, 
looking through the amply stocked library and 
museum, not acquainted with the facts, would 
scarcely believe that this Society is hardly a year 

The first movement towards the formation of 
this Society was the issuing of a circular dated 
Feb. 14, 1863, which says: "The time has ar- 
rived when the city of Brooklyn should found 
and foster institutions — religious, historical, lite- 
rary, scientific, educational, and humanitarian — 
beyond the scope of former undertakings. As 
one of these, a Historical Society, associated with 
our peculiar geographical position, naturally sug- 
gests itself." The details of the proposed Soci- 
ety are more fully set forth as follows : To call 
out the recollections of the living, who will soon 
pass away, drawing public records and private 
writings from their concealment, having a fit 
place for the collection and deposit of trophies, 
medals, and historic materials, and also for con- 
versations and lectures upon historic subjects, it 
cannot be doubted that much valuable know- 
ledge will be saved and communicated which 
would otherwise be lost. 

This call was signed by representatives of the 
three counties on the Island, gentlemen whose 
names had been long identified with our public 
institutions and. had contributed to their success. 
The first meeting was held in the Hamilton 
Buildings, corner of Court and Joralemon streets; 
it was well attended, and there was a deep inter- 
est manifested in the movement. 

A resolution offered by Mr. A. J. Spooner was 
unanimously adopted, " declaring that the time 
had arrived when Brooklyn should found and 
establish, and this meeting does found and esta- 
blish the 'Long Island Historical Society,' whose 
objects shall be to discover, procure, and preserve 
whatever may relate to general history, to the 
national, civil, ecclesiastical, and literary history 
of the United States, the State of New York, 
and, more particularly, of the counties, cities, 
towns, and villages of Lc«g Island." 

A committee on by-laws was then appointed, 
which in one week from that date drew up and 
presented a constitution and by-laws which were 
adopted, the Society duly formed, and thirty- 
one members enrolled that evening (March 10). 




The memberships rapidly increased; a suite of 
rooms was engaged in the Hamilton Buildings ; 
a library speedily accumulated; and on the 7th 
of May last the Society made its public debut at 
the Academy of Music, when the Rev. R. S. 
Storrs, D.D., read his address on the " Life, Cha- 
racter, and Services of the late General 0. M. 

Since that date, the progress of the Society in 
the acquisition of literary treasures, as well as in 
the increase of its membership and its consequent 
influence, has been rapid and brilliant to a degree 
hitherto unequalled in the history of similar in- 
stitutions. Its roll of members, already number- 
ing more than 500, is rapidly increasing by the 
addition of a class of citizens whose character, 
social position, and high cultivation, form a sure 
guarantee of the future prosperity and perma- 
nence of the Society. Its library now comprises 
(principally by donation) more than 10,000 dis- 
tinct works, of which over 6,500 are bound vo- 
lumes — the whole forming a collection of rare in- 
terest and value, and, in some departments, al- 
ready superior to any other collection in the 
State. The liberality of several of our well 
known citizens has further secured the founda- 
tion, on a broad and liberal basis, of certain spe- 
cial departments of historical research, and has 
also adorned the walls with the attractions of 
several fine portraits, paintings, etc. 

In addition to the library there is a collection 
of curiosities and relics, embracing over three 
hundred specimens, many of rare interest, and 
nearly all pertaining to Long Island. Nearly all 
these articles were donated to the Society. They 
were in possession of descendants of the oldest 
settlers on the Island, and the Society has been 
looked upon with great favor by the old families, 
who have cheerfully contributed these relics to 
enrich its collection. 

Government of the Society.- — The Society has 
a set of officers similar to all other organizations 
— a President, Vice-President, Secretary, etc., 
also a Board of three councillors from each 
county on the Island ; likewise a Board of 
twenty-five directors, and the necessary com- 

The following are the present officers of the 
Society : 

President — J. Carson Brevoort. 

First Vice-President — John Greenwood. 

Second Vice-President — Charles E. West. 

Foreign Corresp. Sec'y — Henry C. Murphy. 

Home Corresp. Sec'y — John Winslow. 

Recording Secretary — A. Cooke Hull, 

Treasurer — Charles Congdon. 

Librarian — Henry R. Stiles. 

Counsellors — King's County — Hon. John A. 
Lott, Francis Vinton, D.D., Teunis G. Bergen, Esq. 

Queens County — Wm. Cullen Bryant, Esq., Hon. 
John A. King, Rich. C. McCormick, Esq. Suf- 
folk County — Hon. Selah B. Strong, Hon. J. 
Lawrence Smith, Wm. S. Pelletreau, Esq. 

The Society comprises Resident, Correspond- 
ing, and Honorary Members, the first being resi- 
dents on Long Island, the second and third resi- 
dents elsewhere. The initiation fee is $5, with 
$3 per annum for dues, or the payment of $25 
secures a life-membership. 

The rooms of the Society, situated on the se- 
cond floor of the Hamilton Building, on the cor- 
ner of Court and Joralemon streets, are five in 
number. First, the lecture-room, a very com- 
fortably furnished apartment, with desk and plat- 
form for lecture, will seat 175 persons, and by 
throwing open the back room, 250 can be seated 
so as to see and hear all that is going on. 

The second room serves as an office for the 
librarian, and students 1 room. The third room 
is devoted to curiosities and relics, books of gen- 
eral literature, and European history. The fourth 
room contains the collection of works on United 
States political history. The fifth is a reading- 
room, where may be found the local newspapers 
and current publications on file. 

The library contains many works of great 
merit, and the most complete historical collection 
to be found anywhere. The library has been 
very handsomely endowed by several of our libe- 
ral and public-spirited citizens. Mr. Charles 
Storrs has contributed a fund of $500 for the 
purchase of English County and Local Histories, 
and works of Topography illustrative of the early 
colonization of America, which have already been 
purchased and are on their way from England. 
Mr. S. B. Caldwell has since added $100 to this 

Mr. Franklin B. Woodruff has given $500 for 
the purchase of works on Voyages of Discovery, 
illustrative of the discovery of America and the 
extension of commerce. 

Mr. Henry Sheldon has donated $1,250, to be 
applied, $750 for historic paintings and portraits, 
$500 for books of art. 

Another gentleman, too modest to see his name 
in print, has commenced a fund for the purchase 
of works on Heraldry. 

Still another gentleman, reticent of fame, is 
now purchasing in Paris for the Society a valu- 
able collection of French historical works on 

Mr. S. B. Chittenden, whose public-spirited 
generosity embraces all things, gave, in October 
last, a valuable set of Congressional documents, 
embracing 800 volumes, collected by the late 
Hon. Ashbury Dickens, of Washington. 

The library contains also a collection of works 
on American genealogy, and is very rich in 




American local history; some four hundred vo- 
lumes of newspapers, bound and unbound, and 
a collection of pamphlets and other publications 
on the Rebellion. But for fuller particulars we 
must refer our readers to the catalogue, or to the 
courteous librarian, Dr. Stiles, who is an enthu- 
siast in his vocation, and takes a pleasure in im- 
parting information to visitors. 

Curiosities and Relics. — As we have before 
mentioned, nearly all the curiosities and relics 
belong to Long Island, and they have been judi- 
ciously selected. There is no accumulation of 
rubbish ; every specimen possesses an individual 
interest. The recent Sanitary Fair collected to- 
gether many rare and curious things, many of 
which were purchased and presented to the His- 
torical Society by its members. 

There is a fine collection of autographs, and a 
beginning has been made towards a numismatic 
collection ; and the Society already possesses 
several hundred coins and medals of great va- 

Zoology has not been entirely neglected ; over 
the librarian's desk we notice, as we enter, a 
fine specimen of the grey or white owl, a native 
of Queens county, now a very rare bird on the 

We can notice but a few of the more import- 
ant specimens in the museum department, which, 
better than anything that could be written, illus- 
trates the "olden times" of Long Island. Here 
are specimens of the old Dutch tiles in blue, pur- 
ple, and white, with Scriptural illustration, Hol- 
land landscapes, etc. ; the pewter platters, old- 
fashioned chair and spinning-wheel, bed-hang- 
ings, and other domestic articles. There are also 
many Indian relics, a copper axe-head, the stone 
apparatus for grinding corn, etc., all found on 
Long Island. 

A specimen of early Brooklyn manufactures 
is given by a glass bottle, the first one manufac- 
tured at a glass works started in 1754 near the 
site of the present glass works in State street. 
This enterprise, we are informed, was brought to 
an untimely end for want of sand — that is, the 
right kind of sand. 

There is a wooden gun rack, used in the first 
meeting-house on Long Island. This is a rather 
curious piece of furniture for a church, but it was 
necessary in those times. The rascally Indians 
were no respecters of the Sabbath, and, learning 
the devout character of our ancestors, often at- 
tempted to surprise them at their devotions. So 
the male members of the congregation took their 
guns to church with them, and put them up in 
these racks, as we hang up our hats and over- 
coats; and it was no uncommon thing for the 
dominie to be cut short in the middle of his ser- 
mon by a rush for the gun rack and a stampede 

of the brethren to get a shot at the Red Skins. 
Let our church folks be thankful that their lot 
has fallen in more peaceful times. 

Next of interest in the martial line, though 
not a relic of the past, but a painful reminder of 
the present unhappy condition of our country, 
we find the battle-flags of the First Long Island 
Regiment. Borne on many a hard contested 
field ever in van, they are mementoes of the va- 
lor of Long Island's sons — an evidence that they 
are worthy descendants of the brave old settlers 
who first disputed with the Indians the posses- 
sion of the soil, and then consecrated it with their 
blood to freedom in the revolutionary struggle. 

A more pleasing relic of revolutionary times 
is a set of bed-hangings embroidered by a lady 
of Bridgehampton, Long Island. This lady had a 
patriotic disgust of the Britishers, and she cari- 
catured their army in embroidery for her own 
entertainment. The figures are exceedingly gro- 
tesque, and afford much amusement to the visitor 
of the museum. 

An iron "back-plate" of a fireplace, bearing 
the royal arms and the date of casting, 1704, ta- 
ken from one of our old mansions ; and a brass 
pepper-box of ample dimensions, brought from 
Zivol, in the province of Overyssel, Holland, by 
Garret Cornelius Van Duyn, who emigrated in 
1649, are among the most curious of the domes- 
tic relics. 

The Communion cup used in the Old Dutch 
Church in Bushwick, in 1708, is presented here. 
Engraved on it are some wise axioms : " Speak 
what is true — eat what is well done — drink what 
is pure." 

The most interesting natural curiosity is a 
large stone bearing the distinct imprint of a hu- 
man foot. This was found at Fort Pond, near 
Montauk Point. It attracted the notice of some 
of the earliest settlers of that part of the Island. 
The Indians regarded it with veneration, and had 
a legend about it to the effect that on tins spot 
the Evil Spirit and the Good Spirit had a despe- 
rate struggle, in which, as in all proper works of 
fiction, the Evil One got the worst of it, and in 
despair he jumped from this stone into the pool 
below and disappeared, and was never seen in 
body or spirit again, but left the measure of his 
foot indelibly impressed on this boulder that he 
might live in the memory of future generations. 

A piece of the genuine Plymouth Rock is also 
embraced in the collection. 

One of our religious sects will be particularly 
interested in a curious memento of their cele- 
brated preacher, the Rev. George Whitfield. It is 
a simple pane of glass, with four words scratched 
upon its surface, the history»of which is given as 
follows: During his visit to tins country in 1765, 
Whitfield visited Southold, Long Island, and was 




lodged at the house of one Thomas Fanning, who 
was well provided with worldly treasures, but 
lacked what his worthy guest preferred to all 
besides, an " upright heart and pure." Whitfield 
wrote with a diamond upon a pane of glass in 
his bedroom window these words : " One thing 
is needful." The house passed through many 
hands, was altered and repaired ; every other 
pane of glass in the house was broken and re- 
placed at some time or another, but this one re- 
mained intact, and was recently presented to the 
Historical Society, who have it framed and will 
preserve it for the edification of future genera- 
tions of the followers of the great apostle of 

By way of variety there is a collection of small 
Egyptian curiosities. 

Portraits. — The Society has a few valuable 
historical portraits, the commencement of a col- 

The walls of the lecture-room are ornamented 
with the principal pictures. First, a portrait of 
General Warren, who fell at Bunker Hill, painted 
by Copley, father of the late Lord Lyndhurst. 
A portrait of De Witt Clinton, by Ingham. A 
portrait of Commodore Truxton, of Long Island, 
by Otis, 1817. These three paintings were pur- 
chased from the Sheldon fund. Two others have 
been purchased and will be shortly added to the 

Opposite are fine portraits of G-enerals Banks 
and Meade, presented to the Society by Mr. H. 
B. Cromwell. 

Near the door is a portrait of Judge Egbert 
Benson, of Long Island, painted by Gilbert Stu- 
art, and presented to the Society by Mr. G-eorge 
S. Stephenson. 

There is a smaller picture of the Rev. Samuel 
Buck, who was pastor of the church at East- 
hampton, Long Island, from 1746 to 1798, pre- 
sented by Mr. J. B. Woolworth. 

In the museum is a fac-simile of the bust of 
Shakspeare over his tomb at Stratford on the 
Avon. Only four copies were ever taken. 

There are also fine and costly bronze portraits 
(in relievo) of Washington and Franklin by H. 
K. Browne, the sculptor, donated by Mr. A. S. 

Entertainments. — The Society has not only 
furnished all these means for its members to en- 
tertain and instruct themselves, but has given 
semi-monthly entertainments of a literary and 
scientific character, in which learning and talent 
of a high order have been engaged. 

Since the opening of its rooms the following 
addresses and original papers have been read be- 
fore the Society : « 

June 11. In the chapel of the Packer Institute, 
an oration on " The Annals of Rhode Island and 

the Providence Plantations," by Rev. Francis 
Vinton, D.D. ; accompanied by a poem by George 
W. Curtis, Esq. 

July 4. In the Academy of Music, an oration, 
by Grenville Tudor Jenks, Esq. 

Sept. 4. At a county meeting held at Hemp- 
stead, Long Island, a paper on " Experience in 
Charleston, South Carolina, in the earlier Part of 
the Rebellion, and as United States Consul at 
the Bahamas during the first two Years of the 
War," by Captain Samuel Whiting; also, a "Me- 
moir of Timothy Clowes, LL.D., of Hempstead, 
Long Island," by Alden J. Spooner, Esq. 

Sept. 24. At a special meeting of the Society, 
a paper entitled "Personal Recollections of Aaron 
Burr, and some of his Contemporaries of the New 
York Bar," by the Hon John Greenwood. 

Oct. 9. A conversational meeting. Subject, 
" The Indian History of Long Island." 

Nov. 2. At a regular meeting of the Society, 
a paper on " Long Island," by Wm. Alfred Jones, 
Esq., Librarian of Columbia College, New York. 

Nov. 10. In the chapel of the Packer Insti- 
tute, the first of a series of six lectures, to be 
delivered on successive Tuesday evenings, on 
" The Fall of Rome," by the Rev. John Lord. 

Dec. 3. At a regular meeting of the Society] 
in the chapel of the Packer Institute, a paper on 
" The Battle of Long Island," by Henry B. Daw- 
son, Esq., of Morrisania, New York. 

Dec. 17. Conversational meeting. Subject, 
"Indian History." 

Special lecture, at Packer Institute, by Dr. W. 
H. Thompson, " Arabs, and their Contributions 
to Science." 

Jan. 7, 1864. Regular meeting. By Rev. Jo- 
shua Leavitt, D.D., " Monroe Doctrine." 

Feb. 4. Regular meeting. Rev. I. S. Prime, 
on " Early Ministers of Long Island." 

Feb. 18. Poem by Charles Thurber, " Social 
Nature of Man considered by the aid of History." 

March 3. A paper by A. H. Dana, Esq., of 
Brooklyn, on " Greek Life in the Fourth Century 
B. C." 

March 17. Dr- Winslow delivered a lecture on 
the " Telegraph." 

And on Thursday evening next Dr. Peter Wil- 
son, Chief Sachem of the Six Nations, will lec- 
ture before the Society on the "Legends and 
History of the Iroquois." 

The Society is gradually exciting an interest 
throughout the Island, and has attracted the at- 
tention of other societies. It has awakened also 
an interest in our local history ; and one of the 
Society's members and founders, Alden J. Spoon- 
er, Esq., has projected a new History of Long 
Island, a work that has never yet been properly 
done; but if written by a gentleman so well 
quaMfied for the task as Mr. Spooner, will, we 




are sure, prove a valuable addition to the histori- 
cal works of the country. 

In conclusion, we would advise such of our 
readers as are not members of the Society to 
pay a visit to its rooms ; they will be well re- 
paid for their trouble. They will find the libra- 
rian, Dr. Stiles, a gentleman with whom it is a 
pleasure to hold communication, always at his 
post, to receive and conduct them through the 
rooms and give them all the information and ex- 
planations they may ask. 


Pennsylvania Historical Society. — April, 
1864. — The Historical Society met at their rooms 
in the Adelphi Building. Dr. Coates presided. 

The list of donations to the Society was as 
large as usual, and embraced several articles of 
rare value and curious associations. A beautiful 
series of photographic views were exhibited, 
comprising representations of the Leib mansion 
on Frankfbrd road, presented by A. H. Hemple ; 
a large photograph of Gen. Meade, from Wende- 
roth & Taylor ; sundry photographs of historic 
buildings, from F. D. B. .Richards ; a copy of the 
Philadelphia Post Office Circular for the year 
1791, from Mr. Walborn. In those days but one 
collection and delivery was made daily. Photo- 
graphs of St. John's Church — interior and ex- 
terior views — presented by John A. McAllister ; 
a view of the interior of the First Dutch Reformed 
Church of Philadelphia, by Jno. Moran ; photo- 
graph of the destruction of Priestly's house at 

Among the donations were copies of the 
Philadelphia Directory for 1816 and 1837; a 
newspaper of 1765, with several curious ad- 
vertisements ; the Aurora or General Advertiser, 
published in 1797 ; Poulson's American Advertiser I 
for 1803 ; an appeal to the nations of Europe 
against the Continental System, by Madame 
Stael Holstein, published in 1813 ; an old life of 
Stephen Girard, by Stephen Simpson ; a gavel 
made from a piece of oak taken from William 
Penn's Brew-House at Perm's Manor, cut before 
there was a saw-mill in America ; chronicles of 
the first Planters of the Colony of Massachusetts 
Bay, from 1623 to 1636; the works of John C. 
Calhoun ; the correspondence of Daniel Web- 
ster ; correspondence of eminent men to George 
Washington during the Revolution. 

Dr. H. J. Morton and Jos. H. Trotter were 
elected members of the Society. 

The Committee on procuring views of Penn- 
sylvania battle-fields was, on motion of Colonel 
Childs, increased to five, and General Henry D. 
Maxwell, of Easton, and Dr. Henry J. Morton, 
appointed as the additional members. 
Mr. Armstrong offered the following : — 
Whereas, It is represented that the premises 
at the south-east corner of Second and Norris 
alley, on which the Penn Mansion stands, have 
been sold ; and whereas, it is desirable that so 
interesting a relic of the past as this house 
should, if practicable, be preserved ; 

Resolved, That a committee of six be appointed 
to ascertain if the building can be purchased ; if 
not, if it can be removed to the Park, or to some 
other suitable place ; and if this can be accom- 
plished, to take such action as may secure its 
removal or preservation. 

The resolution was agreed to, and Messrs. 
Richard Wright, Thomas McAllister, Cephas G. 
Childs, Thomas H. Montgomery, Jno. C. Trout- 
wine, and John Rice, were appointed the com- 

A general discussion then ensued between 
the members. It was generally desired to pos- 
sess and preserve the building entire, or, if not, to 
preserve as much of the house as possible. Dif- 
ferent statements were made concerning the 
condition of the building. The woodwork of 
the lower portions of the house are disintegrated 
by time, but the original woodwork of the upper 
stories is little injured. If it cannot be preserved 
entire, the members present urged the purchase 
of the materials, to be incorporated into the new 
hall to be erected for the Society, or to be used 
to build a monumental structure. The building 
and ground were sold to the parties at present 
owning it for $65,000. The house cannot be 
moved as it stands, as it is wider than the street. 
If it is attempted to remove it, it will have to be 
taken to pieces and rebuilt. After a further dis- 
cussion, the meeting adjourned. 

ftates n lo0lis. 

Early History of New England, being a relation 
of Hostile Passages between the Indians and 
European Voyagers and First Settlers ; and a 
full Narrative of Hostilities to the close of the 
War with the Peqnote, in the year 1637 ; also a 
detailed account of the Origin of the War wifh 
King Philip. By Increase Mather. With an 
Introduction and Notes by Samuel G. Drake 



[May, 1864. 

Boston : Printed for the Editor, and sold by 
him at No. 12 Bromfield street; also J. Mun- 
sell, Albany, N.Y. 1864. xxxvm. Pp. 309. 
Mr. Drake, well aware of the increase of the 
antiquarian taste which he has done so much to 
foster, gives us from Mr. Munsell's elegant press 
Increase Mather's Early History of New Eng- 
land. It matches the historical series of Mr. M., 
which included one volume on King Philip's 
war, and, with the volume issued by Mr. Drake 
last year, increases well our collection for the 

Mr. Drake's preface and notes are characteriz- 
ed by his well known research, clearness, and 

The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution. By 
J. T. Headlej 7 -, author of " Washington and his 
Generals," " Napoleon and his Marshals," etc. 
New York: Scribner, 1864. 12mo. pp. 402. 

The part of the clergy in the great movement 
of the last century which resulted in American 
Independence is beginning to be treated as a 
specialty. We have already had two collections 
of important sermons of the epoch, edited by 
Frank Moore and by J. Wingate Thornton, nei- 
ther, perhaps, wide enough in its scope or broad 
enough in conception and handling. In the 
present volume Mr. Headley presents biographi- 
cal sketches of many of the prominent clergy- 
men of the Revolution. His volume cannot fail 
to interest and attract the general reader, and 
at the same time afford a convenient manual 
even for students. The mission of Eev. Mr. Car- 
roll to Canada, and his services, we hope to see 
given in a future edition. 

was, has long been needed, and it is now a matter 
of satisfaction that the task has fallen into the 
competent hands of Mr. Hunt. 

The life of Livingston, whose code alone gives 
him immortality, was one of great interest. An 
active lawyer, a member of Congress fully im- 
pressed with the responsibilities of legislative 
duty, Secretary of State when Jackson issued 
his celebrated proclamation against South Caro- 
lina, and subsequently minister to France in a 
time of great difficulty, Livingston everywhere 
displayed talents and abilities of the highest order. 


My Cave Life in Vicksburg. New York: D. 
Appleton & Co., 1864. 12mo. pp. 196. 

This is a charming book. Tiring as the pub- 
lic is of works on the war, going over the same 
ground or presenting the same views, it must 
receive with welcome this picture of a true wo- 
man's trials during the siege of Vicksburg. As 
a picture of the strange subterranean life led by 
polished and educated ladies in the midst of our 
civilization and refinement, it is one to read and 
be pondered o*. How much the women of the 
South labored to stimulate the passions of men ! 
How bitterly some have tasted of the dregs of 
the bitter chalice of war ! 

Life of Edward Livingston. By Charles Havens 
Hunt, with an Introduction by George Bancroft. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. 8vo. pp. 448. 

A carefully digested, well written life of the 
great Edward Livingston, for great he really 

The recent issues and announcements of works 
relative to the history of the country are not 
very numerous. 

Poe and Hitchcock:, of Cincinnati, have in 
press u Contributions to the Early History of 
the North- West, including the Moravian Mission 
in Ohio," by S. P. Hildreth, M.D. 

W. J. Dodge promises a history of the Second 
Division of the Army of the Cumberland, under 
McCook, Sill, and Johnson, with plates and 

Newspapers of the Revolution. — A tin ped- 
dler in Berkshire county brought to North 
Becket, the other day, among his collections of 
rags, papers, &c, some rare old newspapers, 
printed in 1775 and 1776, among them twelve 
copies of the Massachusetts Spy, nine of the 
Connecticut Courant, two of the New York 
Packet, and one of the New York Advertiser. 
They luckily fell under the eye of C. O. Petkins, 
of North Becket, who has rescued and will pre- 
serve them 

The Winslow Family. — A register of this 
family is being prepared by the Rev. Hubbard 
Winslow, D.D. It is intended that the work 
shall contain a full and accurate genealogy of the 
family, with biographical sketches of the most 
distinguished of its members. Information on 
the subject will be gladly received, and should 
be sent to No. 160 West 49th st., New York. 



Vol. VIII.J 

JUNE, 1864. 

[No. 6. 

Gntml JUprtnunt. 


Continued from page 30.* 


t But the humane efforts of Roger Wil~ 
hams and John Eliot to abate the severity 
of judgment against captives, and mitigate 
the horrors of slavery in Massachusetts, 
hardly amounted to a positive protest 
against the institution itself. 

In their time there was no public opinion 
against slavery, and probably very little 
exercise of private judgment against it. 
Even among the Quakers the inner light 
had not yet disclosed its enormity, or 
awakened tender consciences to its utter 

Morgan Godwyn, a clergyman of the 
Church of England, who wrote and pub- 
lished in 1680 "The Negro's and Indian's 
Advocate, suing for their Admission into 

* In article No. I., Vol. vii., p. 343, in the refer- 
ences to Wmthrops Journal, the dates should be July, 
1637, instead of May, 1637, and February,. 1633, 
instead of December, 1637. 
•In the concluding sentence of article No. III., 

■urii- Vm '' P ' 3 °' " a Dudle y" was mentioned with 
W illiams, Ehot, and Sewall, as having been in ad- 
vance of their contemporaries in their views of slaverv. 
Ihe reference was to Paul Dudley, who was the 
author of a tract, published in 1731, entitled " Au 
Essay on the Merchandize of Slaves, and Souls of 
,!!; ■ ltn aa A Pphcation to the Church of Rome." 

1 us title and references to the tract by others, gave 
us the impression that it was against slavery; but an 
opportunity recently enjoyed of examining the tract 
itself showed the mistake. It is altogether " an 
application to the Church of Rome"— in fact "an 
oration against Popery," of which Massachusetts had 
a much greater horror than of slaverv. 

IH3T. mag. vol. vm. 25 

"he Church," etc., hardly intimates a doubt 
of the lawfulness of their slavery, while he 
pleads for their humanity and right to 
religion against a very general opinion of 
that day, which denied them both. 
' Dean Berkeley, in his famous sermon 
(before the Venerable Society in 1731, 
jspeaks of u the irrational contempt of the 
|Blacks, as Creatures of another Species, 
•Who had no right to be instructed or 
admitted to the Sacraments." Sermon, 
p. 19. 

And George Keith (then Quaker), whose 
paper against the practice was said to be 
given forth by the appointment of the 
meeting held by him in the city of Phila- 
delphia, about the year 1693, gave a strict 
charge to Friends " that they should set 
their negroes at liberty, after some reason- 
able time of service." Pamphlet quoted 
by Dr. Franklin in his letter to John 
Wright, 4 November, 1789. Works, X., 

This would seem to have been the very 
earliest testimony against slavery in Ame- 
rica, if, indeed, it went far enough to 
deserve that character. Keith appears 
simply to have repeated the words of 
George Fox in Barbadoes in 1671, when 
he urged the religious training of the 
negroes, as well as kind treatment, in place 
of "cruelty towards them, as the manner 
of some hath been and is ; and that after 
certain years of servitude they should 
make them free." Journal, II., 140. The 
explicit answer of Fox to the charge that 
the Quakers " taught the negroes to 
rebel," shows very clearly that anti-slavery 
doctrines were no part of the Quaker 
creed at that time. Ibid, pp. 147-9. 
Compare 454. See also Ralph Sandi- 
ford's Brief Examination, etc., Preface. 




But for half a century afterwards " that 
people were as greedy as any Body in 
keeping ."Negroes for their Gain," so as to 
induce the belief that they " approved of 
it as a People with one consent unani- 
mously." Lay, 84. Ralph Sandiford, in 
1729, in his "Brief Examination," etc., 
thus bemoaned the fact, "that it hath 
defaced the present Dispensation." 

" Had Friends stood clear of this Prac- 
tice, that it might have been answered to 
the Traders in Slaves that there is a People 
called Quakers in Pennsylvania that will 
not own this Practice in Word or Deed, 
then would they have been a burning and 
a shining Light to these poor Heathen, and 
a Precedent to the Nations throughout the 
Universe which might have brought them 
to have seen the Evil of it in themselves, 
and glorifyed the Lord on our Behalf, and 
like the Queen of the East, to have ad- 
mired the Glory and Beauty of the Church 
of God. But instead thereof, the tender 
seed in the Honest-hearted is under Suffer- 
ing, to see both Elders and Ministers as it 
were cloathed with it, and their offspring 
after them filling up the Measure of their 
Parents' Iniquity ; which may be suffered 
till such Time that Recompence from Him 
that is just to all his Creatures opens that 
Eye the god of this World has blinded. 
Though I would not be understood to 
pervert the Order of the Body, which con- 
sists of Servants and Masters, and the Head 
cannot say to the Foot, I have no need of 
thee/ but it is the Converting Men's Liberty 
to our Wills, who have not, like the Gi- 
beonites, offered themselves willingly, or 
by Consent given their Ear to the Door- 
post, but are made such by Force, in that 
Nature that desires to Lord it over their 
Fellow Creatures, is what is to be abhorred 
by all Christians." pp. 9-10. 

Again, he says in another place : " But 
in Time this dark Trade creeping in 
amoogst us to the very Ministry, because 
of the profit by it, hath spread over others 
like a Leprosy, to the Grief of the Honest- 
hearted." Preface. 

Public sentiment and opinion against 
slavery were first aroused and stimulated 
in America in the latter part of the seven- 

teenth century by sympathy for the 
Christian captives, Dutch and English, 
who were enslaved by the Turks and the 
pirates of Northern Africa. The efforts 
to ransom and release these unfortunate 
persons, excited by the terrible sorrow of 
relatives and friends, kinsmen and coun 
trymen, brought home to some minds 
(though few) the injustice of their own 
dealings with the negroes. The earliest 
writers against slavery urged that argu- 
ment with peculiar force and unction, but 
with little effect. They seem to have 
made no impression on the legislation of 
the colonies, and curious and zealous re- 
search only can recover the memorials of 
their righteous testimonies. 

The earliest positive public challenge to 
slavery in Massachusetts of which we have 
any knowledge, was in the year 1700, 
when a learned, pious, and honored magis- 
trate entered the lists alone, and sounded 
his solitary blast in the ears of his brother 
magistrates and the people, who listened 
in amazement and wonder, not unmingled 
with sorrow and contempt. His per- 
formance is all the more remarkable 
from the fact that it stands out in the 
history of the time separate and distinct 
as " the voice of one crying in the wilder- 

Samuel Sew all, at that time a Judge of 
the Superior Court, and afterwards Chief- 
Justice, published a brief tract in 1700, 
entitled : " The /Selling of Joseph a Me- 
morial" It filled three pages of a folio 
sheet, ending with the imprint : " Boston 
of the Massachusetts y Printed by Bar- 
tholomew Green and John Allen. June 
24th, 1700." 

The author presented a copy of this 
tract " not only to each member of the 
General Court at the time of its publica- 
tion, but also to numerous clergymen and 
literary gentlemen with whom he was inti- 
mate." MS. Letter. Compare Brissot, 
I., 224. Although thus extensively circu- 
lated at that day, it has for many years 
been known apparently only by tradition, 
as nearly all the notices of it which Ave 
have seen are confined to tlie fact of its 
publication early in the eighteenth cen- 




tury, the date being nowhere correctly 

Beyond this, it appears to have been 
unknown to our historians, and is now 
reproduced probably for the first time in 
the present century. Indeed, we have 
met with no quotation even from it later 
* than 1738, when it was reprinted in Penn- 
sylvania, where anti-slavery took an earlier 
and deeper root, and bore earlier fruit than 
in any other part of America. 

Its rarity and peculiar interest will jus- 
tify us in placing the reprint before our 
readers in this connection. It is somewhat 
remarkable that so signal a testimony 
against slavery should have escaped 
the research of those who have in 
their custody " the historic fame " of Mas- 
sachusetts. It is a most honorable memo- 
rial of its venerated author. 


By the Hon'ble Judge Sew all in New England. 

real value next unto Life ; None ought to 
part with it themselves, or deprive others 
of it, but upon most mature consideration. 

" The Numerousness of Slaves at this 
Day in the Province, and the Uneasiness 
of them under their Slavery, hath put 
many upon thinking whether the Founda- 
tion of it be firmly and well laid ; so as 
to sustain the Vast Weight that is built 
upon it. It is most certain that all Men, 
as they are the Sons of Adam, are Co- 
heirs, and have equal Right unto Liberty, 
and all other outward Comforts of Life. 
God hath given the Earth [with all its 
commodities] unto the So?is of Adam, 
Psal., 115, 16. And hath made of One 
Blood all Nations of Men, for to dwell 
on all the face of the Earthy and hath 
determined the Tunes before appointed, 
and the bounds of their Habitation: 
That they should seek the Lord. Foras- 
much then as we are the Offspring of 
God, &g. Acts 17. 26. 27. 29. Now, 
although the Title given by the last Adam 
doth infinitely better Men's Estates, re- 
specting God and themselves ; and grants 
them a most beneficial and inviolable 
Lease under the Broad Seal of Heaven, 

who were before only Tenants at Will ; 
yet through the Indulgence of God to our 
First Parents after the Fall, the outward 
Estate of all and every of their Children, 
remains the same as to one another. So 
that Originally, and Naturally, there is no 
such thing as Slavery. Joseph was right- 
fully no more a Slave to his Brethren, than 
they were to him ; and they had no more 
Authority to Sell him, than they had to 
Slay him. And if they had nothing to do 
to sell him ; the Ishmaelites bargaining 
with them, and paying down Twenty 
pieces of Silver, could not make a Title, 
Neither could Potiphar have any better 
Interest in him than the Ishmaelites had. 
Gen. 37, 20, 27, 28. For he that shall in 
this case plead Alteration of Property, 
seems to have forfeited a great part of his 
own claim to Humanity. There is no pro- 
portion between Twenty Pieces of Silver 
and LIBERTY. The Commodity itself 
is the Claimer. If Arabian Gold be im- 
ported in any quantities, most are afraid to 
meddle with it, though they might have it 
at easy rates; lest it should have been 
wrongfully taken from the Owners, it 
should kindle a fire to the Consumption 
of their whole Estate. 'Tis pity there 
should be more Caution used in buying a 
Horse, or a little lifeless dust, than there 
is in purchasing Men and Women : Where- 
as they are the Offspring of God, and 
their Liberty is, 

Auro pretiosior Omni. 

" And seeing God hath said, He that 
Stealeth a Man, and Selleth him, or if he 
be found in his Hand, he shall surely be 
put to Death. Exod. 21, 16. This Law 
being of Everlasting Equity, wherein Man- 
Stealing is ranked amongst the most atro- 
cious of Capital Crimes : What louder Cry 
can there be made of that Celebrated 

Caveat Emptor ! 

" And all things considered, it would 
conduce more to the Welfare of the Pro- 
vince, to have White Servants for a Term 
of Years, than to have Slaves for Life. 
Few can endure to hear of a Negro's 
being made free ; and indeed they can 




seldom use their Freedom well ; yet their 
continual aspiring after their forbidden 
Liberty, renders them Unwilling Servants. 
And there is such a disparity in their Con 
ditions, Colour, and Hair, that they can 
never embody with us, & grow up in 
orderly Families, to the Peopling of the 
Land ; but still remain in our Body Poli- 
tick as a kind of extravasat Blood. As 
many Negro Men as there are among us, 
so many empty Places are there in our 
Train Bands, and the places taken up of 
Men that might make Husbands for our 
Daughters. And the Sons and Daughters 
of New England would become more like 
Jacob and Rachel, if this Slavery were 
thrust quite out of Doors. Moreover it is 
too well known what Temptations Masters 
are under, to connive at the Fornication 
of their Slaves ; lest they should be obliged 
to find them Wives, or pay their Fines. 
It seems to be practically pleaded that 
they might be lawless ; 'tis thought much 
of, that the Law should have satisfaction 
for their Thefts, and other Immoralities ; 
by which means, Holiness to the Lord is 
more rarely engraven upon this sort of Ser- 
vitude. It is likewise most lamentable to 
think, how in taking Negroes out of Afri- 
ca, and selling of them here, That which 
God has joined together, Men do boldly 
rend asunder; Men from their Country, 
Husbands from their Wives, Parents from 
their Children. How horrible is the Un- 
cleanness, Mortality, if not Murder, that 
the Ships are guilty of that bring great 
Crouds of these miserable Men and Wo- 
men. Methinks when we are bemoaning 
the barbarous Usage of our Friends and 
Kinsfolk in Africa, it might not be unrea- 
sonable to enquire whether we are not 
culpable in forcing the Africans to become 
Slaves amongst ourselves. And it may be 
a question whether all the Benefit received 
by Negro Slaves will balance the Accompt 
of Cash laid out upon them ; and for the 
Redemption of our own enslaved Friends 
out of Africa. Besides all the Persons 
and Estates that have perished there. 

"Obj. l. These Blaclcamores are of 
the Posterity of Cham, and therefore are 

lender the Curse of Slavery. Gen. 9. 25. 

20. 27. 

u Ans. Of all Offices, one would not 
beg this ; viz. Uncall'd for, to be an Exe- 
cutioner of the Vindictive Wrath of God ; 
the extent and duration of which is to us 
uncertain. If this ever was a Commission ; 
How do we know but that it is long sinee 
out of Date? Many have found it to their 
Cost, that a Prophetical Denunciation of 
Judgment against a Person or People, 
would not warrant them to inflict that 
evil. If it would, Hazael might justify 
himself in all he did against his master, 
and the Israelites from 2 Kings 8. 10. 12.^ 

" But it is possible that by cursory read- 
ing, this Text may have been mistaken. 
For Canaan is the Person Cursed three 
times over, without the mentioning of 
Cham. Good Expositors suppose the 
Curse entailed on him, and that this Pro- 
phesie was accomplished in the Extirpation 
of the Canaanites, and in the Servitude of 
the Gibeonites. Vide Pareum. Where- 
as the Blackmores are not descended of 
Canaan, but of Cush. Psal. 68. 31. 
Princes shall come out of Egypt [Miz- 
raim]. Ethiopia [Cush] shall soon stretch 
out her Hands unto God. Under which 
Names, all Africa may be comprehended ; 
and their Promised Conversion ought to 
be prayed for. Jer. 13. 23. Can the 
Ethiopian change his Skin f This shows 
that Black Men are the Posterity of Cush. 
Who time out of mind have been distin- 
guished by their Colour. And for want 
of the true, Ovid assigns a fabulous cause 
of it. 

Sanguine turn credunt in corpora summa vocato. 
JEthiopum populos nigrum traxisse colorern. 
Metamorph. lib. 2. 

" Obj. 2. The Nigers are brought out 
of a Pagan Country, into places where the 
Gospel is preached. 

" Ans. Evil must not be done, that good 
may come of it. The extraordinary and 
comprehensive Benefit accruing to the 
Church of God, and to Joseph personally, 
did not rectify his Brethren's Sale of him. 

1864. J 



" Obj. 3. The Africans have Wars one 
with another : Our Ships bring lawful 
Captives taken in those wars. 

"Answ. For aught is known, their Wars 
are much such as were between Jacob's 
Sons and their Brother Joseph. If they be 
between Town and Town ; Provincial or 
National : Every War is upon one side 
Unjust. An Unlawful War can't make 
lawful Captives. And by receiving, we 
are in danger to promote, and partake 
in their Barbarous Cruelties. I am sure, 
if some Gentlemen should go down to 
the Brewsters to take the Air, and Fish : 
And a stronger Party from Hull should 
surprise them, and sell them for Slaves 
to a Ship outward bound; they would 
think themselves unjustly dealt with ; both 
by Sellers and Buyers. And yet 'tis to be 
feared, we have no other Kind of Title to 
our Nigers. Therefore all things whatso- 
ever ye would that men should do to you, 
do you even so to them: for this is the 
Law and the Prophets. Matt. 1. 12. 

" Obj. 4. Abraham had Servants bought 
with his Money and bom in his House. 

" Ans. Until the Circumstances of 
Abraham's purchase be recorded, no Argu- 
ment can be drawn from it. In the mean 
time, Charity obliges us to conclude, that 
He knew it was lawful and good. 

"It is Observable that the Israelites were 
strictly forbidden the buying or selling one 
another for Slaves. Levit. 25. 39. 46. 
Jer. 34. 8—22. And God gaged His Bless- 
ing in lieu of any loss they might conceit 
they suffered thereby, Deut. 15. 18. And 
since the partition Wall is broken down, 
inordinate Self-love should likewise be de- 
molished. God expects that Christians 
should be of a more Ingenious and benign 
frame of Spirit. Christians should carry it 
to all the World, as the Israelites were to 
carry it one towards another. And for 
Men obstinately to persist in holding their 
Neighbours and Brethren under the Rigor 
of perpetual Bondage, seems to be no pro- 
per way of gaining Assurance that God 
has given them Spiritual Freedom. Our 

Blessed Saviour has altered the Measures 
of the ancient Love Song, and set it to a 
most Excellent New Tune, which all ought 
to be ambitious of Learning. Matt. 5. 43. 
44. John 13. 34. These Ethiopians, as 
black as they are, seeing they are the Sons 
and Daughters of the First Adam, the 
Brethren and Sisters of the Last Adam, 
and the Offspring of God ; They ought to 
be treated with a Respect agreeable. 

" Servitus perfecta voluntaria, inter 
Christianum & Christianum, ex parte servi 
patientis saipe est licita> quia est necessa- 
ria ; sed ex parte domini agentis, & pro- 
curando & exercendo, vix potest esse licita ; 
quia non convenit regidm illi generali: 
Qumcunque volueritis ut faciant vobis 
homines, ita & vosfacite eis. Matt. 1. 12. 

11 Perfecta servitus pmnrn, non potest 
jure locum habere^ nisi ex delicto gravi 
quod ultimum supplicium aliquo modo 
meretur : quia Libertas ex naturali msti- 
matione proxime accedit ad vitam ipsam, 
<jb eidem a midtis prwferri solet. 

"Ames. Cas. Consc. Lib. 5. Cap. 23. Thes. 
2. 3." 

Thus signally and clearly did Judge 
Sewall expose the miserable pretences on 
which slavery and the slave-trade were then 
justified in Massachusetts, as they continued 
to be long years after he " slept with his 
fathers." And he exhibited in his corre- 
spondence his desire that " the wicked prac- 
tice of slavery" might cease, as well as his 
strong conviction that there would be " no 
progress in gospelling" until slavery was 
done away. When about to sit on the 
trial of a master for killing his negro, he 
wrote to a friend : 

"The poorest boys and girls in this 

Province, such as are of the lowest condition, 

whether they be English, or Indians, or 

Ethiopians, they have the same right to reli- 

j gion and life that the richest heirs have ; 

| and they who go about to deprive them 

of this right attempt the bombarding of 

[heaven ; and the shells they throw will fall 

down on their own heads." 

But Sewall was far in advance of his day 
and generation in these views, and has 
himself left the record that he met more 




" frowns and hard words" than sympathy 
" for this undertaking." — Letter to Hig- 
g ins on, April 13, 1706. 

Nor was his publication allowed to pass 
without reply. John Saffin, a judge of 
the same court with Judge Sewall, and a 
slaveholder, printed an answer, of which 
we regret to say we have been able to find 
no copy. Could it be found, it would un- 
doubtedly be an interesting document and 
very important in illustration of the his- 
tory of slavery in Massachusetts. We 
might naturally expect to find in it some 
references to the laws, the principles, and 
the practices of the Puritan Fathers of that 

It must not be forgotten that " the ques- 
tion of tolerating the slave trade and the 
question of abolishing slavery rested on 
different grounds. The one related to 
the refusal of a trust, the other to the 
manner of its exercise." — Bancroft, III. 

It was obvious that the first step towards 
the destruction of slavery was the restraint 
or prohibition of the importation of slaves. 
We have already noticed the acts of 1705, 
with the additional acts of 1728 and 1738, 
imposing and enforcing the collection of an 
import duty of four pounds per head upon 
all negroes brought into the Province. 

There is no indication in the acts them- 
selves, nor have we been able to find any 
evidence that they were intended other 
than as revenue acts, beyond that which 
we have presented in these notes. 

We have heretofore quoted the instruc- 
tion of the town of Boston in 1701. It is 
not improbable that it was the result of 
Judge Sewall's efforts in 1700. Fruitless 
as it seems to have been, it shows that even 
at that date some were wise enough to see 
that the importation of negroes was not so 
beneficial to the Crown or Country as white 
servants would be. In 1706, an essay or 
" Computation that the Importation of 
Negroes is not so profitable as thai of 
White /Servants," was published in Bos- 
ton, which may properly be reproduced 
here. It was the first newspaper article 
against the importation of negroes pub- 
lished in America, and appeared in the 

.Boston Neics-Letter, No. 112, June 12, 
1706. We are inclined to attribute this 
article also to Judge Sewall. 

" By last Year's Bill of Mortality for the 
Town of Boston, in Number 100 News- 
Letter, we are furnished with a List of 44 
Negroes dead last year, which being com- 
puted one with another at 30?. per Head, 
amounts to the Sum of One Thousand three 
hundred and Twenty Pounds, of which we 
would make this Remark: That the Im- 
porting of Negroes into this or the Neigh- 
boring Provinces is not so beneficial either 
to the Crown or Country, as White Ser- 
vants would be. 

"For Negroes do not carry Arms to 
defend the Country as Whites do. 

" Negroes are generally Eye-Servants, 
great Thieves, much addicted to Stealing, 
Lying and Purloining. 

" They do not People our Country as 
Whites would do whereby we should be 
strengthened against an Enemy. 

" By Encouraging the Importing of 
White Men Servants, allowing somewhat 
to the Importer, most Husbandmen in the 
Country might be furnished with Servants 
for 8, 9, or 10?. a Head, who are not able 
to launch out 40 or 50?. for a Negro the 
now common Price. 

" A Man then might buy a White Man 
Servant we suppose for 10?. to serve 4 
years, and Boys for the same price to Serve 
6, 8, or 10 years ; If a White Servant die, 
the Loss exceeds not 10?. but if a Negro 
dies, 'tis a very great loss to the Husband- 
man ; Three years Interest of the price of 
the Negro, will near upon if not altogether 
purchase a White Man Servant. 

" If Necessity call for it, that the Hus- 
bandman must fit out a Man against the 
Enemy ; if he has a Negro he cannot send 
him, but if he has a White Servant, 'twill 
answer the end, and perhaps save his Son 
at home. 

"Were Merchants and Masters En- 
couraged as already said to bring in Men 
Servants, there needed not be such Com- 
plaint against Superiors Impressing our 
Children to the War, there would then be 
Men enough to be had without Impressing. 




" The bringing in of such Servants would 
much enrich this Province because Hus- 
bandmen would not only be able far better 
to manure what Lands are already under 
Improvement, but would also improve a 
great deal more that now lyes waste under 
Woods, and enable this Province to set 
about raising of Naval Stores, which would 
be greatly advantageous to the Crown of 
England, and this Province. 

" For the raising of Hemp here, so as to 
make Sail-cloth and Cordage to furnish but 
our own Shipping, would hinder the Im- 
porting it, and save a considerable sum in 
a year to make Returns for which we now 
do, and in time might be capacitated to 
furnish England not only with Sail-cloth 
and Cordage, but likewise with Pitch, Tar, 
Hemp, and other Stores which they are 
now obliged to purchase in Foreign Nations. 

" Suppose the Government here should 
allow Forty Shillings per head for five 
years, to such as should Import every of 
these years 100 White Men Servants, and 
each to serve 4 years, the cost would be 
but 200/. a year, and a 1000/. for the 5 
years. The first 100 Servants, being free 
the 4th year they serve the 5th for Wages, 
and the 6th there is 100 that goes out into 
the Woods, and settles a 100 Families to 
Strengthen and Baracado us from the In- 
dians, and also a 100 Families more every 
year successively. 

" And here you see that in one year the 
Town of Boston has lost 13201. by 44 Ne- 
groes, which is also a loss to the Country 
in general, and for a less loss (if it may im- 
properly be so called) for a 1000/. the Coun- 
try may have 500 Men in 5 years time for 
the 44 Negroes dead in one year. 

" A certain person within these 6 years 
had two Negroes dead computed both at 
60/. which would have procured him six 
white Servants at 10/. per head to have 
Served 24 years, at 4 years apiece, without 
running such a great risque, and the Whites 
would have strengthened the Country, that 
Negroes do not. 

" 'Twould do well that none of those 
Servants be liable to be Impressed during 
their Service of Agreement at their first 

"That such Servants being Sold or 
Transported out of this Province during 
the time of their Service, the Person that 
buys them be liable to pay 3/. into the 

A few years after the publication of 
Judge Sewall's tract, Elihu Coleman of 
Nantucket is said to have written and 
published a tract against slavery. Coffin's 
Newbury : p. 338. 

In 1755, March 10, the town of Salem 
authorized a petition to the General Court 
against the importation of negroes. FeWs 
Salem, II. 416. There may have been 
other occasional efforts of this sort, but 
they must have been comparatively few 
and fruitless. 

We have thus noticed the most import- 
ant, if not the only anti-slavery demonstra- 
tions which appear in the history of Massa- 
chusetts down to the period immediately 
preceding the revolution. Excepting those 
already mentioned, we know of no public 
advocates for the slave in that Colony and 
Province until the cry of resistance to 
British tyranny began to resound through 
the Colonies. 

James Otis's great speech in the famous 
Cause of the Writs of Assistance in 1761 — 
the first scene of the first act of opposition 
to the arbitrary claims of Great Britain — 
declared the rights of man inherent and 
inalienable. In that speech the poor ne- 
groes were not forgotten. None ever as- 
serted their rights in stronger terms. 
Adams's Works, X. 315. Mr. Bancroft 
postpones Otis's "protest against negro 
slavery" to a later year (1764), when he 
translated the " scathing satire" of Montes- 
quieu in his assertion and proof of the 
rights of the British Colonies. The differ- 
ence in time is not material for our present 
purpose. Many years were to pass away 
before his views on this subject were ac- 
cepted by the children's children of those 
to whom his words then sounded like a 
rhapsody and an extravagance. 

It was a strong arm, and it struck a 
sturdy blow, but the wedge recoiled and 
flew out from the tough black knot of 
slavery, which was destined to outlast the 




fiercest fires of the revolution in Massa- 
chusetts, though kindled with live coals 
from the altar of universal liberty. 

John Adams heard the words of Otis, 
and "shuddered at the doctrine he taught," 
and to the end of his long life continued 
" to shudder at the consequences that may 
be drawn from such premises." , Yet John 
Adams u adored the idea of gradual aboli- 
tions." Works, X. 315. For his later 
views on emancipation, see Works, VI. 
511., X. 379. 

The views expressed by Otis must have 
sounded strangely in the ears of men who 
" lived (as John Adams himself says he did) 
for many years in times when the practice 
[of slavery] was not disgraceful, when the 
best men in my vicinity thought it not 
inconsistent with their character." Works, 
X. 380. 

If there was a prevailing public senti- 
ment against slavery in Massachusetts — as 
has been constantly claimed of late — the 
people of that day, far less demonstra- 
tive than their descendants, had an extra- 
ordinary way of not showing it. Hutchin- 
son, who was certainly the man of his time 
most familiar with the history of his native 
province, says in his first volume, published 
in 1764: "Some judicious persons are of 
opinion that the permission of slavery has 
been a publick mischief," p. 444. This 
is certainly the indication of a very mild 
type of opposition — by no means of a per- 
vading public sentiment. 

John Adams was not alone in his asto- 
nishment at the ideas expressed by Otis. 
These ideas were as new as they were 
startling to the people of Massachusetts 
in that day. And to the calm judgment 
of the historian there is nothing strange in 
the fact that the foremost man of his time 
in that province should have shuddered at 
the doctrines which Otis taught. 

More than a century passed away before 
all the ancient badges of servitude could 
be removed from the colored races in Mas- 
sachusetts, if indeed it be even now true 
that none of those disabilities which so 
strongly mark the social status of the 
negro still linger in the legislation of that 
State. e. y. e. 



Overtures having been made by Gene- 
ral Washington for settling a Cartel for 
the Exchange of Prisoners, Commissioners 
met by appointment at Amboy, April 
12th, and remained there until the 23d, 
when Colonel Hyde of the Foot Guards 
and Captain Andre, Aid-de-Camp to his 
Excellency the Commander-in-Chief, re- 
turned to New York and made the follow- 
ing Report. 

To His Excellency 

Sir Henry Clinton, K.B. 

<&c, &c, &c. 

Report of Colonel Hyde and Captain 
Andre, Commissioners on the part of 
His Excellency Sir Henry Clinton, for 
negociating an exchange of prisoners, dbc. 
To His Excellency Sir Henry Clinton, K.B, 
We beg leave in this report, to refer 
your Excellency to our letters from Am- 
boy : In these we expressed our sur- 
prise to find that General Washington's 
commissioners objected anew, to the pow- 
ers we produced, as being incompetent to 
a general cartel, which must rest, as they 
termed it, on the broad basis of national 
faith, not on personal confidence ; they 
quoted on this occasion, the customs of 
nations at war where commissioners were 
vested with powers from the supreme 
authority of the State, not from the Com- 
manders of armies : We would not con- 
sume time in refuting such inapplicable 
parallels, or in questioning the great 
breadth of basis ascribed to the faith of 
unrecognized power which ratified the 
Convention, but desired to proceed on the 
powers we had, to an immediate exchange 
of prisoners, and to frame regulations for 
others in future, under whatever name 
they chose to enter into such an agree- 
ment, as it was surely an object of import- 
ance enough to deserve our attention, and 
fully within the compass of our commis- 
sion to redeem some ****** 




and to provide for the more speedy relief 
and more comfortable maintainance of 
such as should hereafter be taken. We 
thought it rather derogating from the zeal 
professed by the enemy in this affair, to 
hear their commissioners propose in an- 
swer, that in case your Excellency was 
not authorized to pledge the faith of the 
nation, the exchange might be deferred 
till such authority could be obtained from 
Europe. They however admitted, that 
they could treat on a present exchange. 
In order therefore, to enter closely on the 
subject, we proposed a mutual communi- 
cation of the nature of the agreement we 
had in view, and we produced to them an 
imperfect sketch of a cartel which we had 
drawn up, according to the spirit of our 
instructions, and of which we subjoin a 

In return they exhibited to us some arti- 
cles which they had compiled, and had in- 
tended as the chief tenor of a general 
cartel, had they judged our commissions 
to have been sufficient. These pieces were 
not interchanged, w r e can therefore only 
observe as to them, that most of the arti- 
cles differed widely from ours, and many 
appeared to us ill defined and leaving 
room for arbitrary constructions, which 
might easily afford ill grounded pretences 
for violations. We could not but be very 
cautious in barkening to terms of such a 
tendency, when the business under out- 
consideration, brought to mind such fla- 
grant instances of perversions of that na- 
ture in the affair of the Cedars, and in a 
treaty of much greater importance, where 
a few cartouch boxes were wrested into 
a pretext for invalidating a solemn con- 

The American Commissioners refused 
their assent to our first article for the uni- 
versal delivery of prisoners, in which Ave 
conceived they would on computation, 
have remained indebted to us, but from 
our account, they struck of! all prisoners 
in Georgia, having, they assured us, no 
authentic intelligence concerning them, 
probably upwards of 1000 men ; likewise 
between 4 and 500 officers and soldiers 
pretended to be forfeited by an infringe- 

HIST. M.\G. VOL. VIII. 26 

ment on the agreement at the Cedars : 
Officers of militia not taken in arms, there- 
fore styled citizens. By these and similar 
deductions, they transferred the balance 
to their own side. 

We were not more successful in bring- 
ing their ideas to coincide with ours, when 
we propose;! to agree on an exchange as 
far as our abilities should be found to ex- 
tend, involving in the exchange of all offi- 
cers, that of a certain proportion of pri- 
vate soldiers. 

Upon the whole they appeared to cir- 
cumscribe their views to the redemption 
of their officers on Long Island, pressing 
us to mention the number of private men 
we should insist on receiving if any ex- 
change took place, as if whatever equivalent 
we might have, their instructions had been 
to limit the private men they were to sur- 

Unable to bring them to compliance 
with our terms, or induce them to name 
their own, we at length on Monday the 
19th inst., presented the following defini- 
tive proposals, the form and diction of 
which, we said, might be altered, if neces- 
sary, as we had not adverted particularly 
to those points. 

As each subject of these others had been 
fully discussed in our several conferences 
during the preceding week, we thought, 
if the enemy's instructions admitted of any 
agreement, much time could not be requir- 
ed for deliberation. But as they had 
throughout the negotiation objected to 
everything in a minutious spirit of conten- 
tion, we drew no favourable inference from 
their delay in answering, and presumed 
they were only framing a reply which 
should serve as an apology to the unhappy 
people who, through the obvious policy 
of avoiding all exchange (except possi- 
bly on a very particular and confined prin- 
ciple) are to remain in captivity. We, 
therefore, after wailing three days, wrote 
to them the letter which we annex, toge- 
ther with their answer. 

Having thus closed our business, we 
quitted Amboy. We have now with oar 
warmest acknowledgments to assure your 
Excellency of our sense of the honour you 




conferred upon us, and to entreat you to 
be persuaded, that our zeal to effect the 
benevolent purposes of our commission is 
only equalled by the concern we feel at 
their having been so unhappily frustrated. 
We have the honour to be, &c, 

West. Hyde, 
John Andre. 

Definite Proposals to Colonels Dames and 
Harrison^ Commissioners on the part 
of General Washington^ for an Ex- 
change of Prisoners. 

We renew our first proposal which we 
still think the most equitable that could 
be adopted : That a general restoration 
of all prisoners of war now in possession 
of both parties take place, including the 
troops of the Convention of Saratoga, the 
balance in favour of either to be accounted 
for by the other with the first prisoners 
taken : In default of similar ranks unequal 
to be interchanged on a Tariff which we 

But as this was objected to on a supposi- 
tion that the prisoners of one party would 
not extend to the redemption of those of the 
other, a more partial mode was suggested. 
Having in our several conferences on that 
subject fully investigated the matter, we 
now offer the following terms as the result 
and a final proposal. 

1. The troops of the Convention shall 
be first exchanged, and in the following 
succession as far as the prisoners in the 
hands of the British in any part of the 
Continent will suffice to exchange. 

Half the Artillery ^ 

One Regt. British I 

One Foreign 

British ( 

Major General 



Lieut. General 



Major General 




Half the -rtillery^ 

Right Wing 

Left Wing 

Dragoons, Staff-Officers and Corps not 
included above, to be exchanged half with 
each wing, and disposed of as may be 
agreed upon. 

Brigadier Generals with their regiments. 

2. In the above exchange officers shall 
be accounted for according to the ranks 
they held on the 17th Oct. 17 7 7 (the day 
of signing the Convention) and shall be 
exchanged by us for officers of equal rank 
as far as numbers will admit. In cases 
where the ranks and numbers will not ex- 
actly apply, officers shall be exchanged by 
an adequate proportion for other ranks the 
nearest to their own, according to the 
Tariff annexed. 

In the exchange of our General Officers 
we will return those of the highest ranks 
in our possession, reserving a sufficient 
number of Brigadiers and Field-Officers to 
release all those of ours who are prisoners, 
according to the principle of equality. 

On the other hand, the private soldiers 
of the Convention who shall exceed the 
number of privates we may have to return 
for them, shall be exchanged by an ade- 
quate proportion (according to the Tariff) 
of such Staff-Officers, Subaltern-Officers, 
and afterwards officers of next inferior 
rank as may remain in our possession more 
than the number of Subalterns or Stall- 
officers of the Convention troops. 

The account of these balances to be set- 
tled according to the returns of officers 
and men actually and bona fide restored 
on each side, and such British regimental 
officers as are absent on parole shall be 
accounted for with their regiments, or if 
required, be exchanged amongst the first 
on the footing of their being already re- 

3. And should there, after this, remain 
prisoners in the hands of the British in 
any part of the Continent — Georgia par- 
ticularly included — they shall be assigned 
to a further exchange of prisoners, as far 
as they will extend. 

4. Officers who being on parole have 
not complied with the summons to return, 
and officers who have violated their pa- 
roles, are to be sent back immediately, or 
accounted for first in the exchange. And 




Sir Henry Clinton leaves it with General 
Washington in the present case to deter- 
mine as to officers of the American army, 
which shall be accounted for as having 
unwarrantably absented themselves. 

5. And though we are instructed to 
assert the just pretension, and to claim 
in the most explicit manner the due per- 
formance of the Capitulation of the Ce- 
dars, yet that no obstacle may remain to 
impede the immediate object of these pro- 
posals, we consent that the discussion of 
that affair shall remain for some future 

6. And we further consent, in the same 
view of removing difficulties, that sergeants 
continuing to be exchanged as heretofore 
as privates, subaltern-officers shall only be 
rated as you propose at 6 men, though 
we think the appreciation inadequate. 

1. In case either party from motives of 
generous confidence, and to accelerate re- 
lief, should be induced to dispossess them- 
selves of a portion of prisoners before 
circumstances admit of receiving an equi- 
valent, the plighted honour of the Gene- 
rals, or some adequate security, must 
guarantee the delivery of the said equiva- 
lent, so that no pretence whatever may 
be made use of to delay or evade it. But 
we can neither on the present or in any 
future case admit that officers and soldiers 
of militia not on service shall be exempted 
from being made prisoners of war. 

We are not unwilling to frame regula- 
tions to establish and facilitate future peri- 
odical exchanges upon terms of mutual 
advantage, and which can leave no room 
for altercation or misconstruction. Whe- 
ther such an instrument shall be called a 
General Cartel, we will not dispute, and 
shall be contented with powers on the 
part of the American Commissioners of a 
like manner with our own. 


General commanding in chief. 5000 

Lieutenant General .1200 

Major General 350 

Brigadier General 250 

Aides S d^Ca r mp d ° } a ^ rdin S to rank in the army 

Colonel 150 

Lieutenant Colonel 75 

Major 35 

Captain 20 

Lieutenant 10 

Ensign 5 

Adjutant 10 

Quarter- Master 10 

Chaplain 10 

Serjeant 2 

Corporal l 

Private 1 

Drummer 1 

If the above rates are agreed to, it will 
be easy to settle others for the Stafl^ &c, 
upon the same principles of equity. 
(Signed) West. Hyde. 

John Andre, 
Commissioners on the part of 
Sir Henry Clinton. 

Amboy, Thursday, April 22, 1779. ' 


With a patience inspired by our anxious 
wishes to effect the end of our commis- 
sion, and supported by the duties of per- 
sonal politeness, we have waited three 
days to receive your assent or negative 
to the proposals we offered you on Mon- 
day ; as they are determinate and unalter- 
able, so we hope they are clear. In the 
first case, they can only require a decisive 
answer; should they be deficient in per- 
spicuity we shall be happy to explain 

We present you on our part terms un- 
propped by argument, and resting only 
on the basis of their equity ; should you 
not be inclined to acquiesce in them, we 
trust you will not, on your side, detain us 
for the purpose only of entering at large 
into your motives, especially as we havo 
Sir Henry Clinton's orders to bring this 
negociation to a speedy conclusion, and 
to return to New York as soon as we 
are convinced there are no hopes of suc- 

We are, Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient and 
Most humble servants, 

West. Hyde, 
John Andre. 
Colonels Dames and Harrison. 



[June , 

Amboy, April 22d, 1779. 


We are sensible of your personal polite- 
ness through the whole of our negociation, 
and should be extremely unwilling you 
should indulge an idea that in any instance 
we would wish to detain you unneces- 

We affect not delay, but actuated by 
the warmest desires to accomplish the 
humane purposes of our appointment, we 
have paid the closest attention to the pro- 
posals you have offered ; we have found 
them extensive and important in their 
consequences, involving a variety of inter- 
ests, which necessarily required much con- 
sideration. With a truly anxious zeal we 
have endeavoured to accommodate them 
to our mutual advantage and that of the 
prisoners, and are sensibly distressed to 
find ourselves unexpectedly restricted to 
a bare assent or negative to your propo- 
sals. Should they, however, be finally 
determinate and unalterable as you ex- 
press, we have only to lament that they 
are such as we cannot accede to without 
manifest injury to our country, and incur- 
ring the disapprobation even of our unfor- 
tunate prisoners themselves. 
We are, Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient and 
Most humble servants, 

William Davies, 
Rob. H. Hakrisost. 
Col. Hyde and Capt. Andre. 

Copies of the Letters referred to in the 

Amboy, April 14th, 1779. 

We landed on Monday at about 12 
o'clock, and yesterday had a first Con- 
ference with the gentlemen deputed to 
meet us. At interchanging our powers, 
we were not a little surprised to find ours 
objected to as to their competence to 
effect a general permanent cartel, these 
being the same grounds on which they 
had before obliged British Commissioners 
to break off a similar conference. They 
wished to have read in our Commission 

from your Excellency — " I do hereby in 
virtue of full powers to me delegated nomi- 
nate and appoint you, &c, &c." 

We also thought it rather inauspicious 
and not easily to be reconciled to the zeal 
expressed by the enemy for an exchange, 
to hear their Commissioners in a first inter- 
view propose, that if your Excellency were 
not authorised to pledge the faith of the 
nation, the release of prisoners might be 
deferred till such authority could be ob- 
tained from Europe. 

Solicitous, however, to find if any desire 
of treaty existed on their part, and cordi- 
ally resolved to attempt everything on 
ours, we entered on the subject ; and in 
our conversations of yesterday and this 
morning have been able to observe : 

That although they conceive our powers 
inadequate to a general cartel, they do not 
alledge them to be so as to a present ex- 
change of prisoners, nor can we find where 
they mean to draw the line which is to cir- 
cumscribe our regulations for the future ; 
we are therefore inclined to hope that in 
this we are disputing on words. 

They disclaim all intention to draw us 
into an acknowledgement of their inde- 
pendence, and have fully satisfied us that 
the preamble may be couched in terms not 
repugnant to our general mode of expres- 
sion with respect to them. They appear 
willing to talk of an exchange without 
entering into accounts. 

But they stile General Burgoyne a Com- 
mander-in-Chief, and intimate that he and 
the other General Officers should be first 

They will not accede to the general deli- 
very of prisoners, pretending, contrary to 
what we know to be the case, that the 
balance is greatly in their favour. 

They profess ignorance of all transac- 
tions in Georgia and refuse to enter into 
any agreement extending to prisoners 
taken there. 

They cavil upon the rates at which 
unequal ranks might be interchanged 
where their interest in the present case 
appears concerned. 

And they seem to be aiming, in the 
mode of exchange, at an arrangement 




which may leave private soldiers in their 

We will not however despair of agree- 
ing upon some measures for granting relief 
to the whole or a large portion of the pri- 
soners now in their hands, and of fixing 
some line by which to be guided on future 
occasions of this nature. 

We take the liberty to observe to your 
Excellency that we cannot recommend the 
concession they require in the matters 
relative to our powers, confident that the 
main point of shortening or alleviating 
the pain of captivity is in no manner con- 
nected with it, and as we think it only 
demanded in the same spirit of encroach- 
ment with which in each successive power 
granted to Commissioners for treating on 
this subject, they have affected to display 
more at large their usurped dignities. 

We must acknowledge that the Gentle- 
men we have met, are personally such as 
we could have wished to confer with. 
We have the honour, <fcc, 

West. Hyde, 
John Andre. 
To His Excellency Sir Henry Clinton. 


Amboy, April 16th, 1776. 

We have to give your Excellency some 
further information as to our proceed- 

We find that the American Commission- 
ers still urge the enlargement of our powers 
as necessary for a General Cartel, but we 
evidently see that it is for the purpose of 
appearing to treat on the footing of a 
nation at war ; and we cannot perceive 
that a concession on this head would have 
any other effect than giving them a tri- 
umph, especially as they introduce very 
improper matter to be acceded to, which 
this would not tend to remove. 

We have candidly shown them the 
ground on which we can proceed, and 
even made a proposal as to the rates at 
which officers of dissimilar ranks, and pri- 
vates, might be exchanged for each other ; 
but we have told them on the other hand, 
that if only a partial exchange was to take 
place, we insisted on, and would not de- 

part from our demand of receiving private 
men, with officers, in a battalion propor- 
tion ; or by exchanging the soldiers of 
each regiment of the convention army at 
the same time with their officers, in order 
impartially to afford relief to all conditions 
of men. 

They appear as though they felt they 
must accede to something of this nature, 
and consequently want to confine it as 
much as possible, and to reduce to the 
lowest, the proportion of privates given 
with officers, rejecting that proposed ; and 
they lay some stress on the different value 
of our trained soldiers, inlisted for life, and 
their own troops, whose term of service is 
daily expiring, or who are a rude militia, 
lending a precarious assistance, thus jus- 
tifying their reluctance to giving ours up ; 
they also, with the utmost perseverance, 
strive to enhance the ranks they chiefly 
possess, and depreciate those where we 
have the advantage in number, without 
reference to precedent, or regard to im- 

The articles which they have shewn us 
in a model for a cartel are many of them 
utterly inadmissible, and for the most part 
are vague and obnoxious to wilful con- 
structions, tending to furnish, pretences for 
retaliative infringements. Whatever suc- 
cess may attend our labours, they shall be 
'unremitted : We shall continue to com- 
pare our ideas upon matters that can be- 
come the objects of this negociation, and 
shall see, if (when all is rejected on both 
sides that cannot be agreed upon,) there 
will be a residue worthy of making the 
substance of a treaty. We shall at least 
acquire materials for evincing your Excel- 
lency's generous intentions, and the satis- 
faction of having followed up the enemy's 
difficulties, till we found them originating 
in severe and unjustifiable policy. 

We shall be happy to know that your 
Excellency approves our conduct, and to 
receive your further commands and ad- 

We have, &c. 

West Hyde, 
John Andre. 
To His Excellency Sir Henry Clinton. 




New York, April 17, 17T9. 

I have received your letters of the 14th 
and 16th of this month, from the hope 
that the Enemy's Commissioners would 
soon be convinced of the generous inten- 
tions with which you mean to prosecute 
the business, and would in consequence 
meet you with as fair an inclination. I do 
not think it necessary to answer your ac- 
count of their first cavils ; I am concerned 
to find by your second letter, that on their 
Part there still subsists an Hesitation and 
Chicane, so little merited by the Tenor of 
your Propositions. 

_ I have only to say, that I approve en- 
tirely, both the Liberality and Circumspec- 
tion of your Conduct in those Points of 
your Negociation you have hitherto laid 
before me ; should the conference prove 
fruitless, the Uprightness of your Proceed- 
ings will at least mark undeniably the 
generosity of our views. 

I have the Honour to be, Gentlemen, 
Yonr most obedient Humble Servant, 
H. Clinton. 
Col. West Hyde, and Copt. John Andre, 


Amboy, the 17th April, 1779. 

We had the honour to inform your Ex- 
cellency, that whatever might be our 
hopes of our success, we wou'd, if possi- 
ble, make ourselves acquainted with the 
real views of the enemy, as to an ex- 
change : We are sorry to have to report, 
that the more we become acquainted with 
them, the more dissonant we find them 
from liberality, and the less hopes we con- 
ceive of being able to come to any kind 
of arrangement. They appear to us to be 
totally governed by the policy of not giv- 
ing up private men ; and the whole of 
their meeting us, seems to have been to 
amuse the clamorous prisoners in our hands. 
There are, perhaps, some extravagant 
terms on which they wou'd accede to a 
partial exchange, excluding from it 450 
officers and privates due from the agree- 
ment at the Cedars. The prisoners of 
Georgia, of whom they have no authentic 

account, amounting perhaps to upwards of 
a thousand, striking off militia-officers and 
soldiers, whose capture whilst out of ser- 
vice, they think inadmissible, reducing the 
rank of others, and rating officers for pri- 
vates, at a proportion of their own ; but 
even these terms we cannot bring them to 
propose, and only find that they would not 
give us anything approaching to a batta- 
lion proportion of men with officers. 

In consequence of their refusing their 
assent to a general delivery of prisoners, 
and declaring they cou'd not frame a Ge- 
neral Cartel on the powers we had, we 
proposed to them to exchange two regi- 
ments of the Convention at a time (one 
British and one foreign) a Major-Gen eral 
with a wing ; General Burgoyne after the 
first half, &c, as far as the number of 
Prisoners, both officers and men here, or 
elsewhere, in our power, should extend. 

In the whole course of our conferences, 
they have found obstacles to whatever we 
have thrown out ; nor have we been able 
to discover that any opening to compound, 
or even any concession, tended to soften 

or bring them nearer to an agreement 

We have therefore resolved to make a de- 
finitive offer, as soon as we shall hear from 
your Excellency what your determina- 
tion is on the prisoners of the Cedars, <fec, 
have you further instructions, where you 
may see them necessary. On a refusal to 
accede to that offer, we shall with the 
utmost disappointment and mortification 
close this fruitless negociation. 
We have, <fcc, 

West Hyde, 
John Andre. 
To His Excellency Sir Henry Clinton. 

New York, April 18th, 1779. 


I have received your letter of yesterday, 
and am sorry to find, that the fixed deter- 
mination of the enemy's Commissioners to 
evade every preliminary which might tend 
to real negociation, becomes hourly more 

I agree in sentiment with you, that this 
conference was solicited by Congress, mere- 




ly to still clamours of their officers ; their 
real indifference for whose fate, appears 
clearly through every step of their pro- 

With this conviction, possibly the most 
becoming step would be to break off in- 
stantly, and spurn the idea of further nego- 
ciation with a people who invariably meet 
you with such ungenerous resolutions : But 
a just tenderness for the sensations of our 
officers and soldiers in their hands, and 
even a desire to prove to those of the 
enemy, prisoners with us, how averse we 
are to take any unworthy advantage of 
the severity of their situation, oblige me 
to attend to two or three articles on 
which the enemy ground their principal 

I am not sufficiently informed as to the 
transaction at the Cedars ; but having 
always heard that affair stigmatized as a 
glaring breach of faith on the part of the 
Americans, I cannot give my sanction to 
the infraction of that capitulation, by 
yielding the claim in this public negocia- 
tion : Yet, that from thence no bar may 
arise to your present business, I will con- 
sent that the charge shall sleep 'till Sir 
Guy Carleton, or those more particularly 
interested shall have made their represen- 

The principle of not accounting for offi- 
cers bearing commissions in the militia, 
and not taken actually in the field, is utter- 
ly inadmissible, the proposition is as illibe- 
ral towards us, as it is cruel to the unfor- 
tunate objects concerned ; It is a point 
which could not have been disputed, but 
for their present purpose. 

With regard to the prisoners whom we 
have taken in Georgia, as I have sent with 
you a formal return, signed by Major 
General Prevost, of all taken before their 
defeat at Briar Creek, I cannot accede to 
the enemy's proposal of paying no regard 
to those prisoners, should exchange either 
general or partial be agreed upon. When 
they say they have no authentic documents 
on that head, I must consider it merely an 
evasion : It is not to be conceived that 
they have not yet procured exact returns 
of a matter, in which so many anxious 

families amongst them must be distress- 
ingly interested. I will suspend, if neces- 
sary, the consideration of the prisoners 
taken at Briar Creek, 'till a more formal 
report shall have been made of their rank 
and number. 

As to the arbitrary and incongruous 
proportion of men for officers, on which 
they hint a possibility of their acceding to 
a Tariff, which Avould, toward us, be very 
inequitable, it is not to be supposed that 
they even expected your concurrence to 
such vague and partial propositions. 

I have now, gentlemen, given you my 
final determination on those points of their 
changeable and indefinite pretensions, to 
which they seem most to adhere. Should 
that spirit of evasion still subsist on their 
part it will neither be becoming, nor will 
my wishes for your satisfaction permit, 
that you should remain with them an hour 
longer ; and I do therefore in that case, 
direct your immediate return. 

I have the honour to be, Gentlemen, 
Your most obedient, 

Humble Servant, 

H. Clinton. 

Col West Hyde, and Capt. John Andre. 


gtotes an& (Qmks. 


"Josiah Qtjincy, Jr., of 1775. — (Vol. 
VII. p. 192). — In consequence of the notice 
of the death of Josiah Quincy, Jr., of 1775, 
in " The Historical Magazine for June, 
1863," it is requisite to state that the ac- 
count of his death, given in the memoir 
published by his son in 1825, was received 
from his widow, and confirmed by his sister, 
Mrs. Storer, who died in 1826, at the age 
of ninety years. Previous to the publica- 
tion of the memoir, a letter was addressed 
to Mr. John Rogers, who held the office 
of Town Clerk of Gloucester, Cape Ann, 




for upwards of forty-five years, and also 
that of Notary Public. In the reply of 
Mr. Rogers to Mr. Quincy, dated " Glou- 
cester, April 2, 1825," he regrets that " after 
examining the Records of that Town and of 
the Board of Selectmen for that period, 
and after conversing with two aged men 
who attended the funeral of Josiah Quincy, 
Jr., in April, 1775, he has no farther infor- 
mation to impart, except the assurance that 
the last services were very fully attended, 
and every testimony of respect and of sor- 
row for the loss the country had sustained 
rendered by the inhabitants of Gloucester." 

This communication has been delayed 
until the letter of Mr. Rogers, written 
thirty-nine years ago, could be found and 

The conflicting accounts of the death of 
Mr. Quincy are to be attributed to the 
agitation and alarm prevalent in the coun- 
try around Boston in April, 1775, when all 
direct intercourse was interrupted. 

Eliza S. Quincy. 

No. 5 Pake St., Boston, May 11, 1864. 

Capt. Thomas Machen. — Vol. VIII. p. 
149. — It is due to the memory of Capt. 
Thomas Machen to say that the note, page 
149 of the April number of your magazine, 
is not correct in the statement that his 
coinage was illegal. In 1787, Capt. Ma- 
chen formed a partnership with Samuel 
Atlee and others, of New York, for the 
purpose of coining money under charter 
to be obtained from the Legislature of 
New York. They either failed to obtain 
such charter or made better arrangements, 
for in 1788 they united with Reuben 
Harrison, and others of Bennington, Vt., 
who had a charter from that state, and 
also authority to coin for the state of 
Connecticut, and it was under this authori- 
ty that Capt. Machen's mill at New Grange 
was conducted. As soon as the coinage 
of money was taken from the states by the 
adoption of the federal constitution, Capt. 
Machen's mill was stopped. The business 
was certainly discontinued in 1790. Capt. 
Machen never transacted any illegal busi- 
ness, and the authorities never had occa- 
sion to interfere with him. Mr. Bushnell, 

of New York, and Gen. Thos. Machen, 
now residing in Albany, can satisfy your 
correspondent upon these points. 

Indians in Orange County. — (Vol. 
viii. p. 152.) The article on "Indians in 
Orange County" (p. 152) would be of 
much value if authorities Avere given. I 
have been led to believe that there never 
was a " Wawayanda Tribe," and I beg to 
say that •" Minsies" was never corrupted 
into "Minisink." The fact in the latter 
case is, that the terminal ink is pure Dela- 
ware or Algonquin, and signifies locality 
— literally the country of the Minsies. 
The term Wawayanda was applied as 
describing land, not tribe, or my reading 
of the original deed is sadly at fault (see 
land papers at Albany). Will " J. M. E." 
favor me with his authorities ? x. 

An Acrostic from the Massachusetts 

Magazine for September, 1789 : — 

" G-reat in the martial field, in council wise ; 
Bach virtue guides thee in thy pleasing way, 
On wings triumphant, how thy glories rise 1 
Eefulgent as th' unclouded God of Day 1 
George on his sea-girt throne beholds his sun, 
Eclips'd forever by a Washington I 

"When War's tumultuous bloody front alarmed ; 
And civil discord, every torch had fired; 
Serenely brave, the tyrants thou disarmed, 
Hence, at thy frown, Britannia's host retired, 
In peace ; reverting to thy Vernon's stream ; 
No views ambitious pointed thee to thrones ; 
Genius of Freedom, thou art hailed supreme, 
The chosen guardian of Columbia's sons. 
On brass and marble shall thy deeds remain; 
No time's corroding breath can blight thy fame." 

H. P., JR. 

Col. Pickering.— (Vol. VIII. p. m.)— 
The tradition that this distinguished patriot 
died at the Hasbrouck house, New burgh, 
N.Y., at the close of the Revolution, al- 
luded to in the interesting sketches of Mr. 
Eager, is not correct. He died at his na- 
tive town, Salem, Mass., Jan. 29, 1829, in 
his 84th year, after a life of great useful- 
ness and honor. r. 

Lineage op the " Signers." — On look- 
ing over the immortal roll of the Signers 




of the Declaration of Independence, curio- 
sity has led me to examine from what stock 
they sprang. I find that 4 of them were 
natives of Ireland, viz. Thornton, Rut- 
ledge, Smith, and Taylor ; 2 of Scotland, 
Wilson and Witherspoon ; 1 of Wales, 
Lewis ; and 1 of England, Robert Morris. 
There are also 3 of direct Welsh origin, 
Williams, Floyd (originally Lloyd) and L. 
Morris ; 3 of Irish, Carroll, Read, and 
McKean ; 2 of Scotch, Hooper and Living- 
ston; 1 of Swedish, Morton; 1 of Norman, 
Bartlett, and 1 of Austrian, Lynch. The 
others are of old English stock generally ; 
though there is Welsh blood in the ances- 
try of John Adams, Jefferson, Hewes (pro- 
bably), Clymer, Gwinnett (originally Grwin- 
nedd), and perhaps Robert Morris, as I am 
informed by a gentleman better informed 
on genealogical matters than myself. Mor- 
ris was born in Lancashire, near Wales, 
and from the name there cannot be much 
doubt of his Welsh origin. Clymer and 
his wife, the daughter of Reese Meredith 
(originally Meredidd), were both of Welsh 
origin. The Signers from New England 
were generally direct descendants from the 
Puritans. j. b. r. 

Washington, D.C.J 

Ruled Paper. — Why will paper-makers 
and stationers persist in leaving the last 
page of letter or note-paper blauk, in rul- 
ing it? I believe this question is daily 
asked by thousands. Now that the use of 
envelopes is all but universal, there is no 
sense or reason in leaving the last page un- 
ruled, to the annoyance of every letter- 
writer. Let some stationer try the expe- 
riment of ruling and advertising a lot, half 
with the blank page and half without, and 
see which sells tirst. Although it is really 
less trouble to rule over the whole sheet 
completely, I would pay twenty-live cents 
per ream more for paper thus ruled, being 
somewhat of an extensive 

Letter- Writer. 

drew Jackson, written during the troublous 
times of 1814. 

To Col. PniLLip Plpkin. 

Fort Jackson Ckef.k Nation \ 

hbadgvaktebb "th ijist. > 

Mobile Sept 12th 1S14. ) 

Sir : It is with extreme regret, that I 
learn from your letter the mutinous dispo 
sitioii that has made its appearance in 
your Regt. This is a bud of that spirit 
that was excited long ago by the officers 
of the volunteers and mditia last fall, and 
the indulgence of the Governor and thro 
his influence that was extended to them by 
the General Government. 

I told him it would have a baneful influ- 
ence on the service — but must be checked 
or our independence and liberty is gone 
forever. Unless checked a war cannot be 
carried on, a defence against that foreign 
coalition that we have every right to be- 
lieve does exist, cannot be made. 

I have ordered a general court martial 
to be held at Fort Jackson. A proper 
example will put an end to all further at- 
tempts at meeting — and if the troops or 
any part should attempt to desert, the 
troops now organizing at Fayetteville will 
be competent to apprehend them. 

On such an event, send an express direct 
to have them apprehended and confined. 

A few being shot, will learn the ballance 
that the have a country, and the have 
rights to defend ; and if the expect the 
protection of the law, the must perform 
the duty of good citizens. 

We have various accounts of the British. 
They are in Pensacola, and would the 
Government say the word we would soon 
have a frolic. 

With sentiments of esteem and respect, 
I am your most ob't serv't, 

Maj. General Commanding. 

Autograph Letter of Andrew Jack- 
son. — Among the donations of a sanitary 
fair was an official letter by General An- 


Latin Ode on Washington. — (Vol. 
VIII. p. 154.) — The following translation < f 
this ode, more literal than poetical, will 
allow the English reader to sej its measure 
and the classic spirit in the heroic times 
of 1775: 




On Geo. Washington appointed to the office of General- 
in-Chief by Congress and the American people. 

Boston demands thee, (where a wicked leader 
Shuts up the hapless people, and forbids them 
Leaving the city) ; and she is excitiDg 

Courage of old time. 

Brave man ! may prosper what thou art preparing. 
They slay the people, and the maid assaulted 
Perishes wretchedly 1 and the shrill outcry 

Sounds on our hearing. 

May God afford thee what we are entreating, 
Safely return thee to a grieving nation : 
Quick may'st thou smite the armies of the foemen 
Raging with slaughter. 

Praises await thee, and the kindest favor 
Gives thee a welcome from the face of all men, 
Where once the cruel Indian spread his havoc 

Sprinkled with bloodshed, 
BBimswiCK, Mb. 


Gilmartin. — What is the force of the 
first syllable, Gil, in this and similar com- 
binations ; GiLman, GiLpatrick (Kilpatrick), 
and perhaps others ? b. 

Gil in Irish and Scotch names is from 
the word Giolla, meaning servant, and is 
found before the name of God, Jesus, 
Christ, Mary, forming Gildea (Culdee), 
Gillis, Gilchrist, Gilmore (Gilmary) ; before 
the name of St. Martin alone of foreign 
saints ; but before a great number of Irish 
saints — Gilpatrick, Gilbride, Gilsenan, Kil 
is often a corruption of Gil, but as a local 
name means church. 

Trial of Tortoises in Canada. — In a 
note on trials of animals for crimes and 
misdemeanors in the London Notes and 
Queries it is stated that tortoises were tried 
in Canada towards the end of the 16th 
century. He seemed to draw his state- 
ment from Berriat St. Prix (Mem. de la 
Societe des Antiquaires). What can be 
the meaning of this? As there was no 
French settlement in Canada at the close 
of the 16th century, we are left in the 
dark ? 


The Arms of Herbendinck. — (Vol. 
VIII. p. 154).— If "H.» (instead of putting 
an idle query in the April number of the 
Historical Magazine) had taken the trou- 
ble to look into the North Dutch Church in 
William street some Sunday morning he 
would have seen the hatchment containing 
John Harpendinck's or (Herbendinck's) 
arms hanging over the pulpit, where it has 
been for the last ninety years, since it was 
first removed from the old Garden Street 
Church. e. b. 

Descendants of John Fenwick. — (Vol. 
Vin. p. 154.) — There appears to have been a 
close connexion between the families of 
" Lorraine," of Northumberland, and " Fen- 
wiche ;" thus Sir Thomas Lorraine had a 
son William, a daughter Catharine, and a 
son "Fenwich"; his son William had 
a daughter Jane, who married " John 
Fenwiche," thought to be the Major John 
Fenwich who was of Cromwell's army, 
and was on duty at the execution of King 
Charles the First ; and possibly, though I 
should think not probably, the West Jersey 
proprietor in connexion Avith Penn, who 
was I believe a royalist and courtier. Ca- 
tharine above named as daughter of Sir 
Thomas Lorraine, married (a runaway 
match I believe) David Lyell, an artizan 
of London, and they came to this country 
and settled at Amboy ; they had a son 
"Fenwiche Lyell" (died in 1742), he left a 
son Fenwich Lyell ; the name of both 
Fenwich and Lyell, however, I think is 
now extinct in that line ; there are descen- 
dants from him of the name of Micheau 
in New Jersey ; this is all I know. I should 
like to club my slender stock with your 
querist's for common benefit. 

Asher Taylor. 

No. 37 Wall Stbbet. 

The Duke of York's Laws. — (Vol. 
VIII. p. 116.)— In the last March number 
of the Historical Magazine it is asked, 
"When and where did the idea originate 
that Clarendon drew up these laws ? Was 
not ' scissors' more properly the author ?" 




Let me answer botli queries. Judge C. 
P. Daly, in his introduction to E. D. Smith's 
Common Pleas Reports, published in 1855, 
states that after the Duke of York learned 
t/ie success of JVicolls's expedition, he ap- 
plied to Lord Chancellor Clarendon, "to 
draw up a body of laws for the government 
of his new territory. Clarendon accord- 
ingly prepared a code, and this code or 
digest was transmitted to Nicolls, who 
immediately called a convention formally 
to ratify and adopt it." In a foot-note, 
Judge Daly reiterates " the fact that Cla- 
rendon was the author of this code," add- 
ing that " many circumstances might be 
adduced, the result of a very full investi- 
gation of the subject, to show that he was 
author." This appears to have been the 
first publication of the theory. 

In a letter to Secretary Hedges, dated 
July 15, 1705, Lord Cornbury states that 
when the Duke sent Nicolls to take posses- 
sion of New York, u he gave him certain 
laws by which the Province was to be 
governed, which to this day are called the 
Duke's laws." — Colonial Documents, IV. 
1154. There is also a marginal note in 
Learning and Spicer's Grants and Con- 
cessions, page 174, that the Duke's laws 
were " supposed to be sent over with 
Governor Nicolls." Both these statements 
are without authority. 

On the other hand, Chalmers, in his 
Political Annals, p. 577, says that the 
" Court of Assizes" (which Nicolls " co- 
pied" or continued from that established by 
the Dutch, and in which he had the chief 
voice), prepared the code before the meeting 
of the Assembly at Hempstead on the 28th 
of February, 1665, at which it was pro- 
mulgated. On page 578, Chalmers adds, 
" there is the most decisive evidence that 
the code was compiled at the Assizes be- 
fore mentioned." The code was evidently 
the work of Nicolls himself, assisted by 
his Provincial Secretary, Mathias Nicolls, 
who was a lawyer, and perhaps by other 
members of the Court of Assizes. Many 
of its provisions are borrowed from those 
"in practice in His Majesty's other colo- 
nies in New England." — See Thompson'' s 
Long Island, II. 324. It resembles them 

in its general arrangement. The laws of 
New Haven had been printed as early as 
1656 {New Haven Rec. II. 146, 154, 186, 
559), while those of Connecticut were left 
in manuscript until 1673 {Trumbull I. 
332; Thomas I 260; Col. Rec., Conn., 
II 190, 201, 214, 567, 568). Nicolls 
seems to have had copies of the printed 
New Haven and Massachusetts codes, and 
appears to have asked Governor Winthrop 
to furnish him with a copy of that Connec- 
ticut not yet printed. But he was disap- 
pointed in the latter case ; for on the 23d 
of February, 1665, five days before the 
Hempstead Assembly, he thus wrote to 
Winthrop — " I am very sorry that the copy 
of your Lawes will not come early enough 
to my hands, out of which I might have 
made a choice before the generall meeting 
which will be next Tuesday at Hempstead ; 
having made it my whole business to pre- 
pare a body of Lawes against that time : 
— but however, I shall be glad to receive 
your lawes, knowing that nothing of so 
public a nature as Lawes can be perfect at 
first, especially from my collection, whose 
genius and capacity (if any) hath not been 
applyd to matters of that nature." — Trum- 
bull Papers, XX. 74. MSS. Mass. Mist. 
Soc. Nicolls sent his code to the Duke of 
York for confirmation after November, 
1665 : Col. Doc. III. 104, 226 ; Chalmers, 
577, 580, 599. I trust this will settle the 
question of the authorship of "The Duke's 
Laws." J. b. b. 

gamitts an& tfeeir f nratogs, 


Chicago Historical Society. — April 19, 1864. 
— The stated monthly meeting was duly held, 
W. L. Newberry, Esq., presiding. 

The library collections for the month, making 
an aggregate (of all classes) of 1,422, included 
an extensive contribution from the literary re- 
mains of the late John Russell, LL.D., of Bluff- 
dale, Illinois, the obliging gift of the family. A 
bound volume of autographs of officers of the 




11 Confederate" army, prisoners on Johnson s 
Island, was presented by Lieutenant J. E. John- 
son, U.S.A. A valuable collection of MS. sta- 
tistics from the several counties of Iowa was do- 
nated by Mr. N. H. Parker. 

The monthly correspondence (twenty-six let- 
ters received, and sixty-seven written) was then 
communicated. A letter was read from Mr. 
Spencer G. Russell, giving interesting particulars 
of the life and literary remains of his father, the 
late John Russell. 

A paper was then read, presented to the So- 
ciety by Mr. L. Proudfoot, of Chicago, furnish- 
ing the substance of information given by Guo- 
dcn S. Hubbard, Esq., relative to the Indian 
Treaties of 1832, by which the Pottowattomie 
Indians ceded to the United States their lands, 
then embraced in the territories of Illinois, In- 
diana, and Michigan, Mr. Hubbard having been 
" Indian Interpreter" during the treaty negotia- 


American Antiquarian Society. — The semi- 
annual meeting of the American Antiquarian 
Society was held at the Hall of the American 
Academy, in the Athenaeum Building in Boston, 
April 27th. The President, Hon. Stephen Salis- 
bury, in the chair. The semi-annual report of 
the council was read by Hon Ira M. Barton. 
It reviewed the condition of the funds, library, 
and cabinet, and contained a defence of the 
Puritans of New England against the charge of 
cruelty in the removal of the French neutrals 
from Acadie. 

The report of the treasurer, Nathaniel Paine, 
Esq., showed the present state of the funds of 
the society as follows : Librarian's and general 
Fund, $21,763.82 ; Collection and Research Fund, 
$8,910.06; Bookbinding Fund, $6,691.04; Pub- 
lishing Fund, $6,092.H4 ; aggregate, $44,2(57.56. 

The librarian, Samuel F. Haven, Esq., in- 
troduced his report by a reference at some 
length to the position occupied before the world 
by an American antiquarian society in con- 
nexion with the fict of the superior anti- 
quity of this continent, while the supposed 
primitive inhabitants of Europe, in respect to 
arts, habits, and even physical conformation, had 
apparently their exact counterpart in the recent 
aborigines of America, and while the extinct 
mammals and fishes ascribed to remote geological 
periods are here still represented, or have been 
coexistent with man of no very distant date. 
302 bound volumes and 1,002 pamphlets had 
been added to the library, including a large col- 
lection of matter relating to the war. 

A resolution of respect to the memory of 
Shi.kspeare, and paying a tribute to his wonder- 
ful intellectual endowments, offered by the pre- 
sident, was adopted. 

The following gentlemen, recommended by 
the council, were nominated and elected mem- 
bers of the society : Ashbel Woodward, M.D., 
of Connecticut ; Hon. Wm. Willis, of Maine ; 
President M rtin B. Anderson, of Rochester 
University, New York ; Alexander S. Taylor, 
Esq., of San Francisco, Cal. 

Mr. Folsom presented to the notice of the 
Society an interesting Latin inscription on a 
p'ate of copper recently discovered at Castine, 
Me. This plate was evidently once attached to 
the foundation of a Roman Catholic chapel, 
built in 1648, and dedicated to the Virgin under 
the title of " Nostrse Dominae Sanctse Spf-i" — 
" Our L >dy of the Holy Hope" — the inscription 
being written by a Capucin missionary, Leo of 

It was voted that the reports and proceedings 
of the meeting should be printed in the usual 

After a vote of thanks was passed to the 
American Academy for the use of its rooms, the 
meeting adjourned. 

New England Historic Genealogical So- 
ciety. — Boston, April 6 — A quarterly meeting 
was held this afternoon, at three o'clock, Vice- 
President Moore in the chair. 

Mr. Sheppard, the Librarian, reported eleven 
volumes of books and two of newspapers, se- 
venty-three pamphlets and two manuscripts, re- 
ceived as donations since last, meeting. 

Frederick Kidder reported that the Board of 
Directors had decided in favor of celebrating the 
tercentenary birthday of Shakspeare, and had 
invited Rev. James Freeman Clarke, D.D., to 
deliver an address on the occasion. 

Colonel Almon D. Hodges announced the 
death of his friend, John Barstow, one of the 
Vice-Presidents of the Society, and offered the 
following resolutions, which he prefaced with a 
few remarks upon his character : 

Resolved, — That in the death of John Barstow, 
Esq., of Providence, R I., our Society has ex- 
perienced the loss of one of its most liberal bene- 
factors — an upright, honorable, and honest man, 
a true and faithful Christian, an enterprising and 
universally respected citizen, and one who has 
filled all offices of responsibility and trust with 
honor to himself, and for the good of all with 
whom he has been connected. 

Resolved, — That a memoir of the deceased be 
prepared for publication in the New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register. 

Resolved, — That we deeply sympathize with 




the afflicted family of the deceased, and that the 
Recording Secretary be instructed to communi- 
cate to them these resolutions. 

Rev. A. P. Putnam, of Roxbury, read an able 
and interesting paper on Oar Country, as seen 
from a Distance. 

Rev. F. W. Holland, from the committee to 
whom the communications of Rev. G. G. Hep- 
good, of Delta, N. Y., were referred, made a re- 
port adverse to the views on the Eastern lan- 
guages advocated in those communications. 

Boston, May 4. — A stated meeting was held 
this afternoon. Rev. Mr. Bradley, the Corre- 
sponding Secretary, reported a letter from Fre- 
derick W. Sawyer, of Boston, accepting resident 
membership, to which he had been elected. 

Thanks were voted to Rev. J. F. Clarke, D.D., 
John H. Sheppard, and Rev. F. W. Holland, for 
the able manner in which they acquitted them- 
selves on the occasion of the tercentenary cele- 
bration of Shakspeare's birth, April 23, and 
copies of the addresses and ode were requested. 

Rev. F. W. Holland, of Cambridge, was una- 
nimously elected a director in place of the late 
John Barstow. 

Rev. William P. Tilden, of Boston, read a care- 
fully prepared and discriminating memoir of 
Hon. Horace Mann, whose labors in the cause 
of education have laid New England, and espe- 
cially Massachusetts, under a lasting debt of 

Boston, April 23. — Shakspeare Celebration 
— The 300th anniversary of the birthday of 
Shakspeare was celebrated in this city by the 
New England Historic Genealogical Society, in 
the Hall of the House of Representatives, com- 
mencing at 3 o'clock Saturday afternoon. 

Dr. Winslow Lewis, the President, called upon 

- Governor Andrew to preside, and the Governor, 

on taking the chair, said he did so merely for 

the purpose of introducing those who were to 

make the addresses on the occasion. 

Rev. James Freeman Clarke delivered the prin- 
cipal address, and in speaking of the little that 
was known of the early life of Shakspeare, said 
the class of critics who denied the existence of 
Homer, Moses, and Christ, might find equally 
strong grounds for doubting whether such a man 
as Shakspeare lived. With all the labor that 
had been expended by the numerous critics that 
had been on his track, there had been but a few 
incidents of his life learned. These were that 
he married, had three children, was an actor in 
London and a writer of plays ; became tolerably 
wealthy, returned to Stratford, and died at the 
age of fifty-two. 

Shakspeare was better known by his works, 
but neither in the century in which he lived nor 

the following one was he appreciated. _ It re- 
mained for a German, Schlegel, to rediscover 
him, and since his day, the standard of learning 
and taste was to be measured in proportion to 
the appreciation in which Shakspeare was held, 
until it had come to this result, in the estimation 
of men of learning, to place him at the summit 
of human intellect. The conclusion from this 
followed that imagination was the highest of 
human faculties. 

The speaker referred to some of the character- 
istics of the plays of Shakspeare, the greatest of 
all which was his wisdom in the knowledge of 
the laws which govern the world — his know- 
ledge of human nature, of man as an individual, 
and mankind in action. The address was closed 
with quotations which were said to be appli- 
cable to the affairs of our own country at this 
time, and to Great Britain in expressing sym- 
pathy for a rebellion which was likened to that 
of Jack Cade. 

John H. Sheppard, the librarian of the Soci- 
ety, made some quotations of the opinions of 
Fisher Ames, Rev. Dr. Chalmers, and others, of 
the genius of Shakspeare, and gave some remi- 
niscences of his early remembrance of the Fede- 
ral Street Theatre in the days of Cooper. He 
then recited with spirit the following original 
poem upon Shakspeare : 

In Stratford upon Avon 

Where the silent waters flow, 
The immortal Drama woke from sleep, 

Three hundred years ago ; 
When, as the long, dark ages roll'd away, 
A light from Heaven shone on Shakspeare's 

Land of the illustrious Dead ! With thee this 

We love to liuger near that hallowed place. 
For thou wert there the Fatherland of our New Eng- 
land race. 

Beyond the Rocky Mountains, 

From the Golden Gate of fame, 
To Schoodia's distant misty shores, 

Is heard his honored name. 
Live where we may, such life-like scenes he drew, 
Arrayed in robes of beauty, all his own, 
Nature herself proclaims each picture true 
To Albion's echoing hills ; — nor there alone, 
Even Niagara speaks in Prospero's thunder-tone. 

Ah I what a halcyon memory 

Our school-boy days bring on, 
When young Othello told us how 

He Desdemona won. 
Where are the voices that once fill'd the air? 
Let no stern manhood deem the allusion wrong, 
When the boy dream'd the enchanted isle was 




Near Academic grove, unknown to song 
Where Kennebec among the hills meandering glides 

Not in the Theatre alone 

Is seen his wondrous power, 
Though some great actor tread the stage, 

The pageant of an hour ; 
He visits many a humble home — and when 
Some brave thought stirs the heart sorrow riven, 
"We feel like heroes — though we live like men 
In lowly lot ; and yet where oft at even 
The Bard of Avon sweeps th' iEolian harp of Heaven. 

England 1 with all thy glory 

lYom the Druid days of old, 
Not Cressy's pride, nor Agincourt, 
Nor Field of the cloth of gold, 
Shine with such virtue in all coming time 
As genius, learning, minstrelsy inspire. 
They fill the ideal world with' thoughts sublime, 
Guiding Ambition's eye to aim far higher, 
Than light the flames of civil war, with strange, un- 
holy tire! 

They^gleam like stars in history 

Along a dreary waste, 
"Who first enlarged the bounds of mind, 

Or raised the tone of taste. 
Thus Bacon looms up in that glorious age 
Of Spenser's lay and Johnson's critic eye, 
"When a Promethean spark illum'd the Stage, 
And Shakspeare drew such scenes of time gone 

That life seems bat a Drama here — midst shadows of 

Rev. R W. Holland also made an Address, in 
which some of the principal characteristics of 
Shakspeare were pointed out. 

These addresses closed the celebration, the 
Hall of the House and the galleries being well 
filled on the occasion. 


Long Island Historical Society. — Brooklyn, 
May. — A special meeting of this Society was 
held on Thursday evening. Prof. West in the 
chair. A donation of $250 for the purchase of 
books on American biography was received from 
Mr. William H. Swan. Dr. Stiles, the librarian, 
read a paper on the battle of Long Island, trans- 
lated from Max von Eelking's "History of the 
Hessians in the Revolution." Mr. John Fowler, 
jr., read a paper on Wayne's attack on the Jer- 
sey Block House. It was announced by the 
chairman that the annual meeting would be held 

on the first Thursday in May, at which time 
there would be an election of officers for the 
ensuing year. 

New York Historical Society. — April 5. 
— The President, Frederick De Peyster, pre- 

The minutes were read. 

Dr. Osgood, Domestic Corresponding Secre- 
tary, read letters from Alexander C. Anderson, 
of Victoria, Vancouver's Island, accepting his 
election as a corresponding member ; and from 
Jared P. Kirtland, of Cleveland, Ohio, giving an 
account of the discovery at different times in 
Rockport (five miles west of Cleveland) of war- 
like instruments, and especially of an extensive 
common grave, containing very many human 

The Librarian, among a long list of donations, 
called the especial attention of the members to 
that of the President, Mr. De Peyster, an ori- 
ginal pencil portrait of the once famous John 
Cleves Symmes, by the late Mr. Audubon. Mr. 
Benjamin R. Winthrop presented on behalf of 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, of Boston, a copy of 
the original " Conditions for New Planters," pro- 
mulgated by Governor Nicolls soon after the 
conquest of New Netherland, regarded by the 
Society as one of the most interesting memorials 
of early New York history. 

Mr. Moore also mentioned the recent dona- 
tion by Mr. John Austin Stevens, Jr., of all the 
original letters and documents connected with 
the great meetings of the Loyal National League, 
and referred to Mr. Stevens's previous gift of a 
similar collection of the papers of the Loyal 
Meeting of the 15th July, 1862. 

The thanks of the Society were tendered to 
Messrs. Winthrop and Stevens for their dona- 

Judge Kirkland, from the Executive Com- 
mittee, reported on the nominations for mem- 
bership, and the following gentlemen were 
elected : — As an honorary member, M. Edouard 
Laboulaye, of Paris. As resident members : 
Thomas R. Hawley, Rinaldo M. Waters, Reuben 
W. Howes, Jr., S. Howard Howes, Leonard W. 
Tobey, John W. Somers, James B. Stokes, John 
Wolfe, Thomas E. Brown, Thomas A. Whitte- 
more, Appleton Sturgis, John E. Barron. 

Candidates for new members were submitted 
and referred to the Executive Committee. 

The President read a letter from Rev. Dr. 
Dix, Rector of Trinity Church, presenting to the 
Society, on behalf of the vestry, " the monumen- 
tal stone which formerly marked the grave of 
William Bradford, and which has been recently 
replaced by a new head-stone, its perfect fac- 




Thanks were voted to the vestry for the in- 
teresting relic. 

Mi. Edward Satterlee, from a Special Com- 
mittee appointed at a preceding meeting, read 
a report confirmatory of Mr. Thomas J. Bryan's 
views of his intention to present to the Society 
his collection of paintings, about 250 in number, 
which he had been collecting during the past 
thirty years ; his object being to form a collec- 
tion of pictures representing the early schools of 
painting, and to illustrate in some degree the 
relation existing in early times between Art and 
Religion. Mr. Satterlee submitted the form, a 
conveyance setting forth the terms of the gift, 
which are substantially that the pictures shall 
be properly taken care of, and advantageously 
exhibited in the buildings of the Society for 
public inspection, and that artists and visitors 
shall have the privilege of studying and making 
copies thereof, subject to the rules and regula- 
tions of the Society. 

The Society adopted the report of the com- 
mittee, and ordered its officers to execute the 
necessary instruments to carry into effect the 
munificent intentions of Mr. Bryan. 

Dr. Osgood made a report on behalf of the 
committee appointed to tender a welcome to 
the Iroquois chiefs, on visiting this city, on their 
way to Washington, stating that committees of 
the Ethnological and Geographical, and of this 
Society, had performed that duty, and that the 
chiefs were welcomed in the hall of the Histori- 
cal Society on the evening of the 21st March. 

John Fowler, Jr., Esq., of New Rochelle, read 
the paper of the evening, entitled, " Wayne's 
Attack on the Jersey Blockhouse, July 21st, 

The Society returned thanks to Mr. Fowler 
for the reading of his paper, and asking him for 
a copy for its archives. 

Mr. George H. Moore, in a suitable resolution, 
called the attention of the Society to the death 
of its fellow-member, Thomas Tileston. Dr. 
Osgood made some remarks on the character of 
Mr. Tileston, and was followed by General W. 
K. Strong, and the resolution was adopted una- 

Mr. Fowler, after some remarks, submitted a 
resolution expressive of the sentiments of the 
Society on the recent decease of its fellow-mem- 
ber, William J. Davis. The resolution was 

The Society then adjourned. 

New Yorh, May 3. — The regular meeting of the 
Society took place on Tuesday evening. President 
De Peyster in the chair, and a large audience pre- 
sent. The literary exercises of the occasion 

consisted of two papers prepared by Mr. Geo. 
H. Moore, the librarian ; one of tliem upon the 
War-sword of Washington and John Bailey the 
cutler who forged it, and the other, a sketch 
of a Council of the Six Nations, held in 1785 
upon the spot where Buffalo now stands. This 
sketch is part of an account of a journey from 
Montreal to Detroit in 1785, written by Miss 
Powell, the daughter of a Boston loyalist who 
fled away in 1776, sister of Chief Justice 
Powell, of Canada, and a connexion by mar- 
riage of Lord Lyndhurst. A paper by Judge 
Charles P. Daly was also read, entitled, " When 
was the Drama introduced into America ?" Some 
interesting articles from the Metropolitan Fair, 
gifts from Col. Rush C. Hawkins, were exhibit- 
ed, including a complete model of a pontoon 
train and bridge, John Morgan's saddle, and one 
of those ingenious "letter boats" by which the 
rebels used to communicate with the mainland 
from Fort Macon and other island places. A 
resolution, moved by Col. Hawkins, was adopt- 
ed, to constitute a Committee to secure for the 
Society trophies, arms, and other memorials of 
the war, and the Committee was appointed 
Colonel Hawkins, Chairman. Upon occasion of 
the presentation of a book to the Society by 
Mr. Yerplanck, Mr. Bancroft delivered a very 
eulogistic address upon the attainments and 
merits of the donor. Mr. Bancroft also made 
some remarks upon Mr. W. J. Davis, a deceased 
member of the Society. Mr. Davis was a man 
of many pleasant qualities, possessed of a large 
store of local antiquarian knowledge, and for 
some time, we understand, a faithful and useful 
literary assistant to the historian. 

Buffalo Historical Society. — Bvffalo, March. 
— At the meeting for the month of March, M. 
Fillmore, President, in the Chair, and Guy H. 
Salisbury, Secretary, the following were among 
the proceedings : — 

Guy H. Salisbury, as Corresponding Secretary, 
in his written report for the preceding month, 
mentions the matters below noted. 

The weekly Club meetings during the month 
were held at the following places : Feb. 15th, 
at Gibson T. Williams's, where 0. G. Steele 
read a biographical sketch, prepared by him, at 
the request of the Society, of the late Walter 
Joy; and Charles D. Norton read a similar 
sketch, relative to the late Silas Sawin — both of 
the deceased having been members of the Soci- 
ety ; February 22, at E. S. Prosser's, where a 
memoir of the late Judge James Mullett, former- 
ly of this city, was read — having been prepared 
by 0. Stiles, Esq., of Fredonia, for the Scientific 
and Historical Association of that place; Feb. 
19th at Dr. Jas. P. White's, where a portion of 




a History of the Lake Marine, prepared by Capt- 
Augustus Walker, was read. 

An important historical feature of the month, 
was the " Old Folks' Festival," held at American 
Hall, during the entire week, commencing Feb. 
22d. The hall was hung with portraits of many 
of our oldest residents, and all of the exercises 
had were of an interesting character. Papers, 
intended to be read on the occasion, were fur- 
nished as follows : 

By Col. Benj. Hodge, a sketch entitled, "Buf- 
falo — Past, Present, and Future." 

By Wm. Hodge — A brief narrative of the 
journey performed by his father, the late William 
Hodge, when he came from Exeter, Otsego 
County, in 1805. 

By Henry Lovejoy — An interesting review 
of the progress of Buffalo during the past half 

By Mrs. Jane Bidwell — Her recollections of 
the War of 1812, during a part of which her 
husband, Mr. Benjamin Bidwell, was engaged in 
building the American fleet at Sackett's Harbor 
and Erie. 

By Mrs. Frances E. Lay — Her mother, Mary 
Enos, came to Buffalo in 1804, and shortly after 
married Asahel Atkins, who held a Lieutenant's 
commission in the war of 1812. 

By Mrs. Thaddeus Weed — Her father, Doctor 
Cyrenius Chapin, first came to Buffalo in 1801, 
before the land was surveyed into village lots, 
and proposed to Joseph Ellicott, that he and 
forty others would buy a township, including 
the site of Buffalo, but the application was un- 
successful. After the village was laid out, he 
located here permanently, and opened the first 
apothecary's shop in the place. He was a Colo- 
nel in the war of 1812, and did most efficient 

By Mrs. Dr. Warner — A brief notice of her 
father, the late Benjamin Caryl, who came to 
Buffalo in 1807, but in 1812 removed to Wil- 
liamsville in this country, where the firm of 
Juba Storrs & Co., in which he was a partner, 
had a store, and several large mills. He return- 
ed to Buffalo in 1812, and lived here nearly forty 

By Ira Merrill — A statement of his first jour- 
ney to Buffalo in 1814, with a stock of goods, 
and a recital of his adventures in Canada, in dis- 
posing of them. 

By Sophia Reynolds — Recollects well the 
burning of the village. Her brother-in-law, 
John Reynolds, then owned a farm of 200 acres 
on Batavia street, about a mile east of the Court 
House, now covered with hundreds of houses. 

By Daniel Brayman, of Hamburgh, Erie Coun- 
ty — Came to Buffalo in 1810, and furnished a 
detailed statement of the burning of the village, 

in the defence of which he participated. He 
removed to Hamburgh in 1815. 

By Nathaniel Wilgus — Relating an incident 
that occurred when Judge Wilkeson was build- 
ing the harbor at Buffalo Creek ; also, that he 
was employed to paint and decorate the " Sene- 
ca Chief," the first boat that made the passage 
through the Erie Canal, from Buffalo to New 
York in 1825. 

By Capt. F. P. Billings— In the spring of 1839, 
he fitted out and sailed the Brig '• Osceola," be- 
longing to Kingman and Durfee of Black Rock, 
and Oliver Lee, of Silver Creek, and during that 
season, brought the first load of wheat in bulk 
that was shipped from Chicago. 

By Theodore N. Boynton— In relation to the 
Old School House that stood at the junction of 
Swan and Erie streets, 35 years ago, its teachers, 
and its scholars. 

By Mrs. Mary B. Wesley— Came to Buffalo in 
1836 — is mother-in-law of the late Capt. Edward 
DreWj and has sacrificed several of her family 
upon the altar of the country's cause during the 
present war. 

By James Clark, of Lancaster, Erie Co. — 
Came to what is now Lancaster, 1808, when 
there were but twelve dwelling-houses on the 
road from Buffalo to the eastern bounds of the 
county. He was in the war of 1812, and de- 
scribes the appearance of Buffalo, the next day 
after it was burned. 

By Mrs. Elizabeth Keller — A poem, entitled 
" Ffty Years Ago." 

By Guy H. Salisbury — An ode, which was 
sung at the Old Folks' Concert. 

Charles D. Norton tendered to the Society 
his resignation of the office of Recording Secre- 
tary, which was accepted, and George Gorham 
was duly elected in his stead. 

The following persons were elected as Corres- 
ponding Members: Rev. James K. Hosmer, of 
Deerfield, Mass.; George F. Houghton, of St. 
Albans, Vt. Edward Everett, of Boston, was 
elected an honorary member. 

Buffalo Historical Society. — Buffalo, April. 
— At the meeting for April, M. Fillmore in the 
chair, and George Gorham, Rrcording Secre- 
tary, the following were among the proceedings. 

Guy H. Salisbury, Corresponding Secretary, 
submitted his monthly report, in which the 
matters below mentioned are noticed : 

The deaths in the families of old residents have 
been unusually numerous. They are noted as 
follows : March 1st, at San Francisco, Alexan- 
der G. Ramsdell, aged 41 years, formerly of Buf- 
falo, and son of the late Capt. Ramsdell ; March 
8th, Albert L. Baker, Jr., aged 20, Midshipman 
in the U.S.N., and youngest son of Judge A. L. 




Baker; March 14th, Charles Taintor, aged 58;' 
March 15th, Mrs. Francis Kimmett, aged 56 ; 
March 18th, Mrs. Julia Pool, wife of Cyrus 0. 
Pool, and daughter of the late Win. Meade; 
March 19th, at Louisville, Ky., Maj. Isaac San- 
ford, son-in-law of Geo. W. Bull, of this city ; 
March 22d, Pliny F. Barton, aged 58 ; Wm. ; 
Rink, aged 35; March 27th, at Cleveland, Mrs. 1 
Maria Fiske, aged 73, mother of Mrs. Orson 
Phelps, of this city, and eldest daughter of the 
late Gamaliel and Margaret K. St. John, wi-o 
were among the earliest residents of the village I 
of Buffalo ; April 3d, Geo. Hadley, aged 17, son ' 
of Elijah Hadley ; April 6th, Aaron Rumsey, ! 
aged 67, a life member of the Buffalo Historical 
Society and the fifth member that has deceased 
since its organization ; April 11th, Charles Wolfe, 
aged 26, only son of Christian Wolfe. 

The Historical Society Club Meetings have 
been held as follows : March 14th, at Geo. Pal- 
mer's, where Gapt. E. P. Dorr read a paper on 
11 Insurance ;" March 21st, at H. W. Rogers's, 
where Prof. Bradish, of Fredonia, read a memoir 
of the late Douglas Houghton, State Geologist 
of Michigan, prepared by him for the Fredonia 
Scientific and Historical Association; March 
28th, at Capt. E. P. D jit's, where A. R. Ketchum 
read a paper on the Buffalo Water Works, Judge 
Clinton an obituary notice of the late Edward 
S. Warren, and Judge Skinner one of the late 
Hon. Jas. G. Hoyt. No further weekly. Club 
meetings are to be held this season. 

On motion of H. W. Rogers, the Correspond- 
ing Secretary was directed to express to Peter 
Emslie, Civil Engineer, the thanks of the Soci- 
ety for his valuable donation of a manuscript 
map of the " Tillage of New Amsterdam," now 
part of the city of Buffalo, showing the original 
lots and subdivisions of them, with names of 
grantees, and the date of each deed from the 
Holland Land Company. 

On motion of Lewis F. Allen, a committee of 
three was appointed to prepare a memoir of the 
late Aaron Rumsey, and resolutions expressive 
of the regret of the Society for his loss. The 
President appointed as such committee Judge 
Skinner, H. W. Rogers, and Judge Hall. 

On motion of H. W. Rogers, the Correspond- 
ing Secretary was directed to procure a book 
for the registration of vistors, to be opened May 

The Library Committee reported in favor of 
purchasing a complete set of the New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register, from its 
commencement, being 18 volumes; and were 
authorized to make such purchase. 

The following Corresponding Members were 
elected : Theodore C. Peters, of Darien, N.Y. ; 
Henry E. Davies, New York; Joel Munsell, 


Albany ; Monroe Weed, Wyoming ; Samuel B. 
Woolworth, Albany; Dr. Samuel Freeman, 
Saratoga ; Jas. R. Doolittle, Racine, Wisconsin ; 
Henry S. Randall, Cortland Village, N.Y. ; Wm. 
W. Campbell, Cherry Valley; Chas. E. West, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Guy H. Salisbury, Corresponding Secretary 
and Librarian, tendered his written resignation 
of those offices, which was accepted, and Dr. 
Wm. K. Scott was, by ballot, unanimously 
elected in his stead. 

On motion of Lewis F. Allen, the thanks of 
the Society were unanimously voted to Guy H. 
Salisbury, for his untiring zeal and faithful ef- 
forts in behalf of the Society, since its inception. 

An arrangement formerly made by the Secre- 
tary with the proprietors of the daily papers 
who publish the notices and proceedings of the 
Society, and furnish their respective newspapers 
to the Society, for preservation, in return for 
one membership for each paper, was confirmed ; 
and the privilege hereafter extended to two 


Pennsylvania Historical Society. — Phila- 
delphia, May 9. — A meeting of the members of 
this Society was held at their room, Dr. Ben- 
jamin H. Coates in the chair. ; 

Several interesting communications and memo- 
rials, etc., were presented. Among them was a 
handsomely engraved invitation card to a ball 
given on the President's birth-night in 1796, in 
the amphitheatre. Admittance at six o'clock. 
A letter was read from Hon. John William Wal- 
lace, written at Newport, R.I.. transmitting a 
volume as having been found m that ancient 
town, which was the first ever issued from the 
press of the middle colonies. This tract was 
printed in Philadelphia in the year 1685. 

In May last, at the celebration in New York 
of the Bradford bi-centenary, Mr. Wallace re- 
ferred to this tract in the following words, having 
then known but little about it : 

The earliest issue of Bradford's press known 
to me is an Almanac for the year 1686, produced 
of course in 1685. One copy alone seems to 
have survived to this day, and that one has 
wandered far from the place of its origin. New 
England boasts its possession. It was called 
"jAmerica's Messenger." A certain Samuel 
Atkyns edited it. Among the remarkable 
events which were set down opposite to par- 
ticular days, there was set down opposite to 
that one on which Mr. Penn assumed the con- 
trol of tilings in Pennsylvania, the following 




entry : " The beginning of Government here by 
the Lord Penn." This title of courtesy given 
to their G-overnor was offensive to the Pro- 
vincial Magistracy. Atkyns was summoned 
before the Council and ordered to blot out the 
words " Lord Penn," and Bradford was warned 
" not to print anything but what shall have ly- 
cence from the Council." 

The copy which Mr. Wallace now writes about 
is' a second one the one to which he referred 
in New York not being in the possession of any 
one, so far as he knows. 

The Librarian then read a long list of dona- 
tions to the library since the last meeting, among 
which were several valuable pamphlets. Among 
the number was "A Confession of Faith" of 
the Quakers, printed at Philadelphia by William 
Bradford, in 1693. 

There was also exhibited one of the origi- 
nal dia